The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Concours d'Elegance is a term of French origin that means a "competition of elegance" and refers to an event where prestigious vehicles are displayed and judged. It dates back to 17th-century France, where aristocrats paraded horse-drawn carriages in the parks of Paris during summer weekends and holidays. Over time, carriages became horseless and the gatherings became a competition among vehicle owners to be judged on the appearance of their vehicles; these events are held at automobile shows, after racing competitions or in the United States, as a fundraising event for charities. The oldest still-extant Concours, the Concorso d'Eleganza Villa d'Este, is held annually at Villa d’Este in Cernobbio, on Lake Como in Italy; the first of these was held in September 1929. The first Concours in North America was held in 1950 at the Pebble Beach Golf Links in Monterey, California, in conjunction with the first Pebble Beach Road Race; the longest continually-running event is the Hillsborough Concours d’Elegance in California, held every year since 1956.
Numerous local organizations sponsor Concours events. Traditionally, vehicle judging at a Concours is more demanding than that of a neighborhood or general automobile show. Trained judges examine the vehicle thoroughly, they rate every component. Only those vehicles that are judged perfect in every way are considered eligible for trophy class; the competitiveness of a Concours d'Elegance forces restoration of a vehicle to surpass "mint" condition. Mint condition would be the state of the vehicle when it left the factory. Concours-quality cars are given upholstery, paint and mechanical restoration to a standard far exceeding that of the car when it was new. Concours d'Elegance competitions are run for classic cars. Here, the emphasis is as much on originality as the condition, although this is important; the general aim is to present a vehicle, in the same, or better, condition than it was in when it left the production line. Unless original, modifications are not allowed, components must be suitable for the year and model of the automobile.
Components or features fitted to automobiles of the same type, but in a different production year or trim level, are not allowed. Original-equipment accessories from the manufacturers' own range are allowed and some competitions allow after-market equipment and accessories, provided they are of the correct period; the automobiles must be presented in flawless visual condition, as with other Concours-grade cars. Concours d'Elegance quality automobiles are not driven, except for short distances from their trailers to the show fields, they are not intended to be used as daily drivers and are not seen outside of museums or private collections. After driving only the short distance to the show field, the car is'staged'—errant bits of dirt or pebbles removed from the tire treads, bits of grass or mud wiped from the under-carriage; the vehicle is maintained and dusted to keep a flawless appearance while on display. Partial list of some of the Concours. A parody of the Concours d'Elegance concept in general, the Pebble Beach event in particular, is the "Concours d'LeMons".
It was first held in August 2009 in Monterey, not far from Pebble Beach and features "oddball and awful" automobiles in contrast to the prestigious models displayed at Concours d'Elegance events. The event was renamed shortly later; the event is accompanied by the "24 Hours of LeMons"
English Racing Automobiles
English Racing Automobiles was a British racing car manufacturer active from 1933 to 1954. ERA was founded by Humphrey Cook, Raymond Mays, Peter Berthon in November 1933 and established in Bourne, next to Eastgate House, the family home of Raymond Mays between Eastgate road and Spalding road, their ambition was to manufacture and campaign a team of single seater racing cars capable of upholding British prestige in Continental European racing. With the cost of aspiring to full Grand Prix racing prohibitive, they instead aimed ERA's efforts at the smaller voiturette—1500cc supercharged—class of motor racing, the Formula 2 equivalent of the day. Humphrey Cook financed the operation—using the wealth from the family drapery business, Son & Co. of St Paul's Churchyard, London. Berthon was responsible for the overall design of the cars, while Mays became its principal driver—having successfully raced several other makes including Vauxhall and Riley. A new chassis was conceived by British designer Reid Railton and was constructed by Thomson & Taylor at Brooklands.
The engine was based on the well-proven Riley six-cylinder unit, albeit this was modified in a number of significant ways. A stronger forged crankshaft with a large centre Hyatt roller bearing was made and an new aluminium cylinder head designed; the engine was supercharged using a bespoke supercharger designed by Murray Jamieson who had worked with Mays and Berthon on the White Riley. The ERA engine was designed around three capacities—a base 1500cc, an 1100cc and was capable of being expanded up to 2000 cc, it ran on methanol and in its 1500cc form was capable of producing around 180–200 bhp and in excess of 250–275 bhp in 2000cc form. The panel-beating brothers George and Jack Gray hand-fashioned the new car’s single-seater bodywork, to a design credited to a Mr Piercy who had designed the bodywork for Campbell’s'‘Bluebird’' record breaker; the unveiling of the first ERA—chassis R1A—to the press and public took place at Brooklands on 22 May 1934 following testing at Syston Park. After initial chassis handling problems, which required a number of modifications, soon ERA had a winning formula.
By the end of the year ERAs had scored notable victories against many more established marques. In 1935, in a major race at the Nürburgring, ERAs took first, third and fifth places. Through the remainder of the decade, with drivers of the calibre of Dick Seaman in the team, ERA dominated voiturette racing, with the original A-Type design being developed into the B-Type, C-Type and D-Type designs over time. Two Siamese princes, Chula Chakrabongse and Bira Birabongse, whose trio of ERAs became famous as "Hanuman", "Romulus" and "Remus", ran their own team, operating from The White Mouse Garage. Prince Chula owned the team, having bought Romulus as a present for his cousin, Prince Bira, the team's driver; the more modern E-Type ERA appeared just before the Second World War but was not developed. The Second World War brought a halt to motor racing in Europe, the team's Bourne site was sold to the Bus operator Delaine who occupied adjacent premises; the original building is still in use today by Delaine as an office block.
By the time racing resumed in the late 1940s Berthon and Mays had moved on to the British Racing Motors project. ERA restarted operations in Dunstable under new ownership in 1947 when Leslie Johnson bought the company, together with ERA E-Type GP2, the second of two built in 1939, raced by Reg Parnell and Leslie Brooke. Refitted with a Zoller supercharger and driven by Johnson, GP2 tied with Parnell's Maserati 4CLT for fastest lap in the 1948 British Empire Trophy and finished fifth. In the same race GP1, upgraded by the works with Murray Jamieson-designed Roots-type supercharging and driven by Reg Parnell's mechanic Wilkie Wilkinson, retired with a broken connecting rod. After posting the fastest time in the opening practice session for the 1948 British Grand Prix, Johnson retired GP2 from third place on the first lap when a driveshaft universal joint failed. In practice for the Coupe du Salon at Montlhéry he broke the lap record but retired GP2 from the race with a fractured fuel tank after three laps.
In 1949 at Goodwood GP2 broke a back axle universal joint in practice but Johnson took the car to fifth in the Richmond Trophy and third in the Chichester Cup. In the first day's practice for the Jersey International Road Race, he was second-fastest to Luigi Villoresi's record-breaking lap in a Maserati but on the second day the engine bearings failed and the car did not race. At Silverstone's 1950 Grand Prix d'Europe the supercharger disintegrated after two laps. Meanwhile, GP1, driven by Fred Ashmore, failed to finish the 1948 Jersey International Road Race owing to fuel starvation and defective steering. In the 1949 BRDC/Daily Express International Trophy, Peter Walker took GP1 to within 1.2 seconds of Giuseppe Farina's Maserati in practice and finished fifth in the race, despite gearbox and steering problems, a leaking radiator, the exhaust burning the driver's foot. Walker was fastest in practice for Ireland's Wakefield Trophy road race, but a snatching brake forced him down the escape road at the first corner.
Here GP1's race ended when it was hit by an Alta that had collided with Salvadori's Maserati 4CL. In 1950, GP1 was gutted by fire in a crash at the British Empire Trophy race on the Isle of Man, caused by driveshaft failure when the car was at high speed with Walker at the wheel; the 1.5-litre G-Type raced in the 1952 World Championship, the first season to be run under Formula Two rules. The fundamental design was laid down by Robert Eberan-Eberh
Silverstone Circuit is a motor racing circuit in England located next to the Northamptonshire villages of Silverstone and Whittlebury. The circuit straddles the Northamptonshire and Buckinghamshire border, with the current main circuit entry on the Buckinghamshire side; the Northamptonshire towns of Towcester and Brackley and Buckinghamshire town of Buckingham are close by, the nearest large towns are Northampton and Milton Keynes. Silverstone is the current home of the British Grand Prix, which it first hosted in 1948; the 1950 British Grand Prix at Silverstone was the first race in the newly created World Championship of Drivers. The race rotated between Silverstone and Brands Hatch from 1955 to 1986, but relocated permanently to Silverstone in 1987; the circuit hosts the British round of the MotoGP series. On 30 September 2004 British Racing Drivers' Club president Jackie Stewart announced that the British Grand Prix would not be included on the 2005 provisional race calendar and, if it were, would not occur at Silverstone.
However, on 9 December an agreement was reached with Formula One rights holder Bernie Ecclestone ensuring that the track would host the British Grand Prix until 2009 after which Donington Park would become the new host. However, the Donington Park leaseholders suffered economic problems resulting in the BRDC signing a 17-year deal with Ecclestone to hold the British Grand Prix at Silverstone. Silverstone is built on the site of a World War II Royal Air Force bomber station, RAF Silverstone, which opened in 1943; the airfield's three runways, in classic WWII triangle format, lie within the outline of the present track. Silverstone was first used for motorsport by an'ad hoc' group of friends who set up an impromptu race in September 1947. One of their members, Maurice Geoghegan, lived in nearby Silverstone village and was aware that the airfield was deserted, he and eleven other drivers raced over a two-mile circuit, during the course of which Geoghegan himself ran over a sheep that had wandered onto the airfield.
The sheep was killed and the car written off, in the aftermath of this event the informal race became known as the Mutton Grand Prix. The next year the Royal Automobile Club took a lease on the airfield and set out a more formal racing circuit, their first two races were held on the runways themselves, with long straights separated by tight hairpin corners, the track demarcated by hay bales. However, for the 1949 International Trophy meeting, it was decided to switch to the perimeter track; this arrangement was used for the 1951 Grands Prix. In 1952 the start line was moved from the Farm Straight to the straight linking Woodcote and Copse corners, this layout remained unaltered for the following 38 years. For the 1975 meeting a chicane was introduced to try to tame speeds through Woodcote Corner, Bridge Corner was subtly rerouted in 1987; the track underwent a major redesign between the 1990 and 1991 races, transforming the ultra-fast track into a more technical track. The reshaped track's first Formula One race was won by Nigel Mansell in front of his home crowd.
On his victory lap back to the pits Mansell picked up stranded rival Ayrton Senna to give him a lift on his side-pod after his McLaren had run out of fuel on the final lap of the race. Following the deaths of Senna and fellow Grand Prix driver Roland Ratzenberger at Imola in 1994, many Grand Prix circuits were modified in order to reduce speed and increase driver safety; as a consequence of this the entry from Hangar Straight into Stowe Corner was modified in 1995 to make its entry less dangerous. In addition, the flat-out Abbey kink was modified to a chicane in just 19 days ready for the 1994 Grand Prix. Parts of the circuit, such as the starting grid, are 17 metres wide, complying with the latest safety guidelines. After a new pit building, the Silverstone Wing was completed in time for the 2011 British Grand Prix; the start of the track was relocated to between Abbey Corner. Flat out, the right-hander of Abbey leads into the left-hander of Farm before cars brake into the second-gear right-hander Village Corner.
The slower left-hander of the Loop comes after, leads into the flat-out left-hander of Aintree, before cars head down the DRS zone of the Wellington Straight, designed in 2010 to promote overtaking at the track. Turn 6, the left hander of Brooklands, is taken by drivers in second gear and leads into Luffield, another second-gear curve, a right-hand hairpin; the right-handed kink of Woodcote leads cars down the old pit straight, before the difficult sixth-gear right-hander of Copse, with a minimum speed of 175 mph in the dry for Formula One cars. The challenging complex of Maggotts and Chapel – a left–right–left–right–left complex with a minimum speed of 130 mph – leads cars down the 770-metre Hangar Straight with the fifth-gear right-hander of Stowe at the end; the fifteenth turn of the track, has a minimum speed of 125 mph and precedes a short straight, named Vale, which leads cars downhill towards the Club complex. Heavy braking is required for the left-hander of turn 16, understeer can be an issue for the next right-handers of turns 17 and 18, as cars tentatively accelerate round to the start–finish straight.
The fastest lap of the current circuit configuration was 1:25.892 recorded in qualifying for the 2018 British Grand Prix by Lewis Hamilton, while the official race lap record is 1:30.621 set by Lewis Hamilton at the 201
A road rally is a car rally that takes place on the public road. It is a popular sport in the United Kingdom Wales, has traditionally been the core of the "grass roots" of club-based amateur motorsport; however it has declined in popularity since the 1980s and now stage rallies are generally more popular with amateurs. A similar sport is the 12-car rally, which runs to broadly the same rules; the attraction of the sport is that it is cheap to compete, requiring small levels of preparation, is open to a wide degree of abilities. Its disadvantages are that for safety reasons they have to be run in remote areas, late at night. One reason for their decline has been the reduction in areas available for running the events, the increasing burden on organisers to ensure that the rally will not cause a nuisance to any residents affected. There has been a considerable number of rule changes since 1988 designed to reduce vehicle speeds, which has not been a popular development with some competitors. All rallies were once road rallies.
Events started to include a number of "special" stages which were run off-road. In time these special stages started to comprise the majority of events, as rallying became faster and more of a recognised sport, the number of competitive stages run on the public road dropped to zero, thus stage rallying became the main form of rally as recognised by most people today. However, road rallies did not go away, but they became less attractive to commercial interests, so became the amateur sport that still exists today; because of their heritage, in spite of efforts by some lobbyists, the sport remains legal and regulated by the sport's governing body, the Motor Sports Association. Note that some stage rallies are run on the public roads in many places, but the key distinction here is that such roads are closed to the public for the duration of the event. In the UK, closed roads are only available on the Isle of Mull, the Scottish Borders, Northern Ireland. In Ireland and the Isle of Man, roads are closed for sanctioned stage events.
Road Rallies by contrast run competitively on the public road, but these are not closed to the public. Conflict is minimised by using rural roads late at night. In a road rally, competitors compete over a predetermined course against the clock. Cars start at one-minute intervals. There is no direct head-to-head racing, these days the emphasis is much on navigation and teamwork rather than out-and-out speed. In theory, organisers of road rallies design the course so that no rules of the road need to be broken in order to compete, but in practice there is a degree of transgression by competitors. Before 1988 most events specified a "bogey time" for each competitive section, or "selective", in the rallying jargon; this was a time set for the section, that, if achieved, would result in no time penalty being applied. Bogey times were calculated to be impossible, or just possible to achieve, in doing so, would require speeds vastly in excess of the speed limit; the theory was that nobody would achieve these times, so in theory nobody would be breaking the law - and of course the organisers would be able to determine the running order of the finishers.
The problem was that in practice cars had become so developed that bogey times were being achieved, leading to shorter bogey times, higher speeds. Many of the best of the best competitors have now moved on as it no longer became a challenge for the likes of Dale Furniss, Agr Ian Forge, Ian Roberts, Tank Young, Russ Woodley amongst many outers. In the mid-1980s, road rallies were starting to cause a good deal of concern for the police and others, who felt that speeds had become too high. At this time, road rallying was still much based on speed and driving skill with much less emphasis on the navigation than there is today. A variety of proposals were discussed in the motorsport press for a number of years about how to address these concerns while keeping the sport viable; these included a proposed maximum engine capacity limit. In the meantime, cars were being prepared to an ever-greater degree and speeds were rising. Commercial sponsorship was permitted and despite the sport's low profile, many of the top crews did acquire sponsorship.
Police started to monitor events more and in a series of publicised'fact finding' episodes, revealed that some cars had been regularly'clocked' travelling at over 120 mph, in one case, 150 mph on rural country lanes. While the police made no arrests regarding this, they did voice their concerns publicly and insisted that the MSA do something about it. Proponents of the sport argued that the police's case was weak, since in practice accidents were few, where they did occur involved members of the public not involved in the event. Third-party property damage was fully insured under the existing rules. Injuries were uncommon, since most cars featured the same safety devices as prepared stage rally cars. Insurance for competing crews was cheap and easy to obtain, reflecting the good safety record of the sport. In 1988, the rule changes came into force affecting the popularity of the sport, though achieving the police's aims at reducing speeds; these changes included: No signwriting or other "motorsports" decals on the vehicles, except for the organisers' rally plates (t
Hillclimbing is a branch of motorsport in which drivers compete against the clock to complete an uphill course. It is one of the oldest forms of motorsport, since the first known hillclimb at La Turbie near Nice, France took place as long ago as 31 January 1897; the hillclimb held at Shelsley Walsh, in Worcestershire, England is the world's oldest continuously staged motorsport event still staged on its original course, having been first run in 1905. An alternative style of hillclimbing is done with offroad motorcycles going straight up steep hills, with the victor being the motorcycle which can climb the highest, or make it to the top the fastest; the motorsport has a long tradition in the U. S. and has been popular in Austria since the 1980s. The Austrian event in Rachau focused on crowd entertainment, inspired many similar events. Hillclimbs in continental Europe are held on courses which are several kilometres long, taking advantage of the available hills and mountains including the Alps.
The most prestigious competition is the FIA European Hill Climb Championship. An Austrian venue: Gaisberg. An historic course is at Semmering. In the British Isles, the format is different from that in other parts of Europe, with courses being much shorter; the Harewood Hillclimb is mainland Great Britain's longest permanent hillclimb at 1,584 yards. The longest in the UK and Ireland is County Antrim, Northern Ireland at 1.65 miles. These short courses are more akin to uphill sprints – and always take under one minute for the fastest drivers to complete. For this reason and drivers do not cross between the British and continental European championships. Hillclimbing is relevant to motorcycle sport; the French hill climb championship, or Championnat de France de la Montagne, has been one of the most competitive of the European national series, attracting many new F2 and 2-litre sports cars during the 1970s and early 1980s. Notable champions from this period include Pierre Maublanc, Daniel Rouveyran, Hervé Bayard and Jimmy Mieusset.
The best-known Course de Côte are Mont Mont-Dore. Two German venues: Freiburg-Schauinsland, Rossfeld; the fourth International Schauinsland hillclimb at Freiburg was held on August 5, 1928: "A car made the fastest time of the day, Heusser's Bugatti putting up 74.009 km/h, the fastest motorcycle being Stegmann's DKW at 69.6 km/h." Caracciola won the over two-litre racing car class. In the Italian championship known as the Campionato Italiano Velocità Montagna, there are the longest and most challenging hillclimbs like Trento-Bondone, Coppa Bruno Carotti, Pedavena-Croce d'Aune, Monte Erice and Verzegnis-Sella Chianzutan, which are the most known. Hillclimbing in Italy became famous in the 1970s, early 1980s, between 1994 and 2000 and at the end of the 2000s in the last two periods thanks to TV services and live Internet commentaries; the most famous Italian drivers, who won a lot in Europe, are Ludovico Scarfiotti, "Noris", Domenico Scola, Mauro Nesti, Ezio Baribbi, Fabio Danti, Pasquale Irlando, Franz Tschager, Simone Faggioli and Denny Zardo Hillclimbing is a popular sport on the island of Malta.
Numerous events are organised annually by the Island Car Club. Participants are divided according to their type of vehicle into various categories ranging from single seaters to saloon cars. In Romania, the first major event was the Feleac course, in Cluj. From 1930, it was a round in the European Hill Climb Championship. A record of the Feleac was set by famous German racer Hans Stuck in 1938, driving a 600 bhp Auto Union Grand Prix car. Stuck stormed through the 7 km gravel course in 2 min 56 sec. In recent decades, the course was widened in order to be suitable for intense traffic and therefore is considered inappropriate for auto racing; the modern Romanian hillclimbing event is the Viteză în Coastă or Campionatul Național de Viteză pe Traseu Montan. There are several traditional hillclimbing race events in Portugal, its national championship growing in popularity since 2010. Falperra International Hill Climb is the most popular and famous hillclimb, being held since 1927, most of the editions as part of the European Championship.
There are several traditional hillclimbing race events in Slovakia. Some of the best known and most popular include the Pezinská Baba hillclimb race and the Dobšinský Kopec hillclimb race. One of the most well known Slovak drivers competing in local and international hillclimb events is Jozef Béreš. Béreš is very popular on social media networks thanks to the videos of him driving his legendary Audi Quattro S1 racecar. Motor racing was banned in Switzerland in the aftermath of the fatal collision between cars at the 24 Hours of Le Mans race in 1955. However, this prohibition does not extend to events where drivers compete only indirectly via the clock. Events such as rallies and sla
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and run by Henry Luce. A European edition is published in London and covers the Middle East, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong; the South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine; the print edition has a readership of 26 million. In mid-2012, its circulation was over three million, which had lowered to two million by late 2017. Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U. S. State Department. Nancy Gibbs was the managing editor from September 2013 until September 2017, she was succeeded by Edward Felsenthal, Time's digital editor. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.
The two had worked together as chairman and managing editor of the Yale Daily News. They first called the proposed magazine Facts, they wanted to emphasize brevity. They changed the name to Time and used the slogan "Take Time–It's Brief". Hadden was liked to tease Luce, he saw Time as important, but fun, which accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities, the entertainment industry, pop culture—criticized as too light for serious news. It set out to tell the news through people, for many decades, the magazine's cover depicted a single person. More Time has incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over the years. Notable mentions of them were Steve Jobs, etc.. The first issue of Time was published on March 3, 1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives, on its cover. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.
The cover price was 15¢ On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. According to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004 by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc". In his book, The March of Time, 1935–1951, Raymond Fielding noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and general manager of Time publisher of Life, for many years president of Time Inc. and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce". Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy Yale alumni such as Henry P. Davison, partner of J. P. Morgan & Co. publicity man Martin Egan and J. P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce, Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc. using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, the head of the Benjamin Franklin Keith theatre chain in New England.
However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time, Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's second-largest stockholder, according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941. In 1929, Roy Larsen was named a Time Inc. director and vice president. J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were the New York Trust Company; the Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth about $109 million, it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983. The Larsen family's Time stock was worth around $80 million during the 1960s, Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its executive committee serving as Time's vice chairman of the board until the middle of 1979.
According to the September 10, 1979, issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65." After Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by using U. S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It promoted both Time magazine and U. S. political and corporate interests. According to The March of Time, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought Time into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925". In 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time magazine, broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States". Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6, 1931; each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions unaware