Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Vinland, Vineland or Winland is the area of coastal North America explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed in ca. 1000 five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot. Vinland was the name given to North America as far as it was explored by the Norse including both Newfoundland and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as far as northeastern New Brunswick. In 1960, archaeological evidence of the only known Norse site in North America was found at L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of the island of Newfoundland. Before the discovery of archaeological evidence, Vinland was known only from Old Norse sagas and medieval historiography; the 1960 discovery proved the pre-Columbian Norse exploration of mainland North America. L'Anse aux Meadows may correspond to the camp Straumfjörð mentioned in the Saga of Erik the Red. Vinland or "Winland" was the name given to part of North America by the Icelandic Norseman Leif Eiríksson, about year 1000; the earliest record of the name Winland is found in Adam of Bremen's Descriptio insularum Aquilonis written c.
1075. To write it he visited king Svend Estridson. Adam implies that the name contains Old Norse vín "wine": "Moreover, he has reported one island discovered by many in that ocean, called Winland, for the reason that grapevines grow there by themselves, producing the best wine." This etymology is retained in the 13th-century Grœnlendinga saga, which provides a circumstantial account of the discovery of Vinland and its being named from the vínber, i.e. "wineberry", a term for grapes or currants, found there. There is a long-standing Scandinavian tradition of fermenting berries into wine; the question whether the name refers to actual grapevines or just to berries was addressed in a 2010 excavation report on L’Anse aux Meadows. The discovery of butternuts at the site implies that the Norse explored Vinland further to the south, at least as far as St. Lawrence River and parts of New Brunswick, the northern limit for both butternut and wild grapes. Another proposal for the name's etymology, was brought up by Sven Söderberg in 1898.
This suggestion involves interpreting the Old Norse name not as vín-land with the first vowel spoken as /iː/, but as vin-land, spoken as /ɪ/. Old Norse vin has a meaning of "meadow, pasture"; this interpretation of Vinland as "pasture-land" rather than "vine-land" was accepted by Valter Jansson in his classic 1951 dissertation on the vin-names of Scandinavia, by way of which it entered popular knowledge in the 20th century. It was rejected by Einar Haugen, who argued that the vin element had changed its meaning from "pasture" to "farm" long before the Old Norse period. Names in vin were given in the Proto Norse period, they are absent from places colonized in the Viking Age. Haugen's basis for rejection has since been challenged. There is a runestone which may have contained a record of the Old Norse name predating Adam of Bremen's Winland; the Hønen Runestone was discovered in Norderhov, Norway shortly before 1817, but it was subsequently lost. Its assessment depends on a sketch made by antiquarian L. D. Klüwer, now lost but in turn copied by Wilhelm Frimann Koren Christie.
The Younger Futhark inscription was dated to c. 1010–1050. The stone had been erected in memory of a Norwegian a descendant of Sigurd Syr. Sophus Bugge read part of the inscription as ᚢᛁᚿ᛫ᛆᛁᚭ᛫ᛁᛌᛆuin aią isaVínlandi á ísa "from Vinland over ice"; this is uncertain. The main sources of information about the Norse voyages to Vinland are two Icelandic sagas, the Saga of Eric the Red and the Saga of the Greenlanders; these stories were preserved by oral tradition until they were written down some 250 years after the events they describe. The existence of two versions of the story shows some of the challenges of using traditional sources for history, because they share a large number of story elements but use them in different ways. A possible example is the reference to two different men named Bjarni. A brief summary of the plots of the two sagas, given at the end of this article, shows other examples; the sagas report. Thorfinn Karlsefni's crew consisted of 140 or 160 people according to Saga of Eric the Red, 60 according to the Greenland Saga.
Still according to the latter, Leif Ericson led a company of 35, Thorvald Eiriksson a company of 30, Helgi and Finnbogi had 30 crew members. According to the Saga of Erik the Red, Þorfinnr "Karlsefni" Þórðarson and a company of 160 men, going south from Greenland traversed an open stretch of sea, found Helluland, another stretch of sea, another stretch of sea, the headland of Kjalarnes, the Wonderstrands, Straumfjörð and at last a place called Hóp, a bountiful place where no snow fell during winter. However, after several years away from Greenland, they chose to turn back to their homes when they realised that they would otherwise face an indefinite conflict with the natives; this saga references the place-name Vinland in four ways. First, it is identified as the land found by Leif Ericson. Karlsefni and his men subsequently find "vín-ber" near the Wonderstrands; the tale locates Vinland to the south of Markland, with the headland of Kjalarnes at its northern extrem
Township refers to various kinds of settlements in different countries. While a township may be associated with an urban area, there are many exceptions to this rule. In Australia, Canada and the United States, the term refers to settlements too small or scattered to be considered urban. In Australia, the designation of "township" traditionally refers to a small town or a small community in a rural district; the term refers purely to the settlement. In Canada, two kinds of township occur in common use. In eastern Canada, a township is one form of the subdivision of a county. In Canadian French, this is a canton. Townships are referred to as "lots" in Prince Edward Island. In Canada, a municipality is a city, township, county, or regional municipality, incorporated by statute by the legislatures of the provinces and territories. In western Canada, townships exist only for the purpose of land division by the Dominion Land Survey and do not form administrative units; these townships are nominally six miles by six miles.
Townships are designated by their township range number. Township 1 is the first north of the First Base Line, the numbers increase to the north. In China, townships are found at the fourth level of the administrative hierarchy, below counties and county level cities. In India, townships are found at the fourth level of the City. In the context of Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, CIS states, the term is sometimes used to denote a small semi-urban, sometimes industrial and used to translate the terms поселок городского типа, посад, местечко. In Jersey, a township is a redundant term, as the only surviving local government level at present are the 12 parishes of the island. In local government in New Zealand, there are no longer townships. All land is part of either a "city" or a "district"; the term "municipality" has no legal status. The term "township" is, still in common usage in New Zealand, in reference to a small town or urban community located in a rural area; the expression would equate to that of "village" in England.
In the Philippines, "townships" referred to administrative divisions established during the American Civil Government in the country. Many of these political divisions were established as rancherias during the Spanish Regime; the term was replaced with "municipal district". Most municipal districts would be converted into regular municipalities by executive orders from the Philippine President. Mambukal, a hill station geographically located in Murcia, Negros Occidental, is the only constituted township in the Philippines, created under Republic Act No. 1964, approved June 22, 1957. In modern days, the term "township" in the Philippines refers to new developments with their own amenities; the modern and largest townships in the Philippines are Clark Green City with 9,450 hectares in Capas of Tarlac, Hamilo Coast with 5,900 hectares in Nasugbu of Batangas, Nuvali with 2,290 hectares in Sta. Rosa of Laguna, Lancaster New City with 2,000 hectares in Kawit Imus GenTri of Cavite, Vista City with 1,500 hectares in Las Piñas Muntinlupa of Metro Manila and Dasmariñas of Cavite, Twin Lakes with 1,149 hectares in Tagaytay City of Cavite and Alviera with 1,125 hectares in Porac of Pampanga.
Majority of the current townships are located near Metro Manila, allowing faster access to the capital region by road and/or rail transport. In South Africa, under apartheid, the term township, in everyday usage, came to mean a residential development that confined non-whites living near or working in white-only communities. Soweto is a well-known example. However, the term township has a precise legal meaning and is used on land titles in all areas, not only traditionally non-white areas. In Taiwan, townships are administered by a county, together with county-controlled cities. There are three types of townships in Taiwan: urban townships, rural townships and mountain indigenous townships. Mountain indigenous townships are those with significant populations of Taiwanese aborigines. In England, the term township is no longer in official use. In England, "township" referred to a subdivision used to administer a large parish; this use became obsolete at the end of the 19th century, when local government reform converted many townships, subdivisions of ancient parishes into the newer civil parishes in their own right.
This formally separated the connection between the ecclesiastical functions of ancient parishes and the civil administrative functions, started in the 16th century. Some councils in the north of England, have revived the term. In Scotland, the term is still used for some rural settlements. In parts of the Highlands and Islands, a township is a crofting settlement. In the Highlands the term may describe a small agrarian community. For townships in Wales, which were created by an Act of Parliament in 1539 see: Townships in Montgomeryshire. There are two types of townships in the United States. In states that ha
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Erskine is a city in Polk County, United States. The population was 503 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Grand Forks N. D. – Minn. Metropolitan Statistical Area. Erskine was laid out in 1889, named for John Quincy Erskine, a Minnesota banker. A post office has been in operation at Erskine since 1889. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.01 square miles, of which 0.68 square miles is land and 0.33 square miles is water. The population of Erskine was more than 800 in the 1920s, it hovered above 600 until the late 1960s, dipped to 571 and 585, plunged to 424, 428, 437. As of the census of 2010, there were 503 people, 234 households, 131 families residing in the city; the population density was 739.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 273 housing units at an average density of 401.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.8% White, 0.4% African American, 2.2% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.0% of the population.
There were 234 households of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.6% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.0% were non-families. 41.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 24% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age in the city was 38 years. 25.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.9% male and 50.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 437 people, 203 households, 111 families residing in the city; the population density was 590.0 people per square mile. There were 250 housing units with an average density of 337.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.99% White, 0.23% African American, 5.49% Native American, 2.29% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.23% of the population.
The ethnicity of Erskine residents was as follows *: · Norwegian – 48% · German – 13% · Swedish – 12% · Chippewa – 4% · American Indian tribes, specified – 4% · Irish – 4% · Russian – 3% · Danish – 3% · French – 2% · Scottish – 2% · American Indian tribes, not specified – 2% · Italian – 1% · English – 1% · Scandinavian – 1% Of the 203 households, 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.9% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.3% were non-families. 42.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 25.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 20.4% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 26.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $26,771, the median income for a family was $35,278. Males had a median income of $33,333 versus $19,375 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,122. About 17.3% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.8% of those under age 18 and 7.3% of those age 65 or over. Downtown Erskine, c. 1910 Erskine's town festival is known as the Erskine Water Carnival, is held in early June. The Erskine Fish, the concrete statue, the world's largest Northern Pike and the town's principal tourist attraction, is located on a grassy lawn in a small park on the shore of Cameron Lake, just down the street from downtown Erskine. In addition, it is the center of a community of Russian Old Believers estimated at between 50 and 100 families; the Old Believers began moving to Erskine around 1998 in order to escape a farming crisis and suburban sprawl which threatened their community near Woodburn, Oregon. The Rydell National Wildlife Refuge is located along County Road 238 3 miles west of Erskine and 2½ miles south of U.
S. Highway 2; the Oak Lake Golf Course is located just east of town at the intersection of Highway 2 and U. S. Highway 59; the best local resort and fishing areas are Maple Lake, a lake near Mentor and Maple Bay, Minnesota, as well as Union Lake and Lake Sarah, located a few miles south of Erskine. Like many other lakes in other towns, Erskine's sewage was dumped into Cameron Lake until the Clean Water Act of 1970 forced the town to redirect its sewage to the new sewer plant near Badger Lake. Former residents and old-timers will recall that the shores of Cameron Lake were littered with dead fish in the old days. Today, the lake is much cleaner, with the rising costs of lakeshore property in the area, there is an increase in development on the lakeshore. Erskine is served by a consolidated multi-community K–12 school district known as "Win-E-Mac". A vocational and technical college is located in Thief River Falls; the nearest four-year colleges in the vicinity include a branch campus of the University of Minnesota in Crookston and Bemidji State University in Bemidji, in addition to the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks and North Dakota State University in Fargo.
The oldest telephone cooperative in the state, Garden Valley Telephone Company, is headquartered in Erskine an
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Fosston is a city in Polk County, United States. It is part of the Grand Forks ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 1,527 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.71 square miles, of which 1.69 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. Four-lane U. S. Highway 2 serves as a main route in the city; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,527 people, 670 households, 367 families residing in the city. The population density was 903.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 750 housing units at an average density of 443.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.0% White, 2.9% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population. There were 670 households of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.2% were non-families.
41.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the city was 43 years. 25.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.9% male and 53.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,575 people, 681 households, 379 families residing in the city; the population density was 969.1 people per square mile. There were 739 housing units at an average density of 454.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.70% White, 0.19% African American, 1.52% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.06% from other races, 0.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.57% of the population. There were 681 households out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.2% were non-families.
40.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 25.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 22.2% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 28.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,634, the median income for a family was $40,521. Males had a median income of $29,688 versus $21,176 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,064. About 11.4% of families and 14.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.6% of those under age 18 and 21.1% of those age 65 or over. The incorporation papers of Fosston were recorded June 8, 1889, by the Register of Deeds in Crookston, the County Seat of Polk County, Minnesota.
Fosston was named for Louis Foss, an immigrant from the village Nyttingnes in Sogn og Fjordane county, Norway. Mr. Foss was the founder and owner of Louis Foss & Company, one of the first business to be established in the community; the city of Fosston is reputed to be the adopted hometown of Cordwood Pete, younger brother of famed lumberjack Paul Bunyan. Fosston's boys basketball team won the first-ever state basketball championship in 1919. In 2002, the girls basketball team set the state consecutive win record, winning 78 games between 1999 and 2002. KKCQ 1480 “The Information Station” - Talk KKCQ-FM 96.7 “Q-Country 96.7” - Country(studios in Fosston, both licensed to nearby Bagley, MN. Owned by R & J Broadcasting. KKEQ FM 107.1 “QFM” - contemporary Christian music. Other radio and television stations from Bemidji, Thief River Falls, Grand Forks, ND, Fargo, ND can be received. There is one local newspaper, "The 13 Towns", with additional newspapers Grand Forks Herald, The Forum, The Pioneer, Star Tribune available via subscription or at newsboxes.
Cordwood Pete Joe Hanson City of Fosston, MN -- Official site Trent Benson