1997 Asian financial crisis
The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East and Southeast Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion. The crisis started in Thailand with the financial collapse of the Thai baht after the Thai government was forced to float the baht due to lack of foreign currency to support its currency peg to the U. S. dollar. At the time, Thailand had acquired a burden of foreign debt that made the country bankrupt before the collapse of its currency; as the crisis spread, most of Southeast Asia and Japan saw slumping currencies, devalued stock markets and other asset prices, a precipitous rise in private debt. Indonesia, South Korea, Thailand were the countries most affected by the crisis. Hong Kong, Laos and the Philippines were hurt by the slump. Brunei, Singapore and Vietnam were less affected, although all suffered from a loss of demand and confidence throughout the region. Japan was affected, though less significantly.
Foreign debt-to-GDP ratios rose from 100% to 167% in the four large Association of Southeast Asian Nations economies in 1993–96 shot up beyond 180% during the worst of the crisis. In South Korea, the ratios rose from 13% to 21% and as high as 40%, while the other northern newly industrialized countries fared much better. Only in Thailand and South Korea did. Although most of the governments of Asia had sound fiscal policies, the International Monetary Fund stepped in to initiate a $40 billion program to stabilize the currencies of South Korea and Indonesia, economies hard hit by the crisis; the efforts to stem a global economic crisis did little to stabilize the domestic situation in Indonesia, however. After 30 years in power, Indonesian President Suharto was forced to step down on 21 May 1998 in the wake of widespread rioting that followed sharp price increases caused by a drastic devaluation of the rupiah; the effects of the crisis lingered through 1998. In 1998, growth in the Philippines dropped to zero.
Only Singapore and Taiwan proved insulated from the shock, but both suffered serious hits in passing, the former due to its size and geographical location between Malaysia and Indonesia. By 1999, analysts saw signs that the economies of Asia were beginning to recover. After the crisis, economies in the region worked toward financial stability and better financial supervision; until 1999, Asia attracted half of the total capital inflow into developing countries. The economies of Southeast Asia in particular maintained high interest rates attractive to foreign investors looking for a high rate of return; as a result, the region's economies received a large inflow of money and experienced a dramatic run-up in asset prices. At the same time, the regional economies of Thailand, Indonesia and South Korea experienced high growth rates, of 8–12% GDP, in the late 1980s and early 1990s; this achievement was acclaimed by financial institutions including IMF and World Bank, was known as part of the "Asian economic miracle".
The cause of the debacle are many and disputed. Thailand's economy developed into an economic bubble fueled by hot money. More and more was required as the size of the bubble grew; the same type of situation happened in Malaysia and Indonesia, which had the added complication of what was called "crony capitalism". The short-term capital flow was expensive and highly conditioned for quick profit. Development money went in a uncontrolled manner to certain people only - not the best suited or most efficient, but those closest to the centers of power. In the mid-1990s, Thailand and South Korea had large private current account deficits, the maintenance of fixed exchange rates encouraged external borrowing and led to excessive exposure to foreign exchange risk in both the financial and corporate sectors. In the mid-1990s, a series of external shocks began to change the economic environment; the devaluation of the Chinese renminbi, the Japanese yen due to the Plaza Accord of 1985, the raising of U. S. interest rates which led to a strong U.
S. dollar, the sharp decline in semiconductor prices, all adversely affected their growth. As the U. S. economy recovered from a recession in the early 1990s, the U. S. Federal Reserve Bank under Alan Greenspan began to raise U. S. interest rates to head off inflation. This made the United States a more attractive investment destination relative to Southeast Asia, attracting hot money flows through high short-term interest rates, raised the value of the U. S. dollar. For the Southeast Asian nations which had currencies pegged to the U. S. dollar, the higher U. S. dollar caused their own exports to become more expensive and less competitive in the global markets. At the same time, Southeast Asia's export growth slowed in the spring of 1996, deteriorating their current account position; some economists have advanced the growing exports of China as a factor contributing to ASEAN nations' export growth slowdown, though these economists maintain the main cause of their crises was excessive real estate speculation.
China had begun to compete with other Asian exporters in the 1990s after the implementation of a number of export-oriented reforms. Other economists dispute China's impact, noting that both ASEAN and China experienced simultaneous rapid export growth in the early 1990s. Many economists believe that the Asian crisis was created not by market psychology or technology, but by policies that distorted incentives within the lender–borrower relationship. The
Philippine Basketball Association
The Philippine Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in the Philippines composed of twelve company-branded franchised teams. Founded in 1975, it is the first professional basketball league in Asia and is the second oldest continuously professional basketball league existing in the world after the NBA, established before the "open era" of basketball in 1990 where FIBA allowed longstanding domestic leagues, which had predated the PBA, to become professional; the league's regulations are a hybrid of rules from the NBA and FIBA. The league played its first game at the Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City on April 9, 1975, its main offices are located along Eulogio Rodriguez Jr. Avenue, Eastwood City, Quezon City; the Philippine Basketball Association was founded when nine teams left the now-defunct Manila Industrial and Commercial Athletic Association, controlled by the Basketball Association of the Philippines, the FIBA-recognized national association at the time. With the BAP controlling the MICAA, the league was de jure amateur, as players were only paid allowances.
This is much like what was done in other countries to circumvent the amateur requirement and to play in FIBA-sanctioned tournaments such as the Olympics. MICAA team owners were not pleased with how BAP led by Gonzalo "Lito" Puyat are taking away their players to join the national team without consulting them first; the teams that bolted away from the MICAA are the Carrier Weathermakers, Crispa Redmanizers, Mariwasa-Noritake Porcelainmakers, Presto Ice Cream, Royal Tru-Orange, Seven-Up Uncolas, Tanduay Distillery, Toyota Comets and the U/Tex Weavers. Leopoldo Prieto, the coach for the Philippines at the 1956 Melbourne Olympics, was appointed as the first commissioner and Emerson Coseteng of Mariwasa-Noritake was chosen as the first president of the league's Board of Governors; the first game of the league was held at the Araneta Coliseum on April 9, 1975, featuring Mariwasa-Noritake and Concepcion Carrier. The league's first 10 years was known for the intense rivalry of the Crispa Redmanizers and the Toyota Tamaraws, still considered as one of the greatest rivalries in league history.
Big names such as Robert Jaworski, Ramon Fernandez, Francis Arnaiz, Atoy Co, Bogs Adornado and Philip Cezar played for those squads before the two teams disbanded in 1983 and 1984 respectively. Following their disbandment, the league moved from the Araneta Coliseum to ULTRA in Pasig. There, the league continued to be popular, as several former Toyota and Crispa players suited up for different teams. During the mid to late 80s, Jaworski and Ginebra San Miguel became the league's most popular squad for their "never say die" attitude; the team had intense rivalries with the Tanduay Rhum Masters, led by Jaworski's ex-Toyota teammate-turned-rival Fernandez, the expansion Purefoods Corporation and younger players Alvin Patrimonio, Jerry Codiñera, Jojo Lastimosa and Fernandez. By the end of the 1980s, San Miguel Beer won numerous championships that included the 1989 Grand Slam, led by coach Norman Black and former national team stars Samboy Lim and Hector Calma. In 1989, FIBA voted to allow professionals to play in their sanctioned tournaments, hence the PBA's players are now able to represent the country internationally.
In 1990, the league sent its first all-professional squad to the Asian Games, earning a silver medal. The PBA would send three more all-pro squads to the event; the early 1990s saw Ginebra and Shell forming an intense rivalry that included Ginebra's walkout in 1990 finals against Shell and the team's dramatic comeback from a 3-1 deficit to beat Shell in the 1991 First Conference. Patrimonio, Allan Caidic, a host of others became the league's main attraction. By 1993, the league moved to the Cuneta Astrodome in Pasay and saw the Alaska Milkmen win the 1996 grand slam and nine titles in the decade. From 1999-2000, the PBA endured controversy. Several expatriate cagers arrived on the scene, their lineage was questionable and most of them were deported for falsifying documents. The arrival of dozens of these players was a counter to the fledgling Metropolitan Basketball Association, a regional-based professional league formed in 1998. After ABS-CBN's 2001 abandonment, the MBA would fold within a year.
Despite the MBA's disbandment and the arrival of those players to the PBA, attendance went sour for the PBA in 2002 and was worse the following year. In 2004, the league introduced drastic scheduling changes, when it decided to begin the season in October instead of January; the change in starting the season allowed the league to accommodate international tournaments held from June to September and it fit better with college hoops, the NCAA and the UAAP, whose seasons run from June to October. The league reduced the number of conferences from three to two, renaming the All-Filipino Cup as the Philippine Cup and introducing a new import laden tournament named as the Fiesta Conference. To accommodate these changes, a transitional tournament, the 2004 PBA Fiesta Conference was held from February to July, won by the Barangay Ginebra Kings; the league began to hold the annual All-Star weekend in the provinces, alternating from Luzon and Visayas/Mindanao provinces every year. The league regained some popularity by this year, thanks in large part to Barangay Ginebra's three PBA championships led by Eric Menk, Jayjay Helterbrand and Mark Caguioa.
Solid marketing and arrival of collegiate stars from the UAAP and the NCAA worked in the PBA's favor. By 2005, the league would take on the role of Philippine national representation under Chot Reyes, when FIBA lifted the suspension of the country f
Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation
Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation is a Philippine-based media company and VHF television network of the Government Communications Group under the Presidential Communications Operations Office. IBC, along with sister media companies People's Television Network and Philippine Broadcasting Service, forms the media arm of the PCOO, its studios and broadcast facilities are located at the IBC 13 Compound, Lot 3-B, Capitol Hills Drive cor. Zuzuarregui Street, Barangay Matandang Balara, Quezon City. Inter-Island Broadcasting Corporation was established in October 1959 when DZTV Channel 13 in Manila went its test broadcast. On March 1, 1960 at 6:30pm, DZTV-TV 13 was launched and it became as the third television station in the country, its original location was at the corner of P. Guevarra St. in San Juan City from 1960 to 1978. American businessman Dick Baldwin was the station's first owner and programming consisted of foreign programs from CBS and a few local shows. Andrés Soriano, Sr. of San Miguel Corporation, would acquire the network in 1962.
Soriano was a majority owner of the Radio Mindanao Network and the Philippine Herald newspaper. Soriano's combined media interests formed the first tri-media organization in the Philippines; as the de facto television arm of the RMN, it partnered with the RMN radio stations for coverages of the general elections of 1969 and 1971. The station had relay transmitters to bring its programs to viewers in Cebu and Davao, with plans to open more in other cities. In between 1970 and 1972, IBC launched its color transmission system named "Vinta Color" named after the vintas from Zamboanga, becoming the third network in the Philippines to convert to all-color broadcasts, after ABS-CBN and RPN. In September 1972, then-President Ferdinand Marcos declared a martial law at the entire country, resulting IBC and other television networks was forced to shutdown by the government; however a few months IBC allowed by the government to return on the air. ABS-CBN veteran Ben Aniceto became the station manager of DZTV Channel 13 from 1973 to 1976.
On February 1, 1975, during the martial law era and the dicratorship of Ferdinand Marcos, due to a constitutional limitation prohibiting the ownership of media by non-Filipinos or corporations not 100% Filipino owned, the network was acquired by a Marcos crony named Roberto Benedicto and was renamed Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation. IBC would launch an FM station DWKB-FM the same year. Marking the relaunch, the network debuted its vinta logo. In 1976, IBC metamorphosed into one of the country's most viewed TV network with its primetime lineup and full length local and foreign films aired on this channel; this catapulted IBC in the number one slot among the four rival networks and emphasized itself as the birthplace of the golden age of Philippine television, with many top series headlined by hit stars on radio, TV and film. Among its top-rated shows were a film series of Tarzan that starred Johnny Weissmuller, showbiz talk shows See-True and Seeing Stars hosted by Inday Badiday and Joe Quirino and comedy shows Iskul Bukol, Chicks to Chicks, T.
O. D. A. S.. Through the blood and sweat of its employees and the income generated from its programs, the network built and moved to its present home at the modern Broadcast City, together with its affiliated networks RPN and BBC in July 1978; the complex was a 55,000 square metre tract located at Capitol Hills, Quezon City At the same time, IBC moved its transmitter to San Francisco Del Monte, Quezon City to replace the old transmitter in San Juan. By 1985, however, IBC would become second to RPN, albeit with many great local and foreign programs that were popular among viewers. After the People Power Revolution which ousted the dictator Ferdinand Marcos and install Corazon Aquino as the new president of the Phillippines, IBC, with 20 television stations that time, was sequestered by the Presidential Commission on Good Government for being part of the crony capitalism under the Marcos regime. A board of administrators was created to run the station. All of the stocks and assets of IBC, its sister networks RPN-9 and BBC-2 were sequestered by the Presidential Commission on Good Government.
When it became a state channel a new logo debuted featuring IBC and 13 on separate circles, a revamp of an earlier logo which debuted in 1980. The new slogan "Basta Pinoy sa Trese" was in a circle to commemorate the People Power Revolution. President Corazon Aquino turned over IBC and RPN to the Government Communications Group and awarded BBC through an executive order to ABS-CBN; when BBC closed down, both IBC and RPN absorbed majority of its displaced employees, thus doubled the operating expenses of the network. Cost of programs went up three-fold. Line-produced shows and co-production ventures with some big film companies like Viva and Seiko were favored, aside from their station-produced programs; the top rated shows of IBC were pirated by rival networks, however it scored a victory when it acquired the ABS-CBN program "Loveliness" in 1988, starring Alma Moreno. Cost of programs, talent fees and TV rights increased tremendously. IBC could no longer afford to produce its own shows, save for its news and current affairs programming and special events.
In 1987, IBC was renamed as E13 and adopted a new slogan, "Life Begins" at 13, noted for the butterfly logo in the form of t
PBA on Vintage Sports
The PBA on Vintage Sports was a presentation of Philippine Basketball Association games by Vintage Sports, a sports-oriented media company on Philippine television networks City2 Television from 1982 to 1984, Maharlika Broadcasting System from 1984 to 1995, Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation from 1996 to 1999. In 1982, the PBA awarded the broadcast rights of its games to Vintage Enterprises, Inc. a company owned by Carlos "Bobong" Velez and signed a P5.4 million deal with the league. Games were aired on City2 Television, with the second game of a doubleheader aired live and the first game followed afterwards on a delayed basis. One play-by-play and one analyst was assigned to cover both games. For the first three years of Vintage's coverage, they had Joe Cantada and Pinggoy Pengson as its main anchors with Steve Kattan and Andy Jao as the analysts. Future PBA commissioner Jun Bernardino served as the sideline reporter. Occasional analysts were added in the panel, which includes Freddie Webb, Norman Black and Joaqui Trillo.
Several innovations were added by Vintage to the PBA coverage compared to their predecessor, including the "Man on the Ball" feature, which acts as a sideline reporter, "Inside Basketball", which discusses the basketball fundamentals, "Winner's Profile", a feature segment about the players during their off-the-court activities. They changed the delivery of the panelists by bringing out insights from the action in the game with less emphasis on play-by-play; the orientation of the main camera was changed since the 1983 Open Conference, with the team benches moved at the bottom of the screen. This is to accommodate additional advertisement. Team huddles during timeouts were included since 1984. After the PBA's transfer to The ULTRA in 1985, Ronnie Nathanielsz, Sev Sarmenta and Ed Picson were added as additional play-by-play commentators. Vintage transferred to the Maharlika Broadcasting System as their TV network. In 1987, Vintage started airing PBA doubleheaders live, they assign a different play-by-play commentator for both games, although the analyst will still cover both games.
Beginning in 1988, Romy Kintanar did the halftime features, entitled "Kaypee at the Half". Starting the 1989 All-Filipino Conference, Vintage used a character generator score bug, which replaced the "keyed" score bug used since 1982. A dedicated camera was designated for the game clock so it can be superimposed with the score bug; this was done on a sporadic basis in 1984 and 1986. A CG game clock was used for the 1987 season. After Cantada's death in March 1992, Ed Picson, Sev Sarmenta and Bill Velasco became the main anchors with Quinito Henson, Andy Jao and Butch Maniego as color commentators. Additions were Jimmy Javier and Noli Eala. Starting in 1993, a different game analyst was assigned for doubleheaders. In 1996, Vintage transferred to Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation as part of the launching of Vintage Television, a prime time slot that aired on IBC, they changed the main language in delivering the games, from an all-English format to taglish. Radio commentators such as Chino Trinidad, Rado Dimalibot, Randy Sacdalan were elevated to TV broadcast.
Over the next three seasons, Vintage paid the league a total of over two billion pesos. From 1997 to 1998, the games are aired at ESPN Asia. A different panel were assigned for the ESPN broadcast, which headed by Ronnie Nathanielsz. By 1998, Sarmenta and Maniego left for ABS-CBN Sports to be the main presenters for the network's newly established league, the Metropolitan Basketball Association. Trinidad and Yeng Guiao would become one of the most popular tandems in Vintage Sports. Eala and Picson would tandem with Henson and Jao. Radio commentators Benjie Santiago and Mon Liboro was elevated to the TV coverage. In 1999, Anthony Suntay and Chiqui Roa-Puno, or at times Paolo Trillo, Jannelle So and Dong Alejar became the pregame and halftime hosts for the coverage; the games were aired on Net 25 on a delayed basis. On December 12, 1999, Vintage Sports aired its last PBA game during Game 6 of the 1999 Governor's Cup between the Alaska Milkmen and the San Miguel Beermen were played at the Araneta Coliseum and before merging with Viva TV in 2000.
Ed Picson and Andy Jao were the commentators and the sideline reporters were Ronnie Nathanielsz, Jannelle So and Chiqui Roa-Puno for its last run. In 2000, Vintage Television merged with Viva Television and signed a 770 million pesos deal with 3 years, it defeated the bid of GMA Network, hoping to win the bid to compete with television rival ABS-CBN, who had the television rights to cover the rival league Metropolitan Basketball Association. Vintage Sports used different themes in every season. During their first years covering the league, they incorporate pop music when cutting into a commercial break; the list of their main themes are as follows: 1991 - PBA on Vintage Sports theme 1993 - Pushing The Limit by G. Kavanagh and Hennie Bekker 1996 - Barcelona by John Tesh Philippine Basketball Association PBA on Viva TV List of programs aired by People's Television Network List of programs broadcast by Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation PBA, The First 25 p. 33 PBA 20 Years at the Pictures (
Viva Entertainment Inc. is a Filipino-owned entertainment company based in Quezon City and Pasig City, Philippines. It was founded in 1981 by Vicente "Vic" del Rosario, Jr. Viva Communications Inc. Viva Films Neo Films Falcon Films Viva Television Vintage Television Mega Productions Viva International Pictures Viva Artists Agency Viva Live Halo Halo Radio Halo Halo Radio 105.1 Cebu Halo Halo Radio 97.1 Davao Halo Halo Radio 103.5 Zamboanga Viva Interactive Viva Networks PBO: Pinoy Box Office Viva TV TMC: Tagalized Movie Channel Sari-Sari Channel Joint venture with A+E Networks History H2 Fyi Crime & Investigation Network Lifetime Joint venture with Viacom Comedy Central Joint venture with Blue Ant Media Blue Ant Entertainment Blue Ant Extreme Joint venture with Celestial Tiger Entertainment Celestial Movies Pinoy Viva Sports Viva Sports Management Viva Video, Inc. Viva Video City Viva Music Group Viva Records Vicor Music Verje Music Publishing Harmony Music Publishing Amerasian Recording Studios Viva Publishing Group Viva PSICOM Publishing Corporation - joint venture with the Gabriel family Viva Starmometer Publishing Corporation - joint venture with Edsel Roy VRJ Books Publishing Viva International Food & Restaurants Boteju Paper Moon Cake Boutique Halo Halo Radio is a brand name for Viva's radio stations.
It was launched as Oomph! Radio before the end of 2014 following the acquisition of Ultimate Entertainment and its FM stations, thus it is Viva's new venture into radio broadcasting, its format playlist consisted of international songs. In May 2016, Viva Live dropped the Oomph! Radio brand and went to an independent branding among stations by adding 70s, 80s and 90s music to its playlist, despite retaining its format and the Ultimate Radio name. In July 2016, Viva Live brought back the Oomph! Radio brand and its Top 40/OPM format. In February 2017, the Oomph! Radio brand was dropped permanently due to management decision. In May 2017, Oomph! Radio was relaunched as an all-OPM station. With this launch, Halo Halo Radio became the de facto provincial counterpart of Manila-based Pinas FM 95.5, the country's first all OPM radio station. Viva Video Inc. is the exclusive distributor of video products for local and international studios in the Philippines. Viva Video, Inc. is the home video affiliate of Inc..
Viva Video, Inc. is the home video and DVD distribution arm of Viva Entertainment with the exclusive distributor of video products including films and television series. The company releases titles from the film and television library of VIVA Films, as well as programs from other Viva Entertainment companies, they serve as the distributor for television and/or movie product licensed by Nickeloedeon, Universal Studios Home Entertainment, 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, Cartoon Network, Big Idea Productions, Turner Entertainment Co. Cookie Jar Entertainment, Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment, Nine Network, Summit Entertainment, Lionsgate Home Entertainment, Sesame Workshop, HIT Entertainment, MGA Entertainment internationally for the Philippine market, local products from VIVA Films, APT Entertainment, OctoArts Films, Regal Entertainment, Solar Entertainment, Studio5, GMA Films, FPJ Productions, Pioneer Films and Star Cinema. Viva Video holds licenses for: Local Viva Films APT Entertainment OctoArts Films Regal Entertainment GMA Films Star Cinema Solar Entertainment Studio5 FPJ Productions Pioneer FilmsInternational Cookie Jar Entertainment 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment MGM Home Entertainment, phased out in 2005 as MGM Holdings ABC MGA Entertainment Summit Entertainment Lionsgate Home Entertainment Syndicate Films Emperor Motion Pictures Lakeshore Entertainment Mandate Pictures Icon Entertainment Bauer Martinez Inferno Distribution Cineclick Asia Cinema Service Miro Vision Skyfilms Nick Jr. Nickelodeon Nine Network HIT Entertainment Big Idea Productions Sesame Workshop Cartoon Network Turner Entertainment Universal Studios Home Entertainment Playboy Home Entertainment Viva Video City is the video retail affiliate of Viva Video, the home video unit of Viva Entertainment, Inc.
Viva PSICOM Publishing Corporation is a publishing company jointly owned by Viva Entertainment and the Gabriel family. It was founded in 1990 by Arnel Jose Gabriel as a small desktop publisher, which evolved into publishing the first Filipino wholly owned trade newspaper, the now-defunct Philippine IT Update; the company known as PSICOM, rose to fame through the Diary ng Panget tetralogy authored by HaveYouSeenThisGirL. In August 2013, Viva Entertainment acquired 50% of the company stocks, it was renamed as Viva-Psicom. Magazines OtakuZine Otak
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds; the result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, or resigns by throwing in a towel. If a fight completes all of its allocated rounds, the victor is determined by judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, professional bouts are considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, because a winner must be declared, judges award the content to one fighter on technical criteria. While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Near East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.
The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules; the earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Iraq from the 3rd millennium BC. Depictions from the 2nd millennium BC are found in reliefs from the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, in Hittite art from Asia Minor. A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes shows both spectators; these early Middle-Eastern and Egyptian depictions showed contests where fighters were either bare-fisted or had a band supporting the wrist. The earliest evidence of fist fighting with the use of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete. Various types of boxing existed in ancient India; the earliest references to musti-yuddha come from classical Vedic epics such as the Ramayana and Rig Veda.
The Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts. Duels were fought to the death. During the period of the Western Satraps, the ruler Rudradaman - in addition to being well-versed in "the great sciences" which included Indian classical music, Sanskrit grammar, logic - was said to be an excellent horseman, elephant rider and boxer; the Gurbilas Shemi, an 18th-century Sikh text, gives numerous references to musti-yuddha. In Ancient Greece boxing was enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC; the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands. There were no boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue. Weight categories were not used; the style of boxing practiced featured an advanced left leg stance, with the left arm semi-extended as a guard, in addition to being used for striking, with the right arm drawn back ready to strike.
It was the head of the opponent, targeted, there is little evidence to suggest that targeting the body was common. Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. Harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon; the Romans introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres; the Roman form of boxing was a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However in times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, their lives were not given up without due consideration. Slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor; this is. In AD 393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality, it was not until the late 16th century. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again and interest in fighting with the fists waned.
However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or "Fist Fighting"; as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting; the first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719. This is the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used; this earliest form of modern boxing was different. Contests in Mr. Figg's time, in addition to fist fighting contained fencing and cudgeling. On 6 January 1681, the first recorded boxing match took place in Britain when Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle engineered a bout between his butler and his butcher with the latter winning the prize.
Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, no referee. In general, it was chaotic. An early article on boxing was published i
Radio Philippines Network
Radio Philippines Network, Inc. is a Filipino-based media company co-owned by Government Communications Group under the Presidential Communications Operations Office, Nine Media Corporation, Far East Managers and Investors Inc. and several private stockholders. The network's main offices and transmitter are located at Brgy. South Triangle, Quezon City. Founded by Roberto Benedicto and prior to the privatization, it was the sister station of current government owned and controlled Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation. RPN, along with sister media companies People's Television Network and Philippine Broadcasting Service, forms the media arm of the PCOO. Radio Philippines Network operates television stations with airtime being leased by its parent Nine Media, serving as primary broadcasters of CNN Philippines, a local franchise of the Cable News Network. RPN operates regional AM radio stations under the brand Radyo Ronda, serving as partial affiliate of sister station DWIZ in Metro Manila.
The Congress of the Philippines approved the franchise of Radio Philippines Network on June 29, 1960. Instead of using its franchise name, the network instead first used Kanlaon Broadcasting System as its initial branding. Kanlaon is a volcano on the Philippine island of Negros, the home of its founder Roberto Benedicto. Kanlaon Broadcasting System started broadcasting as a radio network with its first station DZBI in Manila. By 1967, KBS had metamorphosed into a full network, with seven radio stations all over the country namely, DZRR and DZAX in Manila, DZAH and DZBS in Baguio, DZTG in Tuguegarao, DZRL in Laoag, DXDX in Didiangas. Philippine radio veteran Ben Aniceto was the operations director at the time; the broadcast network ventured into television broadcasting on October 15, 1969 with the launch of KBS-9 Manila as the network's flagship TV station. KBS-12 Baguio signed on the air on the same year. Properties and funding for the nascent TV network came from ABS-CBN in the form of its old headquarters along Roxas Boulevard and equipment from Toshiba enabling them to broadcast in color.
As a result, on its launch it was branded Accucolor 9 - an RPN station as the first Philippine television network to launch in full color. In 1970, KBS acquired a Color-ready Outside Broadcast Van for the remote broadcasts of major news events and sports coverages, it was in the same year when KBS pioneered newscasting on television as they launched the first newspaper-format nightly newscast titled NewsWatch. Back broadcast hours were limited to late afternoons up to around midnight. In 1971, KBS established as an all-color television network, consisting of four full powered provincial stations, strategically situated in Baguio, Bicol and Cebu, alongside the flagship station in Manila, with plans to expand southward into Mindanao at that time. On September 1972, the KBS television and radio stations, its sister publication Daily Express under the Benedicto group were allowed to operate during the martial law period, where most of the media outfits were closed down. Color production with color-ready equipment would enable the government to invest in RPN for color coverages of national events, as state network GTV, which began two years after the beginning of martial law, was monochrome before its first color broadcasts in 1976.
In 1975, KBS formally relaunched as RPN, the acronym for its franchise name, Radio Philippines Network. The network covered special events such as the Olympic Games, Thrilla in Manila in 1975. RPN became the birthplace and the first humble abode of the now longest running daytime variety show Eat Bulaga!. The network pioneered the use of computer graphics for their program plugs and station IDs, as well as for the broadcasts of its recognizable digital clock embedded on the lower left part of the screen during the entire broadcast day except for newscasts, continuity plugs, station ID, during sign-off. RPN aired anime programming and imported and syndicated programs from the United States. RPN-9 is the first network to cover the Philippine Basketball Association games live in 1976, before the broadcasts moved on to BBC-2. Around 1982, RPN-9 began to broadcast primetime programs and Eat Bulaga! through its new domestic satellite technology