High Fidelity (film)
High Fidelity is a 2000 American romantic comedy-drama film directed by Stephen Frears. It stars John Cusack, Iben Hjejle, Jack Black, Todd Louiso, Lisa Bonet; the film is based on the 1995 British novel of the same name by Nick Hornby, with the setting moved from London to Chicago and the name of the lead character changed. After seeing the film, Hornby expressed his happiness with Cusack's performance, saying that "at times, it appears to be a film in which John Cusack reads my book". Rob Gordon is a self-confessed music loving everyman with a poor understanding of women, he is dumped by his latest girlfriend and attempts to understand what is the failure in his relationships by seeking out old partners. By day, he holds court at Championship Vinyl, where customers drift through, his helping hands with musical elitism, are Dick and Barry, the "musical moron twins". Armed with an encyclopedic knowledge of all things musical, they compile "top five" lists for every conceivable occasion mock the tastes of their customers and sell a few records.
Two shoplifting skateboarder teenagers and Justin, are bothers to them until Rob listens to a recording that they made as The Kinky Wizards. He offers them a record deal to start off his own label called Top 5 Records. During his off hours, he does his best to win her back. Rob soon hears that Laura's father, who liked Rob, has died, attends his funeral with her. Shortly after the reception, Rob realizes he has always had one-foot out-of-the-door and never committed to her, he realizes by doing. They resume cohabitation, he meets a music columnist and a crush develops, but he wonders while making a mixtape for her if he will always just be jumping from rock to rock. He explains to her how other men and women are just fantasies, Laura is a reality, he never tires of her, he proposes marriage. She organizes, it is a celebration of the released single by the two delinquents, where Barry's band and Sonic Death Monkey plays "Let's Get It On". Surprised that Barry's band is not a disaster, Rob holds Laura, they both sway to the music.
Rob makes a mixtape for Laura, feeling that he has learned how to make her happy. Nick Hornby's book was optioned by Disney's Touchstone Pictures in 1995 where it went into development for three years. Disney executive Joe Roth had a conversation with recording executive Kathy Nelson who recommended John Cusack and his writing and producing partners D. V. DeVincentis and Steve Pink adapt the book, she had worked with them on Grosse Pointe Blank and felt that they had the right sensibilities for the material. According to Cusack, DeVincentis is the closest to the record-obsessive characters in the film, owning 1,000 vinyl records and thousands of CDs and tapes, they wrote a treatment, greenlit by Roth. The writers decided to change the book's setting from London to Chicago because they were more familiar with the city and it had a "great alternative music scene", according to Pink. Cusack said, "I knew where everything was in Chicago. I knew where he used to spin records. I knew two or three different record shops when I was growing up that had a Rob, a Dick and a Barry in them".
Charlotte Tudor, of the film's distributor, Buena Vista, said: "Chicago has the same feel as north London, there is a vibrant music scene, a lot of the action is set in smoky bars and, of course, there is the climate. But everyone, including Nick, felt, it has a universal appeal". Scenes were filmed in the neighborhood of Wicker Park, on the campus of Lane Tech High School. Cusack found that the greatest challenge adapting the novel was pulling off Rob Gordon's frequent breaking of the fourth wall and talking directly to the audience; the screenwriters did this to convey Rob's inner confessional thoughts and were influenced by a similar technique in the Michael Caine film, Alfie. Cusack rejected this approach because he thought that "there'd just be too much of me". Once director Stephen Frears signed on to direct, he suggested using this technique and everyone agreed to use it. Cusack and the writers floated the idea that Rob could have a conversation with Bruce Springsteen in his head, inspired by a reference in Hornby's book where the narrator wishes he could handle his past girlfriends as well as Springsteen does in his song, "Bobby Jean" on Born in the U.
S. A, they never believed they would get the musician to appear in the film, but thought putting him in the script would get the studio excited about it. Cusack knew Springsteen and called the musician up and pitched the idea. Springsteen afterwards agreed to do it. Frears was at the Berlin International Film Festival and saw Mifune's Last Song, starring Iben Hjejle, realized that he had found the actress for the role. Frears read Hornby's book and enjoyed it but did not connect with the material because it was not about his generation, he accepted the job because he wanted to work with Cusack again and liked the idea of changing the setting from London to Chicago. The director was responsible for insisting on keeping Jack Black on as Barry. Frears has said. One of the challenges that the screenwriters faced was figuring out which songs would go where in the film because Rob and Barry "are such musical snobs," according to Cusack, he and his screenwriting partners picked 70 song cues. High Fidelity premie
A record shop or record store is a retail outlet that sells recorded music. In the late 19th century and the early 20th century, record shops only sold gramophone records, but over the 20th century, record shops sold the new formats that were developed, such as eight track tapes, compact cassettes and compact discs. Today in the 21st century, record stores sell CDs, vinyl records and in some cases, DVDs of movies, TV shows and concerts; some record stores sell music-related items such as posters of bands or singers and clothing and items such as bags and coffee mugs. In the heyday of the CD during the 1990s, people in English-speaking countries still used the term "record shop" to describe a shop selling sound recordings such as CDs. Now that vinyl records have had a resurgence in the 21st century generating more income than CDs, the name has come full circle and is relevant once more. Prior to the 2000s, more record shops were run, independent businesses, meaning that prices could differ from town to town and store to store.
In the 2000s, record shops are chain-owned and thus prices are similar in different towns. In the United Kingdom the national chain style of selling records and tapes developed with Our Price, itself a small independent business founded in the early 1970s that expanded nationwide. Current major chains around the world include HMV, Rough Trade, Virgin Megastores, Tower Records, FYE, Sam Goody, Velvet Music, Sunrise Records, Amoeba Music and Rasputin Music; the enormous increase in sales of vinyl records in the 2000s has provided an opportunity for growth in some sectors. The flagship HMV store at 363 Oxford Street in London, for example, has a whole department for new vinyl LPs and singles. According to a recent study, England has the highest number of record stores per 100,000 residents in the world. Spillers Records in Cardiff, founded in 1894 by Henry Spiller, is reputed to be the oldest record shop in the world, it specialised in the sale of phonographs and shellac discs. Shellac and vinyl records were popular right up to the 1990s when CDs became the most popular form of recorded music.
Soon, mail order and internet selling caused prices to fall, with the advent of downloads and streaming, many record shops were forced to close. The renaissance of Vinyl records has however increased income for record shops, indeed many new record shops and chains of record shops have opened. Major chains in the UK and North America that have closed in recent years are Our Price, The Wherehouse, Andys Records and Video Club and Media Play. HMV have closed all stores in North America and Ireland, although still present in the UK. Virgin Records have closed all stores in North America and Europe. Tower Records has closed all stores in North America. Rough Trade is, however expanding, with two shops in London, one in Cambridge, one Megastore in New York and plans to further expand. Current record shop chains in Europe are now HMV, Tower Records, Free Record shop, Velvet Music and Golden Discs. Record shop chains still present in North America include Sunrise Records, FYE, Sam Goody and Rough Trade.
Outside of Europe and North America, the current record store chains include Virgin Megastores, HMV and Tower Records. HMV in Oxford Street, England claims to be the world's largest record shop; the store was opened in 1921 by the composer Sir Edward Elgar and has four floors of CDs, LPs, singles and DVDs. During the ‘60s, the in-store recording studio was used by Brian Epstein to record The Beatles first demo Read more at http://www.nme.com/blogs/nme-blogs/london-record-stores-a-comprehensive-guide-4666#bDujywzc7QRhJjjY.99The revamped store was reopened in 2013 attended by many of the world's biggest stars including Paul McCartney, Robbie Williams and Elton John. The largest record shop in Ireland is Tower Records in Dublin, the largest in Asia is Tower Records, Shibuya Tokio, the largest in the USA is Amoeba Records in Los Angeles; the largest record shop in the Nordic countries is Bengans in Goteborg, which opened in 1974. In some countries, electronics stores and department store chains have large, comprehensive CD departments which now sell vinyl records.
These include Corte Inglés. Saturn in Cologne, Germany claims to now have the world's largest selection of records; the world's largest store selling records, CDs and other related and non-related products is Saturn in Hamburg, Germany. This former department store is the world's largest electronic retailer with 6 floors selling consumer products related to music and electric appliances including record players. Record stores played a vital role in African American communities for many decades. In the 1960s and 1970s, between 500 and 1,000 black-owned record stores operated in the American South, twice as many in the United States as a whole. African American entrepreneurs embraced record stores as key vehicles for economic empowerment and critical public spaces for black consumers at a time that many black-owned businesses were closing amid desegregation. In addition to shops that sell new products, many record shops specialize in second hand, vintage or used collectible records, which they purchase from the public or other dealers, sell for a profit.
Some used record stores sell used CDs and DVD movies. It is not uncommon for such shops to contain several items priced in the hundreds or thousands of US dollars due to their rarity, as well as items that are common for much less; this ty
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl
The Delmar Loop referred to by St. Louis residents as The Loop, is an entertainment and restaurant district in University City and the adjoining western edge of St. Louis, Missouri. Many of its attractions are located in the streetcar suburb of University City, but the area is expanding eastward into the Skinker-Debaliviere Neighborhood of the City of St. Louis. In 2007, the American Planning Association named the Delmar Loop "One of the 10 Great Streets in America." The area gets its name from a streetcar turnaround, or "loop" located in the area. Delmar Boulevard was known as Morgan Street. According to Norbury L. Wayman in his circa 1980 series History of St. Louis Neighborhoods, the name Delmar was coined when two early landowners living on opposite sides of the road, one from Delaware and one from Maryland, combined the names of their home states; the town of Delmar, Delaware, on the border between the two states, derived its name in similar fashion. The MetroLink light rail transit station is at the east side of the area.
The Loop Trolley, a 2.2-mile trolley line from The Loop to the Missouri History Museum in Forest Park, opened in November 2018 and is operated with replicas of vintage streetcars. The western demarcation of the Loop is considered to be the U. City Lions, sculptures of a male lion and a female lion on pedestals flanking Delmar west of the University City City Hall. West of the lions, Delmar becomes residential; the eastern boundary of the Loop traditionally was the St. Louis City border, punctuated by The Delmar Lounge at the corner of Delmar and Eastgate, but the area began expanding into the city proper around 2000; this expansion has been due to the redevelopment efforts of Joe and Linda Edwards, owners of Blueberry Hill, The Pageant, Pin-Up Bowl, the Tivoli Theater, the Moonrise Hotel, Eclipse Restaurant. The Saint Louis Regional Arts Commission completed its new headquarters on Delmar in 2003, creating performance and office spaces for theater groups; the Pageant, located across Delmar from the Arts Commission, has become one of St. Louis's main venues for mid-size popular musical performances, featuring rap and country artists, including Saint Louisans Chuck Berry and Nelly.
The Loop attracts an eclectic clientele and wide variety of street life, due in part to its proximity to Washington University and dating back to the late 1960s when Streetside Records and head shops dominated the retail landscape. Although the Loop is the natural "college town" area for nearby Washington University, few of the retail establishments and restaurants are supported by college students. Major Loop institutions include: The Pageant music venue Riverfront Times newspaper Tivoli Theater University City City Hall University City Public Library Blueberry Hill pub and restaurant Fitz's Restaurant and Bottling CompanySome companies, such as Answers.com and Integrity have their headquarters in the Delmar Loop. Other establishments on the Loop include the 560 Music Center, COCA Center for Creative Arts, Craft Alliance Center of Art + Design, Moonrise Hotel, Subterranean Books, Vintage Vinyl record store; the Loop is home to many local restaurants including Al-Tarboush deli, Peacock Loop Diner, Blueprint Coffee, Cicero's Italian Restaurant, Corner 17 Chinese Restaurant, Gokul Indian Restaurant, Gyro House, Meshuggah Cafe, Mission Taco, Three Kings Public House, Seoul Taco Korean Tacos, Piccione Pastry, Ranoush Mediterranean Cuisine, Snarf's Sandwiches, four Thai restaurants owned by Pat's Thai Restaurants.
The Loop is the home of the St. Louis Walk of Fame, a series of brass plaques embedded in the sidewalk along Delmar Boulevard commemorating famous St. Louisans, including musicians Chuck Berry, Miles Davis and Tina Turner, actor John Goodman, bridge-builder James Eads and sexologists Masters and Johnson; the Loop Trolley is a 2.2-mile fixed-track heritage trolley line in the Loop, which links the area with MetroLink and Forest Park attractions, a project that received a $24.9 million grant from the Federal Transit Administration. The Trolley began service on November 16, 2018, in the city of St. Louis and one week on its University City section in the Loop. During the 1950s, the Loop was the meeting place for U. City's teenagers; the Varsity Theater and the Tivoli showed first-run movies. Ed's Billiards, located between the two theaters was always full of teenagers. There were restaurants down the Loop area. Enright Avenue, part of the streetcar turnaround, had a drug store and three restaurants plus a record store.
There was another drug store on the corner of Kingsland. Both drugstores had soda fountains. Delmar at Skinker wasn't considered part of the Loop but had a Garaveli's Restaurant and a well known nightclub Davy "Nose" Bold's across from it; the video for the song "Air Force Ones", by rapper Nelly was filmed in the Delmar Loop. Nelly's hit references the Loop extensively. Streetcars in St. Louis Delmar Loop home page A blog/critique of certain aspects of the Loop, with photos Loop Trolley home page
Regina is the capital city of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The city is the second-largest in the province, after Saskatoon, a cultural and commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan, it is governed by Regina City Council. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Sherwood No. 159. Regina was the seat of government of the North-West Territories, of which the current provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta formed part, of the District of Assiniboia; the site was called Wascana, but was renamed to Regina in 1882 in honour of Queen Victoria. This decision was made by Queen Victoria's daughter Princess Louise, the wife of the Governor General of Canada, the Marquess of Lorne. Unlike other planned cities in the Canadian West, on its treeless flat plain Regina has few topographical features other than the small spring run-off, Wascana Creek. Early planners took advantage of such opportunity by damming the creek to create a decorative lake to the south of the central business district with a dam a block and a half west of the elaborate 260-metre long Albert Street Bridge across the new lake.
Regina's importance was further secured when the new province of Saskatchewan designated the city its capital in 1906. Wascana Centre, created around the focal point of Wascana Lake, remains one of Regina's attractions and contains the Provincial Legislative Building, both campuses of the University of Regina, First Nations University of Canada, the provincial museum of natural history, the Regina Conservatory, the Saskatchewan Science Centre, the MacKenzie Art Gallery and the Saskatchewan Centre of the Arts. Residential neighbourhoods include precincts beyond the historic city centre are or noteworthy neighbourhoods – namely Lakeview and The Crescents, both of which lie directly south of downtown. To the north of the central business district is the old warehouse district the focus of shopping and residential development. In 1912, the Regina Cyclone destroyed much of the town; the CCF, formulated its foundation Regina Manifesto of 1933 in Regina. In recent years, Saskatchewan's agricultural and mineral resources have come into new demand, it has entered a new period of strong economic growth.
The population of the Regina CMA as of 2016, was 236,481, growing 12% since 2011 according to Statistics Canada. Regina was established as the territorial seat of government in 1882 when Edgar Dewdney, the lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories, insisted on the site over the better developed Battleford and Fort Qu'Appelle; these communities were considered better locations for what was anticipated would be a metropole for the Canadian plains. These locations resided on treed rolling parklands. "Pile-of-Bones," as the site for Regina was called, was by contrast located in arid and featureless grassland. Lieutenant-Governor Dewdney had acquired land adjacent to the route of the future CPR line at Pile-of-Bones, distinguished only by collections of bison bones near a small spring run-off creek, some few kilometres downstream from its origin in the midst of what are now wheat fields. There was an "obvious conflict of interest" in Dewdney's choosing the site of Pile-of-Bones as the territorial seat of government and it was a national scandal at the time.
But until 1897, when responsible government was accomplished in the Territories, the lieutenant-governor and council governed by fiat and there was little legitimate means of challenging such decisions outside the federal capital of Ottawa. There, the Territories were remote and of little concern. Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, wife of the Governor General of Canada, named the new community Regina, in honour of her mother, Queen Victoria. Commercial considerations prevailed and the town's authentic development soon began as a collection of wooden shanties and tent shacks clustered around the site designated by the CPR for its future station, some two miles to the east of where Dewdney had reserved substantial landholdings for himself and where he sited the Territorial Government House. Regina attained national prominence in 1885 during the North-West Rebellion when troops were able to be transported by train on the CPR from eastern Canada as far as Qu'Appelle Station, before marching to the battlefield in the further Northwest – Qu'Appelle having been the major debarkation and distribution centre until 1890 when the completion of the Qu’Appelle, Long Lake, Saskatchewan Railway linked Regina with Saskatoon and Prince Albert.
Subsequently, the rebellion's leader, Louis Riel, was tried and hanged in Regina – giving the infant community increased and, at the time, not unwelcome national attention in connection with a figure, at the time considered an unalloyed villain in anglophone Canada. The episode, including Riel's imprisonment and execution, brought the new Regina Leader the "Leader-Post," to national prominence. Regina was incorporated as a city on 19 June 1903, with the MLA who introduced the charter bill, James Hawkes, declaring, "Regina has the brightest future before it of any place in the
St. Louis is an independent city and major inland port in the U. S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois; the Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world; the city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the 22nd-largest in the United States. Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture; the city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, named after Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
During the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River, it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Summer Olympics; the economy of metropolitan St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, tourism, its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Boeing Defense, Energizer, Enterprise, Peabody Energy, Post Holdings, Edward Jones, Go Jet and Sigma-Aldrich. Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area; this city has become known for its growing medical and research presence due to institutions such as Washington University in St. Louis and Barnes-Jewish Hospital. St. Louis has two professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. One of the city's iconic sights is the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in the downtown area.
The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River, their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City"; these mounds were demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, the Illiniwek. European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane; the earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
Genevieve in the 1730s. In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis; the early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic workers in the city. France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after the losing New France to them in 1759–60, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; these areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis; the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River.
Before Laclede had been a successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area. Although they were only granted rights to set-up a trading post and other members of his expedition set up a settlement; some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau in New Orleans. Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by Auguste Chouteau; some historians still debate. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire. For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, thus St. Louis had no local government; this led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, all problems were disposed i