A vineyard /ˈvɪnjərd/ is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science and study of production is known as viticulture. The earliest evidence of production dates from between 6000 and 5000 BC. Wine making technology improved considerably with the ancient Greeks but it wasnt until the end of the Roman Empire that cultivation techniques as we know them were common throughout Europe. In medieval Europe the Church was a supporter of wine. They owned and tended the best vineyards in Europe and vinum theologium was considered superior to all others, European vineyards were planted with a wide variety of the Vitis vinifera grape. However, in the late 19th century, the species was nearly destroyed by the plant louse phylloxera accidentally introduced to Europe from North America. Native American grapevines include varieties such as Vitis labrusca, which is resistant to the bug, the quest for vineyard efficiency has produced a bewildering range of systems and techniques in recent years.
Due to the much more fertile New World growing conditions. Innovation in palissage and pruning and thinning methods have replaced more general, traditional concepts like yield per unit area in favor of maximizing yield of desired quality. Many of these new techniques have since adopted in place of traditional practice in the more progressive of the so-called Old World vineyards. Other recent practices include spraying water on vines to protect them from sub-zero temperatures, new grafting techniques, soil slotting, such techniques have made possible the development of wine industries in New World countries such as Canada. Today there is increasing interest in developing organic, ecologically sensitive, biodynamics has become increasingly popular in viticulture. The use of irrigation in recent years has expanded vineyards into areas which were previously unplantable. The research includes developing improved grape varieties and investigating pest control, the International Grape Genome Program is a multi-national effort to discover a genetic means to improving quality, increasing yield and providing a natural resistance to pests.
The implementation of mechanical harvesting is often stimulated by changes in laws, labor shortages. It can be expensive to hire labor for periods of time. Numbers of New World vineyard plantings have been increasing almost as fast as European vineyards are being uprooted, the size of individual vineyards in the New World is significant
Francesco Redi was an Italian physician, naturalist and poet. He is referred to as the founder of experimental biology, and he was the first person to challenge the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies. Having a doctoral degree and in medicine and philosophy from the University of Pisa at the age of 21, he worked in various cities of Italy. A rationalist of his time, he was a critic of verifiable myths and his most famous experiments are described in his magnum opus Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione deglInsetti, published in 1668. He disproved that vipers drink wine and could break glasses, and he correctly observed that snake venoms were produced from the fangs, not the gallbladder, as was believed. He was the first to recognize and correctly describe details of about 180 parasites, including Fasciola hepatica and he distinguished earthworms from helminths. He possibly originated the use of the control, the basis of design in modern biology.
The son of Gregorio Redi and Cecilia de Ghinci, Francesco Redi was born in Arezzo on 18 February 1626 and his father was a renowned physician at Florence. After schooling with the Jesuits, he attended the University of Pisa from where he obtained his degrees in medicine and philosophy in 1647. He constantly moved, to Rome, Bologna and Venice and it is here that most of his academic works were achieved, which earned him membership in Accademia dei Lincei. He was a member of the Accademia del Cimento from 1657 to 1667 and he died in his sleep on March 1,1697 in Pisa and his remains were returned to Arezzo for interment. A collection of his letters is held at the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, in 1664 Redi wrote his first monumental work Osservazioni intorno alle vipere to his friend Lorenzo Magalotti, secretary of the Accademia del Cimento. He explained rather how snake venom is unrelated to the snake’s bite and he even showed that by applying a tight ligature before the wound, the passage of venom into the heart could be prevented.
This work marked the beginning of experimental toxinology/toxicology, the book is one of the first steps in refuting spontaneous generation—a theory known as Aristotelian abiogenesis. At the time, prevailing wisdom was that maggots arose spontaneously from rotting meat, Redi covered the tops of the first group of jars with fine gauze so that only air could get into it. He left the group open. After several days, he saw appear on the objects in the open jars, on which flies had been able to land. In the second experiment, meat was kept in three jars, one of the jars was uncovered, and two of the jars were covered, one with cork and the other one with gauze
Dionysus is the god of the grape harvest and wine, of ritual madness, fertility and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine played an important role in Greek culture, and the cult of Dionysus was the religious focus for its unrestrained consumption. He may have been worshipped as early as c, 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks, traces of Dionysian-type cult have been found in ancient Minoan Crete. His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms, some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, in some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner, in others, from Ethiopia in the South. He is a god of epiphany, the god that comes and his festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theatre. The earliest cult images of Dionysus show a male and robed. He holds a staff, tipped with a pine-cone and known as a thyrsus. Later images show him as a beardless, naked or half-naked androgynous youth, in its fully developed form, his central cult imagery shows his triumphant, disorderly arrival or return, as if from some place beyond the borders of the known and civilized.
His procession is made up of female followers and bearded satyrs with erect penises, some are armed with the thyrsus. The god himself is drawn in a chariot, usually by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers and this procession is presumed to be the cult model for the followers of his Dionysian Mysteries. He is known as Bacchus, the adopted by the Romans. His thyrsus, sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey, is both a beneficent wand and a used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. As Eleutherios, his wine and ecstatic dance free his followers from self-conscious fear and care and those who partake of his mysteries are possessed and empowered by the god himself. The cult of Dionysus is a cult of the souls, his maenads feed the dead through blood-offerings and he is sometimes categorised as a dying-and-rising god. Some scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity, Dionysus had a strange birth that evokes the difficulty in fitting him into the Olympian pantheon.
His mother was a woman, the daughter of king Cadmus of Thebes, and his father was Zeus. Zeus wife, discovered the affair while Semele was pregnant, appearing as an old crone, Hera befriended Semele, who confided in her that Zeus was the actual father of the baby in her womb. Hera pretended not to believe her, and planted seeds of doubt in Semeles mind, Semele demanded of Zeus that he reveal himself in all his glory as proof of his godhood
Montepulciano dAbruzzo is a red Italian wine made from the Montepulciano wine grape in the Abruzzo region of east-central Italy. It should not be confused with Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, a Tuscan wine made from Sangiovese, in the late 20th and early 21st century, Montepulciano dAbruzzo earned a reputation as one of the most widely exported DOC wines in Italy. It is typically dry with soft tannins and often consumed young, in addition to Montepulciano, up to 15% Sangiovese is permitted in the blend. Wines aged by the maker for more than two years may be labeled Riserva, the DOC region for Montepulciano dAbruzzo covers a vast expanse of land in the Abruzzo region between the Apennines foothills down to a few miles inland from the Adriatic coast. The region is one of Italys most mountainous with more than 65% of all Abruzzo being considered mountainous terrain with the Apennines peaks reaching up to 9000 feet above sea level. The hillside vineyards planted on calcareous clay benefit from warm and significant sun exposure that is ventilated by dry breezes coming off the Adriatic.
Montepulciano is produced in all four provinces of Abruzzo--LAquila, Pescara, the mountainous province of LAquila is noted mainly for the dry rosé labeled as Cerasuolo produced in the DOC. The most favorable vineyards are planted in the provinces of Pescara. These northern provinces benefit from having less fertile soils with more clay and limestone mix. This creates cooler micro-climates that tend to more concentrated wines. In 2004, there were approximately 18,000 acres planted in the DOC, in 2005, the DOC produced over 500,000 hectoliters of wine, with more than two thirds of it being produced in the Chieti province. Under Italian wine laws, Montepulciano dAbruzzo can be produced as a rosé, the wine must be composed of a minimum of 85% Montepulciano with up to 15% of Sangiovese permitted to fill out the remainder of the wine. Grapes are harvested to a yield no greater than 14 tonnes per hectare, the wine must be aged for a minimum of 5 months prior to release with bottles labeled as Vecchio further aged a minimum of two years in wood barrels.
Additionally, all Montepulciano dAbruzzo wines must have an alcohol level of at least 12%. Within the Montepulciano dAbruzzo DOC region is the smaller Colline Teramane DOCG that is produced in the province of Teramo from vineyards planted in Teramo and 30 surrounding communes, established first as a DOC in 1995, the region was promoted to DOCG status in 2003. The regulations for the wine are similar to Montepulciano dAbruzzo except that the needs to be made from a minimum of 90% Montepulciano with a maximum of 10% Sangiovese permitted. According to wine expert Oz Clarke, Montepulciano dAbruzzo is often a deeply colored wine with pepper and it can be described as rustic which Clarke says is less pronounced when the wine is paired with food. Master of Wine Mary Ewing-Mulligan describes the wines as aromatic, according to Italian wine expert Joe Bastianich, Montepulciano dAbruzzos can be highly aromatic with earthy notes and black berries and have inky-purple color with a thick, almost syrupy mouthfeel
Canaiolo is a red Italian wine grape grown through Central Italy but is most noted in Tuscany. Other regions with plantings of Canaiolo include Lazio and Sardegna, in Umbria a white berried mutation known as Canaiolo bianco exist. Together with Sangiovese and Colorino it is used to create Chianti wine and is an important. In the history of Chianti it has been a key component blend, part of its popularity may have been the grapes ability to partially dry out without rotting for use in the governo method of prolonging fermentation. In the aftermath of the epidemic, the Canaiolo vines did not take well to grafting onto new American rootstock. As of 2006, total plantings of Canaiolo throughout Italy dropped to under 7,410 acres, today there are renewed efforts by Tuscan winemakers to find better clonal selections and re-introduce the variety into popular usage. A white sub-variety exist, known as Canaiolo bianco, which is a grape variety in the Umbrian wine region of Orvieto where is known as Drupeggio.
In recent years plantings have been declining, ampelographers believe that Canaiolo is most likely native to Central Italy and perhaps to the Tuscany region. It was a widely planted variety in the Chianti region and most likely was the dominant grape variety in Chianti blends throughout the 18th century, the writings of Italian writer Cosimo Villifranchi noted the grapes popularity and that it was often blended with Sangiovese and Marzemino. Part of Canaiolos success in the region may have been its affinity for the winemaking technique that was used to ensure complete fermentation. At the time various wine faults would plague unstable Chiantis because they were not able to complete fermentation. The technique of governo was first developed by Chianti winemakers in the 14th century and this involves adding half-dried grapes to the must to stimulate the yeast with a fresh source of sugar that may keep the yeast active all the through the fermentation process. Canaiolos resistance to rotting while going through the drying process made it an ideal grape for this technique.
The rise in prominence of Sangiovese herald the decline of Canaiolo as more winemakers rushed to plant more Sangiovese, outside of Chianti, Canaiolo role in the Sangiovese based on Vino Nobile di Montepulciano was declining though it was never as prominent as it once was in Chianti. The phylloxera devastation at the end of the 19th century highlighted the difficulties that Canaiolo has with grafting as many plantings on new American rootstock failed to take. There are renewed efforts and research in clonal selections to revive the variety in Tuscany, outside of Tuscany, Canaiolo is found throughout central Italy with significant plantings in Lazio and Sardegna. Though there are efforts in Tuscany to revive the variety, plantings throughout the country continue to drop and fell under 7,410 acres in 2006
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes. These grapes are generally Vitis vinifera, or a hybrid with Vitis labrusca or Vitis rupestris, grapes are fermented without the addition of sugars, enzymes, water, or other nutrients. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine and these typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. There are made from fermenting other fruits or cereals. Wines made from other than grapes include rice wine and various fruit wines such as those made from plums or cherries. Some well known examples are hard cider from apples, perry from pears, pomegranate wine, Wine has been produced for thousands of years.
The earliest known traces of wine from Georgia in Eurasia where 8000-year-old wine jars were found and in Iran with 7, the earliest known winery is the 6, 100-year-old Areni-1 winery Armenia. Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece, throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects, which are evident after the normal serving size of five ounces. Wine has long played an important role in religion, the earliest chemically attested grape wine was discovered at Hajji Firuz in the northwestern Zagros Mountains dating back to 5400 BC. The earliest evidence of a fermented drink was found in Georgia, where wine residue inside ceramic jars dates from 6000 BC. The earliest evidence of a production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old, presumably. A2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the years of the seventh millennium BC.
Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, contained traces of tartaric acid, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. The spread of wine culture westwards was most probably due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Lebanese, the wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact. As the first great traders in wine, the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin
Denominazione di origine controllata
Denominazione di origine controllata is a quality assurance label for Italian wines. The system is modeled on the French Appellation dorigine contrôlée designations, the Italian government introduced the system in 1963 and overhauled in 1992 to comply with European Union law on protected geographical designations of origin, which came into effect that year. There are three levels of labels, DO — Denominazione di Origine, DOC — Denominazione di Origine Controllata, all three require that a food product be produced within the specified region using defined methods and that it satisfy a defined quality standard. The need for a DOCG identification arose when the DOC designation was, in the view of many Italian food industries, a new, more restrictive identification was created as similar as possible to the previous one so that buyers could still recognize it, but qualitatively different. A notable difference for wines is that DOCG labelled wines are analysed and tasted by government–licensed personnel before being bottled, to prevent manipulation, DOCG wine bottles are sealed with a numbered governmental seal across the cap or cork.
Wines labelled DOC or DOCG may only be sold in bottles holding 5 litres or less, traditional food An excerpt from the relevant Italian law V. Q. P. R. D. Vini, Elenco e Riferimenti Normativi al 07.02, complete list of italian DOC wines
Grappa is an alcoholic beverage, a fragrant, grape-based pomace brandy of Italian origin that contains 35 to 60 percent alcohol by volume. The flavour of grappa, like that of wine, depends on the type and quality of the grapes used, Grappa is made by distilling the skins, pulp and stems left over from winemaking after pressing the grapes. It was originally made to prevent waste by using these leftovers, a similar drink, known as acquavite duva, is made by distilling whole must. Grappa is now a name in the European Union. Criterion 3 has two important implications, the distillation must occur on solids. Thus, it is carried out not with a flame but with a bain-marie or steam distillation, otherwise. Second, the parts of the grapes are co-fermented with the sugar-rich juice, this produces a very small amount of methanol. Unlike in the process of making red wine, in grappa the methanol must be carefully removed during distillation. That is why there is an Italian law requiring winemakers to sell their pomace to grappa makers, this is a measure that was taken against moonshine operations, in Italy, grappa is primarily served as a digestivo or after-dinner drink.
Its main purpose is to aid in the digestion of heavy meals, Grappa may be added to espresso coffee to create a caffè corretto, meaning corrected coffee. Another variation of this is the ammazzacaffè, the espresso is drunk first, in Veneto, there is resentin, after finishing a cup of espresso with sugar, a few drops of grappa are poured into the nearly empty cup and drunk down in one sip. Among the best-known producers of grappa are Nonino, Berta, Nardini, Jacopo Poli, Villa de Varda, Bepi Tosolini and these grappas are produced in significant quantities and are exported, there are many small local or regional grappas. Most grappa is clear, indicating it is an unaged distillate, aged grappas have become more common, and these take on a yellow, or red-brown hue from the barrels in which they are stored. Grappa is known in South America, particularly in Uruguay. It is served as in Italy, after the main meals, in Uruguay, a local version called grappamiel has been created, which sees honey added to the traditional grappa.
It is widely served and mostly drunk in winter because it warms the throat, distillation is an ancient practice that can be traced back to the first century AD. While the distillation of alcohol may have carried out reliably by the School of Salerno in the 12th century. There is a legend tells of a Roman soldier who first distilled grappa in the northern Italian town of Bassano del Grappa using distilling equipment stolen in Egypt
Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena, the historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. It is one of the nations most visited tourist attractions, with over 163,000 international arrivals in 2008, Siena is famous for its cuisine, museums, medieval cityscape and the Palio, a horse race held twice a year. Siena, like other Tuscan hill towns, was first settled in the time of the Etruscans when it was inhabited by a called the Saina. A Roman town called Saena Julia was founded at the site in the time of the Emperor Augustus, the first document mentioning it dates from AD70. Some archaeologists assert that Siena was controlled for a period by a Gaulish tribe called the Senones, according to local legend, Siena was founded by Senius and Aschius, two sons of Remus and thus nephews of Romulus, after whom Rome was named. Supposedly after their fathers murder by Romulus, they fled Rome, taking them the statue of the she-wolf suckling the infants.
Additionally they rode white and black horses, giving rise to the Balzana, some claim the name Siena derives from Senius. Other etymologies derive the name from the Etruscan family name Saina, Siena did not prosper under Roman rule. It was not sited near any major roads and lacked opportunities for trade and its insular status meant that Christianity did not penetrate until the 4th century AD, and it was not until the Lombards invaded Siena and the surrounding territory that it knew prosperity. Siena prospered as a trading post, and the constant streams of pilgrims passing to, the oldest aristocratic families in Siena date their line to the Lombards surrender in 774 to Charlemagne. This ultimately resulted in the creation of the Republic of Siena, the Republic existed for over four hundred years, from the late 11th century until the year 1555. During the golden age of Siena before the Black Death in 1348, in the Italian War of 1551–59, the republic was defeated by the rival Duchy of Florence in alliance with the Spanish crown.
After 18 months of resistance, Siena surrendered to Spain on 17 April 1555, the new Spanish King Felipe II, owing huge sums to the Medici, ceded it to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, to which it belonged until the unification of Italy in the 19th century. A Republican government of 700 Sienese families in Montalcino resisted until 1559, the picturesque city remains an important cultural centre, especially for humanist disciplines. The city lies at 322 m above sea level, the Siena Cathedral, begun in the 12th century, is a masterpiece of Italian Romanesque-Gothic architecture. Its main façade was completed in 1380, the original plan called for an ambitiously massive basilica, the largest in the world, with, as was customary, an east-west nave. However, the scarcity of funds, in due to war and plague, truncated the project
Abruzzo is an Italian wine region located in the mountainous central Italian region of Abruzzo along the Adriatic Sea. It is bordered by the Molise wine region to the south, Marche to the north, the majority of the regions wine is produced by co-operatives or sold in bulk to negociants in other Italian wine regions in Tuscany and the Veneto for blending. The most notable wine of the region is Montepulciano dAbruzzo produced with the Montepulciano grape that is distinct from the Sangiovese grape behind the Tuscan wine Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. Together with Trebbiano dAbruzzo, Montepulciano dAbruzzo is one of the most widely exported DOC wine from Italy, particularly to the United States. While wine is produced in all four of Abruzzos provinces, the bulk of the takes place in the province of Chieti which is the fifth largest producing province in all of Italy. Some of the most highly rated wine from Abruzzo comes from the vineyards in the northern provinces of Pescara. In the completely mountainous province of LAquila in the west some rosé wine known as Cerasuolo from the Montepulciano grape is produced, the Abruzzo region has the Apennines running along its western border and includes Corno Grande, the highest point on mainland Italy.
The mountain range serves as an influence on the climate. Despite the mountainous region of Abruzzo having only half of the land of regions like Tuscany. This is partly because of the high permitted yields of Abruzzos main DOC region as well as the government mandated use of high-producing tendone vine-training systems installed in the 1970s. Particularly on the hillsides and plain of the southern Chieti province. Of all the provinces in Italy, Chieti is the fifth largest producer of wine in Italy, the dominant varieties of the region are the red Montepulciano_ and the white Trebbiano dAbruzzo grape which was once considered a clone of the insipid Trebbiano Toscano. Trebbiano dAbruzzo is thought not to be a version of Trebbiano at all, both Trebbiano Toscano and Bombino bianco are still widely planted in Abruzzo with field blends including all 3 varieties labeled as Trebbiano dAbruzzo still common. While this relationship has proven false, it is not known how the dominant grape of Abruzzo took the name of the Renaissance era town.
In addition to making the majority of Abruzzi labeled wine, these large co-ops sell wine to other Italian, according to wine experts Joe Bastianich and David Lynch, a good part of many better-regarded French and northern Italian wines come from Abruzzo. In the late 20th and early 21st century, there has been a trend away from the co-operatives towards growers starting their own boutique or artisanal wineries. Two early proponents of this movement were Emidio Pepe and Edoardo Valentini who brought innovative styles of winemaking to the region that combines traditional and modern techniques. He shuns the use of any fining and filtration aids as well as the use of the sulfur dioxide for preserving and protecting the wine oxidation, instead of using oak barrels or stainless steel fermentation tanks, Pepe ferments and ages everything in glass