Cobb County, Georgia
Cobb County is a suburban county in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of 2017, the population was 755,754, its county seat and largest city is Marietta. Along with several adjoining counties, Cobb County was founded on December 3, 1832, by the Georgia General Assembly from the large Cherokee County territory—land northwest of the Chattahoochee River which the state confiscated from the Cherokee Nation and redistributed to settlers via lottery, following the passage of the federal Indian Removal Act; the county was named for Thomas Willis Cobb, a U. S. representative and senator from Georgia. It is believed that Marietta was named for Mary. Cobb County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is situated to the northwest of Atlanta's city limits. Its Cumberland District, an edge city, has over 24,000,000 square feet of office space; as of 2017, Major League Baseball's Atlanta Braves play in Cumberland. The U. S. Census Bureau ranks Cobb County as the most-educated in the state of Georgia and 12th among all counties in the US.
It has ranked among the Top 100 wealthiest counties in the nation. In October 2017, Cobb was ranked as the "Least Obese County in Georgia" Cobb county was one of nine Georgia counties carved out of the disputed territory of the Cherokee Nation in 1832, it was the 81st county in Georgia and named for Judge Thomas Willis Cobb, who served as a U. S. Senator, state representative, superior court judge, it is believed that the county seat of Marietta was named for Mary. The state started acquiring right-of-way for the Western & Atlantic Railroad in 1836. A train began running between Marietta and Marthasville in 1845. Before the Civil War, Marietta was a summer resort for residents of Savannah and Charleston fleeing yellow fever. During the American Civil War, some confederate troops were trained at a camp in Big Shanty, where the Andrews Raid occurred, starting the Great Locomotive Chase. There were battles of New Hope Church May 25, Pickett's Mill May 27, Dallas May 28; these were followed by the prolonged series of battles through most of June until early July: the Battle of Marietta and the Battle of Noonday Creek.
The Battle of Allatoona Pass on October 28 occurred as Sherman was starting his march through Georgia. Union forces confiscated or burnt crops; the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain June 27, 1864, was the site of the only major Confederate victory in General William T. Sherman's invasion of Georgia. Despite the victory, Union forces outflanked the Confederates. In 1915, Leo Frank, the Jewish supervisor of an Atlanta pencil factory, convicted of murdering one of his workers, thirteen-year-old Mary Phagan, was kidnapped from his jail cell and brought to Frey's Gin, two miles east of Marietta, where he was lynched. Cotton farming in the area peaked from the 1890s through the 1920s. Low prices during the Great Depression resulted in the cessation of cotton farming throughout Cobb County; the price of cotton went from 16¢ per pound in 1920 to 9½¢ in 1930. This resulted in a cotton bust for the county, which had stopped growing the product but was milling it; this bust was followed by the Great Depression.
To help combat the bust, the state started work on a road in 1922 that would become U. S. 41 replaced by Cobb Parkway in the late 1940s and early 1950s. In 1942, Bell Aircraft opened a Marietta plant to manufacture B-29 bombers and Marietta Army Airfield was founded. Both were closed after World War II, but reopened during the Korean War, when the air field was acquired by the Air Force, renamed Dobbins AFB, the plant by Lockheed. During the Korean and Vietnam Wars, Lockheed Marietta was the leading manufacturer of military transport planes, including the C-130 Hercules and the C-5 Galaxy. "In Cobb County and other sprawling Cold War suburbs from Orange County to Norfolk/Hampton Roads, the direct link between federal defense spending and local economic prosperity structured a bipartisan political culture of hawkish conservatism and material self-interest on issues of national security." When county home rule was enacted statewide by amendment to the Georgia state constitution in the early 1960s, Ernest W. Barrett became the first chairman of the new county commission.
The county courthouse, built in 1888, was demolished, spurring a law that now prevents counties from doing so without a referendum. In the 1960s and 1970s, Cobb transformed from rural to suburban, as integration spurred white flight from the city of Atlanta, which by 1970 was majority-African-American. Real-estate booms drew rural white southerners and Rust Belt transplants, both groups first-generation white-collar workers. Cobb County was the home of Georgia governor Lester Maddox. In 1975, Cobb voters elected John Birch Society leader Larry McDonald to Congress, running in opposition to desegregation busing. A conservative Democrat, McDonald called for investigations into alleged plots by the Rockefellers and the Soviet Union to impose "socialist-one-world-government" and co-founded the Western Goals Foundation. In 1983, McDonald died aboard Korean Air Lines Flight 007, shot down by a Soviet fighter jet over restricted airspace. I-75 through the county is now named for him. In 1990, Republican Congressmen Newt Gingrich became Representative of a new district centered around Cobb County.
In 1994, as Republicans took control of the U. S. House of Representatives for the first time in fifty years, Gingrich became Speaker of the House, thrusting Cobb County into the national spotlight. In 1993, county commissioners passed a resolution condemning homosexuality and cut off funding for the arts after c
Campbell High School (Georgia)
Campbell High School is located 5 miles Northwest of Downtown Atlanta. It is located on a rectangular campus in Georgia, it is part of the Cobb County School District. Campbell High School implemented the IB Diploma Program in 1997, serving as a magnet school for the Cobb County School District; the school was named after Orme Campbell, the mother of the man who donated the land on which the original school was built, with the stipulation that the name of the school could never be changed. Orme Campbell High School opened in 1952 with the merger of Smyrna High School and Fitzhugh Lee High School, it opened with a total of 425 students in grades 8-11. In 1989, Orme Campbell High School and F. T. Wills High School merged to form Smyrna High School. Prior to the merger, Campbell students were known as the Green and White "Panthers" and Wills students were known as the Red and Black "Tigers"; the students united in selecting new colors, royal blue and silver, a new mascot, the "Spartans". In 1990, the courts overruled the name change of the school, the name "Campbell High School" was reinstated.
Since the ruling pertained only to the school name, it was decided the new colors and the new mascot would be left unchanged. In 1997, the school was relocated to the site of the original Wills High School because of rapid growth, but retained the Campbell name in order to maintain a consistent identity; the breakdown of the 2,576 students enrolled for the 2015-2016 school year: Male - 48.7% Female - 51.3% Native American/Alaskan - 0.0% Asian/Pacific islander - 3.9% Black - 43.6% Hispanic - 32.4% White - 16.1% Multiracial - 3.9%By grade: 9th Grade 31.7%. Source - Cobb County's Diversity Enrollment Data In Fall of 1997, Campbell implemented the International Baccalaureate Program IB to function as a magnet program in Cobb County; the program under the leadership of Dan Penick and Max Jones, has had high scores on IB exams. The average Campbell IB Exam score is 5.30 compared to 4.79 worldwide. The CHS IB pass rate in 2014 was 98% and in 2015 was 88%. To compare, in 2014, the pass rate in Georgia was 66%, 76% in the US, 80% worldwide.
In 2015, the pass rate worldwide was 80%. Students throughout Cobb County apply to the IB program during the fall of their 8th grade year. Cobb County Magnet Programs If accepted, students are enrolled in a rigorous curriculum in 9th and 10th grade during which they complete the majority of the Georgia required courses for graduation. In 11th and 12th grades, the students are enrolled in the IB Diploma curriculum. McKinley Belcher III, actor C. Martin Croker, animation artist/director and voice actor Tay Glover-Wright, football player Chris Lewis-Harris, defensive back for the Cincinnati Bengals Brian Oliver, basketball player Julia Roberts, Academy Award-winning actress Over 15 hallways and 6 buildings make up Campbell High School; the main building is composed of the original Nash Middle School and Wills High School buildings, connected by a media center, main office suites, the Livingston Auditorium, the dining hall. The 1000 Building is at the rear of the school, adjacent to the Fieldhouse.
Along the northern end of campus sits the newly constructed 2000 Building, which replaced 12 portable classrooms and added many courses the school had not offered. Adjacent to that building stand horticulture buildings. In 2007, new Fine Arts classes were built, others moved to make room for the growing programs at Campbell; the state-of-the-art Band Hall holds 7 practice rooms, 5 instrument/uniform storage rooms, a connected office/music library, as well as the vast main room. The Band and Choral Halls were constructed using the same standards as Allatoona High, the newest prototype high school in the county; the old Band Room was renovated and expanded, making room for the Campbell Orchestra, while the Campbell Drama Department found a new home within the old Choral and Orchestra Suites, which have been modified to create a Black-Box Theater and a Technical Theater classroom. In addition to the new small theater, the school's Drama Department still maintains its original Black-Box christened "The Asylum Black-Box Theatre at Campbell High School".
McDaniel Stadium, sits at the rear of the school. It runs parallel to the connected back parking lot and Bus Port, which functions as the practice field for the Spartan Marching Band in the Fall. Across Ward Street from the Main Office are the tennis courts and practice fields, as well as athletic fields for both softball and baseball. A concept implemented at other schools throughout the county, Campbell began a Ninth Grade Academy in the fall of 2008; the program is structured to provide a smooth transition from middle school to high school. Housed in the 2000 building, students each have Advisement and most of their Core Classes here, the exception being Freshmen in the IB Program—PIB classes are still housed within their departments around campus; the Academy creates a small, central learning community within the Campbell High community transitioning Freshmen into high school with different social activities and opportunities to become involved at Campbell. By the end of the second semester, the students exit the academy and join the rest of the pupils at Campbell, making room for the next class at the IDEA Academy.
The students come from Campbell and Griffin Middle Schools, though the IB Program brings students from all over the county. Official site
William Tecumseh Sherman
William Tecumseh Sherman was an American soldier, businessman and author. He served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the scorched earth policies he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States. Sherman was born into a prominent political family, he was stationed in California. He married Ellen Ewing Sherman and together they raised eight children. Sherman's wife and children were all devout Catholics, while Sherman was a member of the faith but left it. In 1859, he gained a position as superintendent of the Louisiana State Seminary of Learning & Military Academy. Living in the South, Sherman grew to respect Southern culture and sympathize with the practice of Southern slavery, although he opposed secession. Sherman began his Civil War career serving with distinction in the First Battle of Bull Run before being transferred to the Western Theater.
He served in Kentucky in 1861, where he acted overly paranoid, exaggerating the presence of spies in the region and providing what seemed to be alarmingly high estimates of the number of troops needed to pacify Kentucky. He was granted leave, fell into depression. Sherman returned to serve under General Ulysses S. Grant in the winter of 1862 during the battles of forts Henry and Donelson. Before the Battle of Shiloh, Sherman commanded a division. Failing to make proper preparations for a Confederate offensive, his men were overrun, he rallied his division and helped drive the Confederates back. Sherman served in the Siege of Corinth and commanded the XV Corps during the Vicksburg Campaign, which led to the fall of the critical Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg on the Mississippi River. After Grant was promoted to command of all Western armies, Sherman took over the Army of the Tennessee and led it during the Chattanooga Campaign, which culminated with the routing of the Confederate armies in the state of Tennessee.
In 1864, Sherman succeeded Grant as the Union commander in the western theater of the war. He proceeded to lead his troops to the capture of the city of Atlanta, a military success that contributed to the re-election of Abraham Lincoln. Sherman's subsequent march through Georgia and the Carolinas further undermined the Confederacy's ability to continue fighting by destroying large amounts of supplies and demoralizing the Southern people; the tactics that he used during this march, though effective, remain a subject of controversy. He accepted the surrender of all the Confederate armies in the Carolinas and Florida in April 1865, after having been present at most major military engagements in the West; when Grant assumed the U. S. presidency in 1869, Sherman succeeded him as Commanding General of the Army, in which capacity he served from 1869 until 1883. As such, he was responsible for the U. S. Army's engagement in the Indian Wars over the next 15 years. Sherman advocated total war against hostile Indians to force them back onto their reservations.
He was skeptical of the Reconstruction era policies of the federal government in the South. Sherman steadfastly refused to be drawn into politics and in 1875 published his Memoirs, one of the best-known first-hand accounts of the Civil War. British military historian B. H. Liddell Hart declared that Sherman was "the first modern general". Sherman was born in 1820 in Lancaster, near the banks of the Hocking River, his father, Charles Robert Sherman, a successful lawyer who sat on the Ohio Supreme Court, died unexpectedly in 1829. He left Mary Hoyt Sherman, with eleven children and no inheritance. After his father's death, the nine-year-old Sherman was raised by a Lancaster neighbor and family friend, attorney Thomas Ewing, Sr. a prominent member of the Whig Party who served as senator from Ohio and as the first Secretary of the Interior. Sherman grew to admire him. Sherman's older brother. One of his younger brothers, John Sherman, served as a U. S. senator and Cabinet secretary. Another younger brother, Hoyt Sherman, was a successful banker.
Two of his foster brothers served as major generals in the Union Army during the Civil War: Hugh Boyle Ewing an ambassador and author, Thomas Ewing, Jr. who would serve as defense attorney in the military trials of the Lincoln conspirators. Sherman would marry his foster sister, Ellen Boyle Ewing, at age 30 and have eight children with her. Sherman's unusual given name has always attracted considerable attention. Sherman reported that his middle name came from his father having "caught a fancy for the great chief of the Shawnees,'Tecumseh'". Since an account in a 1932 biography about Sherman, it has been reported that, as an infant, Sherman was named Tecumseh. According to these accounts, Sherman only acquired the name "William" at age nine or ten, after being taken into the Ewing household, his foster mother, Maria Willis Boyle, was of a devout Roman Catholic. Sherman was raised in a Roman Catholic household, although he left the church, citing the effect of the Civil War on his religious views.
According to a story that may be myth, Sherman was baptized in the Ewing home by a Dominican priest, who named him William for the saint's day: June 25, the feast day of Saint William of Montevergine. The story is contested, however. Sherman wrote in his Memoirs; as a
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Smyrna is a city in Cobb County, United States. It is located northwest of Atlanta, is in the inner ring of the Atlanta Metropolitan Area; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 51,271. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated the population in 2013 to be 53,438, it is included in the Atlanta-Sandy Springs–Roswell MSA, included in the Atlanta–Athens–Clarke–Sandy Springs CSA. Smyrna grew by 28% between the years 2000 and 2012, it is one of the fastest growing cities in the State of Georgia, one of the most densely populated cities in the metro area. Pioneers began settling the area in 1832. By the late 1830s, a religious encampment called Smyrna Camp Ground had become a popular travel destination and was well known throughout Georgia, it was named by Greeks for the Biblical city of Smyrna, modern day Izmir in Turkey, the home of the famous Christian martyr Polycarp. After the completion of the Western and Atlantic Railroad in 1842, the area began to grow, it was known by several names until 1872—Varner's Station, Ruff's Siding, Neal Dow, Ruff's Station.
The city was incorporated with the name Smyrna in 1872. Two Civil War battles occurred in the area, the Battle of Smyrna Camp Ground and the Battle of Ruff's Mill, both on July 4, 1864; the area's businesses, homes and 1849 covered. The city elected its first woman mayor, Lorena Pace Pruitt, in 1946; the nearby Bell Bomber plant that produced B-29 bombers during World War II was reopened by Lockheed in 1951, became a catalyst for growth. The city's population grew during the next two decades, from 2,005 in 1950 to 20,000 by 1970; the restaurant scene in the film Joyful Noise was shot at Howard's Restaurant in Smyrna in 2011. Smyrna was ranked #4 in a 2014 study of the Best Cities for Young Adults in Georgia. Smyrna is part of the Atlanta metropolitan area, located about 1 mile northwest of the Atlanta city limits, with Smyrna's downtown about 10 miles from downtown Atlanta. Smyrna is located just west of the northern intersection of I-285 and I-75, the site of Cumberland and the Cobb Galleria. Smyrna is near Vinings, Mableton, Sandy Springs, the Buckhead district of Atlanta..
The center of Smyrna is located at 33°52′19″N 84°31′06″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.4 square miles, of which 15.4 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.23%, is water. The general terrain of the area is characteristic of the Piedmont region of Georgia, characterized by hills with broad ridges, sloping uplands, narrow valleys; the center of Smyrna is about 1,060 feet above sea level. The city's official symbol is the jonquil. Known as the "Jonquil City", it derives this name from the thousands of jonquils that flourish in gardens and along the streets in early spring; as of the 2014 census, there were 51,271 people, with 25% growth since 2000. There were 23,002 households; the population density was 3,300 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 46.63% African American, 31.6% White, 0.4% Native American, 4.9% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 3.1% from two or more races. 14.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
The population was distributed by age as follows: 22.6% under the age of 18, 18.8% from 18 to 29, 20% from 30 to 39, 14.9% from 40 to 49, 14.2% from 50–64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. As of 2011, 52.6% of Smyrna residents live in families with an average of 2.2 people per household. As of 2012, 52.2% of Smyrna residents have a college degree and 91.3% of residents have a high school diploma. This is one of the highest rates in the state of Georgia; the city is governed by a seven-member council, elected by wards, a mayor elected at-large. As of November 2018, Max Bacon is the mayor of Smyrna, a post he has held as long as anyone alive can remember; the city operates the Smyrna Public Library. As in most Georgia cities, Smyrna's municipal elections are nonpartisan, although officeholders may identify with one party or another. State and federal representation in the area include both Republicans. Smyrna politics is a vibrant environment, local elected officials are popular among their constituents.
Elections tend to be competitive. Important local issues include education, economic development, management of growth that comes from being a central point in the metropolitan Atlanta area. Smyrna citizens strive to achieve a balance between embracing and adapting to healthy changes in the city, with preservation of historic elements in the community; the median income for a household in the city for 2011 was $49,556, a 4% increase from 2000 and $3,549 over the Georgia average. The per capita income for the city was $34,439, a 24.7% increase from 2000. About 6.7% of families and 12.8% of the population were below the poverty line. The Atlanta Bread Company has its headquarters in Smyrna. Companies with an office include Eaton Corporation and IBM. Smyrna was the site of the corporate offices of the now-defunct World Championship Wrestling. According to the City's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: In 1991, the city began a community redevelopment project known as "Market Village," in order to create a well-defined downtown.
Included were 28,000-square-foot public library. A mixed retail and residential district was modeled after an early 1900s city village, including a square with a fountain. This, other expansions have revitalized the downtown ar
CSX Transportation is a Class I railroad operating in the eastern United States and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The railroad operates 21,000 route miles of track; the company operates as a subsidiary of CSX Corporation, a Fortune 500 company headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida. CSX Corporation was formed on November 1, 1980, by combining the railroads of the former Chessie System with Seaboard Coast Line Industries; the name came about during merger talks between Chessie System and SCL called "Chessie" and "Seaboard". The company chairmen said it was important for the new name to include neither of those names because it was a partnership. Employees were asked for suggestions. At the same time a temporary shorthand name was needed for discussions with the Interstate Commerce Commission. "CSC" was belonged to a trucking company in Virginia. "CSM" was taken. The lawyers decided to use "CSX", the name stuck. In the public announcement, it was said. C can stand for Chessie, S for Seaboard, X, which has no meaning."
However, an August 9, 2016, article on the Railway Age website stated that "... the'X' was for'Consolidated' ". The T had to be added to CSX when used as a reporting mark because reporting marks that end in X means that the car is owned by a leasing company or private car owner; the company introduced its current slogan, "How Tomorrow Moves", in 2008. The originator of SCL was the former Seaboard Air Line Railroad, which merged with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad in 1967 to form the Seaboard Coast Line. In years, it merged with the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, as well as several smaller subsidiaries such as the Clinchfield Railroad, Atlanta & West Point Railroad, Monon Railroad and the Georgia Railroad. From the late 1960s onward these railroads were known collectively as the Family Lines. In 1982, they were merged into the Seaboard System Railroad; the origin of the Chessie System was the former Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, which had merged with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, the Western Maryland Railway.
Despite the merger in 1980, CSX Transportation never had its own identity as a common carrier railroad until 1986. In that year, Seaboard System changed its name to CSX Transportation. On April 30, 1987, the B&O merged into the C&O. With the Western Maryland having merged into the C&O, this left the C&O as the sole operating railroad under the Chessie System banner. On August 31, 1987, C&O/Chessie System merged into CSX Transportation, bringing all of the major CSX railroads under one banner. On June 23, 1997, CSX and Norfolk Southern Railway filed a joint application with the Surface Transportation Board for authority to purchase and operate the assets of the 11,000-mile Conrail, created in 1976 by bringing together several ailing Northeastern railway systems into a government-owned corporation. On June 6, 1998, the STB approved the CSX–NS application and set August 22, 1998, as the effective date of its decision. CSX acquired 42 percent of Conrail's assets, NS received the remaining 58 percent.
As a result of the transaction, CSX's rail operations grew to include some 3,800 miles of the Conrail system. CSX began operating its trains on its portion of the Conrail network on June 1, 1999. CSX now serves much of the Eastern United States, with a few routes into nearby Canadian cities. In 2014, Canadian Pacific Railway approached CSX with an offer to merge the two companies, but CSX declined, in 2015 Canadian Pacific made an attempt to purchase and merge with Norfolk Southern, but NS declined to do so as well. In 2017, CSX announced. CSX added five new directors including Harrison and Mantle Ridge founder Paul Hilal. Mantle Ridge owns 4.9 percent of CSX. On December 14, 2017, CSX announced. Two days after the announcement, Harrison died, one day after being hospitalized for complications of an ongoing illness. CSX saw a 10% drop in its stock price, but turned around to hit a new 52-week high less than a month later. CSX operates the Juice Train which consists of Tropicana cars that carry fresh orange juice between Bradenton and the Greenville section of Jersey City, New Jersey.
The train runs from Bradenton to Fort Pierce, via the Florida East Coast Railway. In the 21st century, the Juice Train has been studied as a model of efficient rail transportation that can compete with trucks and other modes in the perishable-goods trade. All Tropicana trains are now added to Intermodal Trains such as Q188 and Q124. Coke Express trains run between Pittsburgh and Chicago, other places in the Rust Belt, carrying coke to industries steel mills. CSX runs daily trash trains Q702 and Q703 from The Bronx to Philadelphia and Petersburg, where they interchange with NS; these trains consist of 89-foot flatcars loaded with four containers of trash. Another pair of trains, Q710 and Q711, originate in Kearny, New Jersey, terminate in Russell, Kentucky. Another style of unit train is a local trash train, D765, that runs between the Maryland towns of Derwood and Dickerson; the train runs daily except on Sundays. Trash is carried from Montgomery County's Shady Grove Transfer Station to a was
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th