John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 30th president of the United States from 1923 to 1929. A Republican lawyer from New England, born in Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics becoming governor, his response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action. The next year, he was elected vice president of the United States, he succeeded to the presidency upon the sudden death of Warren G. Harding in 1923. Elected in his own right in 1924, he gained a reputation as a small government conservative and as a man who said little and had a rather dry sense of humor. Coolidge restored public confidence in the White House after the scandals of his predecessor's administration, left office with considerable popularity; as a Coolidge biographer wrote: "He embodied the spirit and hopes of the middle class, could interpret their longings and express their opinions.
That he did represent the genius of the average is the most convincing proof of his strength". Scholars have ranked Coolidge in the lower half of those presidents, he is praised by advocates of smaller government and laissez-faire economics, while supporters of an active central government view him less favorably, though most praise his stalwart support of racial equality. John Calvin Coolidge Jr. was born in Plymouth Notch, Windsor County, Vermont, on July 4, 1872, the only US president to be born on Independence Day. He was the elder of the two children of John Calvin Coolidge Sr. and Victoria Josephine Moor. Coolidge Junior was called by his middle name, Calvin. Coolidge Senior engaged in many occupations and developed a statewide reputation as a prosperous farmer and public servant, he held various local offices, including justice of the peace and tax collector and served in the Vermont House of Representatives as well as the Vermont Senate. Coolidge's mother was the daughter of a Plymouth Notch farmer.
She was chronically ill and died from tuberculosis, when Coolidge was twelve years old. His younger sister, Abigail Grace Coolidge, died at the age of 15 of appendicitis, when Coolidge was 18. Coolidge's father married a Plymouth schoolteacher in 1891, lived to the age of 80. Coolidge's family had deep roots in New England. Another ancestor, Edmund Rice, arrived at Watertown in 1638. Coolidge's great-great-grandfather named John Coolidge, was an American military officer in the Revolutionary War and one of the first selectmen of the town of Plymouth, his grandfather Calvin Galusha Coolidge served in the Vermont House of Representatives. Coolidge was a descendant of Samuel Appleton, who settled in Ipswich and led the Massachusetts Bay Colony during King Philip's War. Coolidge attended Black River Academy and St. Johnsbury Academy, before enrolling at Amherst College, where he distinguished himself in the debating class; as a senior, he graduated cum laude. While at Amherst, Coolidge was profoundly influenced by philosophy professor Charles Edward Garman, a Congregational mystic, with a neo-Hegelian philosophy.
Coolidge explained Garman's ethics forty years later: here is a standard of righteousness that might does not make right, that the end does not justify the means, that expediency as a working principle is bound to fail. The only hope of perfecting human relationships is in accordance with the law of service under which men are not so solicitous about what they shall get as they are about what they shall give, yet people are entitled to the rewards of their industry. What they earn is theirs, no matter how small or how great, but the possession of property carries the obligation to use it in a larger service... At his father's urging after graduation, Coolidge moved to Northampton, Massachusetts to become a lawyer. To avoid the cost of law school, Coolidge followed the common practice of apprenticing with a local law firm, Hammond & Field, reading law with them. John C. Hammond and Henry P. Field, both Amherst graduates, introduced Coolidge to law practice in the county seat of Hampshire County.
In 1897, Coolidge was admitted to the Massachusetts bar. With his savings and a small inheritance from his grandfather, Coolidge opened his own law office in Northampton in 1898, he practiced commercial law. As his reputation as a hard-working and diligent attorney grew, local banks and other businesses began to retain his services. In 1903, Coolidge met Grace Anna Goodhue, a University of Vermont graduate and teacher at Northampton's Clarke School for the Deaf, they married on October 4, 1905 at 2:30 p.m. in a small ceremony which took place in the parlor of Grace's family's house, following a vain effort at postponement by Grace's mother. The newlyweds went on a honeymoon trip to Montreal planned for two weeks but cut short by a week at Coolidge's request. After 25 years he wrote of Grace, "for a quarter of a century she has borne with my infirmities and I have rejoiced in her graces"; the Coolidges had two sons: John and Calvin Jr.. Calvin Jr. died at age 16 from blood poisoning. On June 30, 1924 Calvin Jr had played tennis with his brother on the White House tennis courts without putting on socks and developed a blister on one of his toes.
The blister subsequently
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small room to large suites with bigger, higher-quality beds, a dresser, a refrigerator and other kitchen facilities, upholstered chairs, a flat screen television, en-suite bathrooms. Small, lower-priced hotels may offer only the most basic guest facilities. Larger, higher-priced hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare and event facilities, tennis or basketball courts, restaurants, day spa, social function services. Hotel rooms are numbered to allow guests to identify their room; some boutique, high-end hotels have custom decorated rooms. Some hotels offer meals as part of a board arrangement. In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all guests within certain stated hours. In Japan, capsule hotels provide a tiny room suitable only for sleeping and shared bathroom facilities.
The precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travelers. Inns began to cater to richer clients in the mid-18th century. One of the first hotels in a modern sense was opened in Exeter in 1768. Hotels proliferated throughout Western Europe and North America in the early 19th century, luxury hotels began to spring up in the part of the 19th century. Hotel operations vary in size, function and cost. Most hotels and major hospitality companies have set industry standards to classify hotel types. An upscale full-service hotel facility offers luxury amenities, full service accommodations, an on-site restaurant, the highest level of personalized service, such as a concierge, room service, clothes pressing staff. Full service hotels contain upscale full-service facilities with a large number of full service accommodations, an on-site full service restaurant, a variety of on-site amenities.
Boutique hotels are smaller independent, non-branded hotels that contain upscale facilities. Small to medium-sized hotel establishments offer a limited amount of on-site amenities. Economy hotels are small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer basic accommodations with little to no services. Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized hotels that offer longer-term full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership involving ownership of an individual unit of accommodation for seasonal usage. A motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging with direct access to individual rooms from the car park. Boutique hotels are hotels with a unique environment or intimate setting. A number of hotels have entered the public consciousness through popular culture, such as the Ritz Hotel in London; some hotels are built as a destination in itself, for example at casinos and holiday resorts. Most hotel establishments are run by a General Manager who serves as the head executive, department heads who oversee various departments within a hotel, middle managers, administrative staff, line-level supervisors.
The organizational chart and volume of job positions and hierarchy varies by hotel size and class, is determined by hotel ownership and managing companies. The word hotel is derived from the French hôtel, which referred to a French version of a building seeing frequent visitors, providing care, rather than a place offering accommodation. In contemporary French usage, hôtel now has the same meaning as the English term, hôtel particulier is used for the old meaning, as well as "hôtel" in some place names such as Hôtel-Dieu, a hospital since the Middle Ages; the French spelling, with the circumflex, was used in English, but is now rare. The circumflex replaces the's' found in the earlier hostel spelling, which over time took on a new, but related meaning. Grammatically, hotels take the definite article – hence "The Astoria Hotel" or "The Astoria." Facilities offering hospitality to travellers have been a feature of the earliest civilizations. In Greco-Roman culture and ancient Persia, hospitals for recuperation and rest were built at thermal baths.
Japan's Nishiyama Onsen Keiunkan, founded in 705, was recognised by the Guinness World Records as the oldest hotel in the world. During the Middle Ages, various religious orders at monasteries and abbeys would offer accommodation for travellers on the road; the precursor to the modern hotel was the inn of medieval Europe dating back to the rule of Ancient Rome. These would provide for the needs of travellers, including food and lodging and fodder for the traveller's horse and fresh horses for the mail coach. Famous London examples of inns include the Tabard. A typical layout of an inn had an inner court with bedrooms on the two sides, with the kitchen and parlour at the front and the stables at the back. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, coaching inns served as a place for lodging for coach travellers. Coaching inns stabled teams of horses for stagecoaches and mail coaches and replaced tired teams with fresh teams. Traditionally they were seven miles apart, but this depended much on the terrain.
Some English towns had as many as ten such inns and rivalry between them was intense, not only for the income from the stagecoach operators but for the revenu
Tampa Bay Rays
The Tampa Bay Rays are an American professional baseball team based in St. Petersburg, Florida; the Rays compete in Major League Baseball as a member of the American League East division. Since its inception, the team's home venue has been Tropicana Field. Following nearly three decades of unsuccessfully trying to gain an expansion franchise or enticing existing teams to relocate to the Tampa Bay Area, an ownership group led by Vince Naimoli was approved on March 9, 1995; the Tampa Bay Devil Rays began play in the 1998 Major League Baseball season. Their first decade of play, was marked by futility. Following the 2007 season, Stuart Sternberg, who had purchased controlling interest in the team from Vince Naimoli two years earlier, changed the team's name from "Devil Rays" to "Rays", now meant to refer to a burst of sunshine rather than a manta ray, though a manta ray logo remains on the uniform sleeves; the 2008 season saw the Tampa Bay Rays post their first winning season, their first AL East championship, their first pennant, though they lost to the Philadelphia Phillies in that year's World Series.
Since the Rays have played in the postseason in 2010, 2011, 2013. The Tampa Bay Rays' chief rivals are the New York Yankees. Regarding the former, there have been several notable on-field incidents; the Rays have an intrastate interleague rivalry with the National League's Miami Marlins, whom they play in the Citrus Series. The name "Tampa Bay" is used to describe a geographic metropolitan area which encompasses the cities around the body of water known as Tampa Bay, including Tampa, St. Petersburg and Bradenton. Unlike in the case of Green Bay, there is no municipality known as "Tampa Bay"; the "Tampa Bay" in the names of local professional sports franchises denotes that they represent the entire region, not just Tampa or St. Petersburg. Former civic leader and St. Petersburg Times publisher, Jack Lake, first suggested St. Petersburg pursue a Major League baseball team in the 1960s; the notable influences Lake held in the sport are what led to the serious discussions that changed St. Petersburg from a spring training location to a major league city.
He spoke to anyone who would listen about his desire to see the city of St. Petersburg have a Major league baseball team, his colorful direction dominated the mindset in both sports and business circles dating back to 1966. He was said to have the prominence to make it happen. Local leaders made many unsuccessful attempts to acquire a major league baseball team in the 1980s and 1990s; the Minnesota Twins, San Francisco Giants, Chicago White Sox, Texas Rangers, Seattle Mariners all considered moving to either Tampa or St. Petersburg before deciding to remain in their current locations; the Florida Suncoast Dome was built in St. Petersburg in 1990 with the purpose of luring a major league team; that same year two separate groups, one in Tampa and another in Sarasota, were seeking to get an expansion team. The Tampa one registered the name "Florida Panthers", after a local feline - a trademark which ended up being purchased by entrepreneur Wayne Huizenga one year and used by him to name an NHL ice hockey team.
When Major League Baseball announced that it would add two expansion teams for the 1993 season, it was assumed that one of the teams would be placed in the Dome. However, in addition to the application from St. Petersburg, a competing group applied to field a team in Tampa, prompting much conflict over the bid; the two National League teams were awarded to Miami instead. In 1992, San Francisco Giants owner Bob Lurie agreed in principle to sell his team to a Tampa Bay-based group of investors led by Vince Naimoli, who would move the team to St. Petersburg. However, at the 11th hour, MLB owners nixed the move under pressure from San Francisco officials and the Giants were sold to a group that kept them in San Francisco. On March 9, 1995, new expansion franchises were awarded to Naimoli's Tampa Bay group and a group from Phoenix; the new franchises were scheduled to begin play in 1998. The Tampa Bay area had a team, but the stadium in St. Petersburg was in need of an upgrade. In 1993, the stadium was renamed the Thunderdome and became the home of the Tampa Bay Lightning hockey team and the Tampa Bay Storm Arena Football League team.
After the birth of the Rays, the naming rights were sold to Tropicana Products and $70 million was spent on renovations. The records of the Rays' last five seasons in Major League Baseball; these statistics are current through the 2018 Major League Baseball season. Tampa Bay's primary rivals are the New York Yankees; the Red Sox/Rays rivalry dates back to the 2000 season, when Devil Ray Gerald Williams took exception to being hit by a pitch thrown by Boston pitcher Pedro Martínez and charged the mound, resulting in a game full of retaliations and ejections on both sides. There have been several other incidents between the teams during the ensuing years, including one in 2005 which resulted in two bench-clearing fights during the game and a war of words between then-Devil Rays manager Lou Piniella and then-Boston pitcher Curt Schilling through the media in the following days; the rivalry reached its highest level to date during the 2008 season, which included a brawl during a June meeting in Fenway Park and a 7-game American League Championship Series between the teams t
Mediterranean Revival architecture
Mediterranean Revival is a design style introduced in the United States in the waning nineteenth century variously incorporating references from Spanish Renaissance, Spanish Colonial, Beaux-Arts, Italian Renaissance, Arabic Andalusian architecture, Venetian Gothic architecture. Peaking in popularity during the 1920s and 1930s, the movement drew on the style of palaces and seaside villas and applied them to the expanding coastal resorts of Florida and California. Structures are based on a rectangular floor plan, feature massive, symmetrical primary façades. Stuccoed walls, red tiled roofs, windows in the shape of arches or circles, one or two stories, wood or wrought iron balconies with window grilles, articulated door surrounds are characteristic. Keystones were employed. Ornamentation may be dramatic. Lush gardens appear; the style was most applied to hotels, apartment buildings, commercial structures, residences. Architects August Geiger and Addison Mizner were foremost in Florida, while Bertram Goodhue, Sumner Spaulding, Paul Williams were in California.
There are examples of this architectural style in Cuba, such as the Hotel Nacional de Cuba, in Havana. E. W. Marland Mansion in Ponca City, completed in 1928 Hayes Mansion in San Jose, completed in 1905 Rose Crest Mansion in Jamaica Estates, New York, completed in 1909 Delaware and Hudson Passenger Station, Lake George, New York, 1909–1911 Villa Vizcaya in Miami, completed in 1914 Presidio building in San Francisco, completed in 1912 The Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California, 1921 Temple Terrace Country Club in Temple Terrace, completed in 1921 Allouez Pump House in Allouez, Wisconsin, 1925 Freedom Tower in Miami, completed in 1925 The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror in Walt Disney World, Florida. 1994 Vinoy Park Hotel in St. Petersburg, completed in 1925 Snell Arcade in St. Petersburg, Florida. 1925 Boca Raton Resort & Club in Boca Raton, completed in 1926 Miami-Biltmore Hotel in Coral Gables, completed in 1926 Fort Harrison Hotel in Clearwater, completed in 1926 Cà d'Zan, former John Ringling estate in Sarasota, completed in 1926 Francis Marion Stokes Fourplex in Portland, completed in 1926 Florida Theatre in Jacksonville, completed in 1927 Pasadena City Hall in Pasadena, California, 1927 Winter Park Ninth Grade Center 1927 Nottingham Cooperative, 1927, Wisconsin Greenacres in Beverly Hills, completed in 1928 Don CeSar Hotel, St. Pete Beach, completed in 1928 Beverly Shores Railroad Station, 1928 Catalina Casino in Avalon, completed May 29, 1929 Mildred Building, Texas 1929 Port Washington Fire Engine House in Port Washington, completed in 1929 Casa Casuarina in Miami Beach, Florida, 1930 Santa Fe Railway depot in Fullerton, completed 1930 Town Club, completed 1931 Beverly Hills City Hall, Beverly Hills, California, 1932 Cabrillo Beach Bath House in San Pedro, completed 1932 Francis Lederer residence, in West Hills, Los Angeles, completed 1936 Cooley High School, Michigan, built in 1928 W.
J. Bryan Elementary School, in Miami, completed in 1928 Sunrise Theatre, Fort Pierce, built in 1922 The Colony Hotel, Delray Beach, built in 1926 The Church of Scientology's Flag Building, Florida, completed in 2011 Plymouth County Hospital, a tuberculosis sanatorium, in Hanson, Massachusetts. Completed in 1919 Italianate architecture Gothicmed-project which includes finding further insight to Gothic architecture in the Mediterranean area Mission Revival Style architecture Spanish Colonial style architecture Spanish Colonial Revival Style architecture Moorish Revival architecture Gustafson and Phil Serpico. Santa Fe Coast Lines Depots: Los Angeles Division. Acanthus Press, Palmdale, CA. ISBN 0-88418-003-4. Newcomb, Rexford. Mediterranean Domestic Architecture for the United States. Hawthorne Printing Company, New York, NY. ISBN 0-926494-13-9. Signor, John R.. Southern Pacific Lines: Pacific Lines Stations, Volume 1. Southern Pacific Historical and Technical Society, Pasadena, CA. ISBN 0-9657208-4-5.
Nolan, David. The Houses of St. Augustine. Sarasota, Pineapple Press, 1995. Nylander, Justin A.. Casas to Castles: Florida's Historic Mediterranean Revival Architecture. Schiffer publishing. ISBN 978-0-7643-3435-1
National Trust for Historic Preservation
The National Trust for Historic Preservation is a funded, nonprofit organization based in Washington, D. C. that works in the field of historic preservation in the United States. The member-supported organization was founded in 1949 by congressional charter to support the preservation of America’s diverse historic buildings and heritage through its programs and advocacy; the National Trust for Historic Preservation aims to empower local preservationists by providing leadership to save and revitalize America's historic places, by working on both national policies as well as local preservation campaigns through its network of field offices and preservation partners, including the National Park Service, State Historic Preservation Offices, local preservation groups. The National Trust is headquartered in Washington, D. C. with field offices in Boston, New York City, Nashville, Houston, Boise, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Seattle. The organization is governed by a board of trustees and led by current president, Stephanie K. Meeks.
The National Trust presently has around 750,000 supporters. In addition to leading campaigns and advocacy, the National Trust provides a growing educational resource through the Preservation Leadership Forum that offers articles, case studies, conferences and training; the National Trust issues the quarterly Preservation magazine and produces the "PreservationNation" blog. The National Trust’s current work focuses on building sustainable communities through the adaptive reuse of historic spaces. Towards the end of the 19th century, as the United States was rebuilding after the Civil War, the country was beginning to form its sense of national identity and history; the government began to enact legislation for the preservation of sites and objects deemed significant to the nation’s history. In 1872, an Act of Congress established Yellowstone. In 1906, the Antiquities Act enabled the President to declare landmarks or objects as a national monument. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act which outlined programs for research and inventory of historic sites.
Meanwhile, historic preservation initiatives existed on local and state levels. In 1931, the first historic district was created in South Carolina. However, efforts to save and maintain historic sites were still limited to private citizens or local groups. In the late 1940s, leaders in American historic preservation saw the need for a national organization to support local preservation efforts. In 1946, David E. Finley, Jr. George McAneny, Christopher Crittenden, Ronald Lee met at the National Gallery of Art to discuss the formation of such a national organization; this meeting was followed by a larger gathering on April 15, 1947, attended by representatives from a number of art and historical societies, which culminated in the creation of the National Council for Historic Sites and Buildings. The meeting’s attendants became the first charter members of the Council; the organization’s first headquarters was in the offices of Ford’s Theatre in downtown Washington, D. C; the Council pursued the formation of a National Trust for Historic Preservation, somewhat modeled on the British National Trust, which would be tasked with the acquisition and maintenance of historic properties.
The creation of the National Trust was proposed as a bill to Congress, H. R. 5170, introduced by Congressman J. Hardin Peterson of Florida and passed; the National Trust for Historic Preservation was formally established through the Act of Congress when President Harry S. Truman signed the legislation on October 26, 1949; the charter provided that the Trust should acquire and preserve historic sites and objects of national significance and provide annual reports to Congress on its activities. Finley served as the National Trust's first chairman of the board, remaining in the position for 12 years; the National Trust and the National Council existed side by side for several years until the need to merge resources compelled the Executive Committee to integrate the two entities. In 1952, the boards of both organizations approved a merger of the Council into the National Trust; the merger was effective the following year and was completed by 1956. The National Trust became a membership organization and assumed all other functions of the National Council.
In its early years, the National Trust’s founders envisioned an organization whose primary purpose would be the acquisition and administration of historic sites, while encouraging public participation in their preservation. In 1957, the National Trust acquired its first property, Woodlawn Plantation in northern Virginia. Since, the National Trust portfolio of historic properties and contracted affiliates include twenty-seven historic sites, ranging from the 18th-century Drayton Hall in South Carolina to the Modernist Glass House in Connecticut. Over the next decade, the National Trust grew to become the leading national organization in historic preservation, they began working with citizens and city planning officials on legislative matters, including federal and municipal ordinances for historic preservation. National Trust staff traveled to parts of the country to advise local communities on preservation projects. In 1966, Congress passed the National Historic Preservation Act, a significant legislation for the preservation movement.
The Act provided federal funding in support of the National Trust’s work. The fundi
James Maitland Stewart was an American actor and military officer, among the most honored and popular stars in film history. With a career spanning 62 years, Stewart was a major Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer contract player, known for his distinctive drawl and down-to-earth persona, which helped him portray American middle-class men struggling in crisis. Many of the films in which he starred have become enduring classics. Stewart was nominated for five Academy Awards, winning one for The Philadelphia Story, received an Academy Lifetime Achievement award in 1985. In 1999, Stewart was named the third-greatest male screen legend of the Golden Age of Hollywood by the American Film Institute, behind Humphrey Bogart and Cary Grant; the American Film Institute has named five of Stewart's films to its list of the 100 best American films made. He had a noted military career and was a World War II and Vietnam War veteran and pilot, who rose to the rank of Brigadier General in the United States Air Force Reserve, becoming the highest-ranking actor in military history.
In 1985, Stewart was promoted to Major General, reserve list by President Ronald Reagan, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. James Maitland Stewart was born on May 20, 1908, in Indiana, the son of Elizabeth Ruth and Alexander Maitland Stewart, who owned a hardware store. Stewart was raised as a Presbyterian, he was descended from veterans of the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the American Civil War. The eldest of three children, young Jimmy was expected to one day inherit his father's store and continue a business, in the family for three generations, his mother was an excellent pianist. When his father once accepted a gift of an accordion from a guest, Stewart learned to play the instrument, which became a fixture offstage during his acting career; as the family grew, music continued to be an important part of family life. Stewart attended Mercersburg Academy prep school, graduating in 1928, he was active in a variety of activities. He played on the football and track teams, was art editor of the KARUX yearbook, a member of the choir club, glee club, John Marshall Literary Society.
During his first summer break, Stewart returned to his hometown to work as a brick loader for a local construction company and on highway and road construction jobs where he painted lines on the roads. Over the following two summers, he took a job as an assistant with a professional magician, he made his first appearance as Buquet in the play The Wolves. A shy child, Stewart spent much of his after-school time in the basement working on model airplanes, mechanical drawing, chemistry—all with a dream of going into aviation, it was a dream enhanced by the legendary 1927 flight of Charles Lindbergh, whose progress 19-year-old Stewart stricken with scarlet fever, was avidly following from home, foreshadowing his starring movie role as Lindbergh 30 years later. However, he abandoned visions of being a pilot when his father insisted that instead of the United States Naval Academy he attend Princeton University. Stewart enrolled at Princeton in 1928 as a member of the class of 1932, he excelled at studying architecture, so impressing his professors with his thesis on an airport design that he was awarded a scholarship for graduate studies, but he became attracted to the school's drama and music clubs, including the Princeton Triangle Club.
His acting and accordion talents at Princeton led him to be invited to the University Players, an intercollegiate summer stock company in West Falmouth, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod. The company had been organized in 1928 and would run until 1932, with Joshua Logan, Bretaigne Windust and Charles Leatherbee as directors. Stewart performed in bit parts in the Players' productions in Cape Cod during the summer of 1932, after he graduated; the troupe had included Henry Fonda and Margaret Sullavan. Stewart and Fonda became close friends over the summer of 1932 when they shared an apartment with Joshua Logan and Myron McCormick; when Stewart came to New York at the end of the summer stock season, which had included the Broadway tryout of Goodbye Again, he shared an apartment with Fonda, who had by finalized his divorce from Sullavan. Along with fellow University Players Alfred Dalrymple and Myron McCormick, Stewart debuted on Broadway in the brief run of Carry Nation and a few weeks – again with McCormick and Dalrymple – as a chauffeur in the comedy Goodbye Again, in which he had two lines.
The New Yorker commented, "Mr. James Stewart's chauffeur... comes on for three minutes and walks off to a round of spontaneous applause." The play was a moderate success. Many Broadway theaters had been converted to movie houses and the Depression was reaching bottom. "From 1932 through 1934", Stewart recalled, "I'd only worked three months. Every play I got into folded." By 1934, he was given more substantial stage roles, including the modest hit Page Miss Glory and his first dramatic stage role in Sidney Howard's Yellow Jack, which convinced him to continue his acting career. However and Fonda, still roommates, were both struggling. In the fall of 1934, Fonda's success in The Farmer Takes. Stewart attracted the interest of MGM scout Bill Grady who saw Stewart on the opening night of Divided by Three, a glittering première with many luminaries in attendance, including Irving