Jazz dance is the performance dance technique and style that emerged in America in the early twentieth century. Jazz dance may refer to vernacular Broadway or theatrical jazz. Both genres build on the African American vernacular style of dancing. Vernacular jazz dance includes ragtime dances, Lindy hop, mambo. Popular vernacular jazz dance performers include The Whitman Sisters, Florence Mills, Ethel Waters, Al & Leon, Frankie Manning, Norma Miller, Dawn Hampton, Katherine Dunham. Theatrical jazz dance performed on concert stage was popularized by Jack Cole, Bob Fosse, Eugene Louis Faccuito, Gus Giordano; the term "jazz dance" has been used in ways. Since the 1940s, Hollywood movies and Broadway shows have used the term to describe the choreography of Bob Fosse and Jerome Robbins. In the 1990s, colleges and universities applied to the term to classes offered by physical education departments in which students dance to various forms of pop music jazz; the origin of jazz dance can be traced to African ritual and celebratory dances from around the seventeenth century.
These dances emphasized improvisation. From the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, the transatlantic slave trade brought ten million enslaved Africans to the Americas. By 1817 in New Orleans, city laws "restricted gatherings of enslaved people to Sunday afternoons in Congo Square, known as Place Publique". In 1917, jazz pianist Spencer Williams wrote a song called "Shim-Me-Sha-Wabble" which inspired a jazz dance called the shimmy; the shimmy is done by holding the body still "except for the shoulders, which are alternated back and forth". The dances that emerged during this period were the Lindy hop; the Charleston is "characterized by its toes-in, heels-out twisting steps". It can be done with any number of people; the Lindy hop was a wild and spontaneous partner dance, rhythmically conscious. When the Great Depression began in October of 1929, many people turned to dance; because of this, the Charleston and the Lindy hop are now considered to be under the umbrella term "swing dance" because they were most popular during the swing era of music.
Jacqui Malone distinguishes between dances such as the Lindy hop in the 1930s and Bob Fosse's choreography in a Broadway musical such as Chicago in the 1970s, though the term "jazz dance" has been applied to both. She uses terms such as "vernacular dance" and "classic jazz dance" to refer to the former. Referring to the latter, she follows Marshall and Jean Sterns in using the term "modern jazz dance"; the Stearns drew attention to Shuffle Along, an all-black Broadway revue with Josephine Baker that started in 1921 and toured American cities for two years. Buddy Bradley choreographed black musicals in 1920s and 1930s and with Jack Cole, who choreographed the movies Kismet and Gentleman Prefer Blondes. Cole influenced. Gwen Verdon was a student of Cole, she danced in the musical Chicago in 1975. Twenty years Chicago was revived on Broadway, Ann Reinking repeated some of the Fosse style; this style of jazz dance has been linked with Gower Champion, Michael Kidd, Jerome Robbins. The emphasis on sexuality in this kind of dancing led Martha Graham to say it belongs to the "House of Pelvic Truth".
White choreographers on Broadway began using vernacular jazz movements as early as 1913, setting the choreography in all or white casts shows. In 1913, Florenz Ziegfeld Jr. of the Ziegfeld Follies purchased the finale to The Darktown Follies, a show choreographed and performed by an all African American cast and made it the finale of this show opening on the New Amsterdam Theater. In the 1920s and 30s African American women who starred in the musical stages revues of New York further popularized jazz dance vocabulary, as well as radical images of free, satirical, gender-bending female independence. Eugene Louis Faccuito created the Luigi Technique consisting of "highly stylized, continuously flowing movements that developed the technique and style for the combinations that followed". Cole's style has been called hip and cool". Fosse combined "vaudeville, magic shows, nightclubs and Broadway musicals". Contemporary jazz became well known because of shows. Mia Michaels's earlier work exemplifies this style.
Some other companies and choreographers that create contemporary jazz dance are Sonya Tayeh, Mandy Moore, Hubbard Street Dance Chicago. Commercial jazz, popular since the 1980s, combines aspects of hip hop and jazz and is done to pop music; this style can be seen in the music videos of Paula Abdul. Commercial jazz includes more "tricks." Commercial jazz and contemporary jazz are both seen at dance competitions. Another variety of jazz is Latin jazz. "Maria Torres developed and popularized the fusion at Broadway Dance Center". Latin jazz has an emphasis on the movement of isolations, it can be seen in the films El Dance with Me, as well as on TV dance shows. Jack Cole influenced Matt Mattox, Bob Fosse, Jerome Robbins, Gwen Verdon, Duplicate word removedis credited with popularizing the theatrical form of jazz dance with his great number of choreographic works on television and Broadway. Katherine Dunham is an anthropologist and pioneer in black theatrical dance who introduced isolations jazz dance.
Eugene Louis Faccuito known as Luigi, was an American jazz dancer, teacherm choreographer, creator of the first codified jazz technique, the Luigi Technique. Bob Fosse and film director, revo
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy to educate Congregational ministers, it moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Its faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools.
While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven and forest and nature preserves throughout New England; the university's assets include an endowment valued at $29.4 billion as of October 2018, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in the world. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. All members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.
As of October 2018, 61 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents, 19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U. S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the university. Its wealth and influence have led to Yale being reported as amoungst the most prestigious universities in the United States. Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701, while meeting in New Haven; the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, Rev. James Noyes II, James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell in Branford, Connecticut, to pool their books to form the school's library.
The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as "The Founders". Known as the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth; the school moved to Saybrook and Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to Connecticut. Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as liberal, ecclesiastically lax, overly broad in Church polity; the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony's Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu "Eli" Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in Madras as a representative of the East India Company, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time.
Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to "Yale College".. Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale; the 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science and theology. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke's works and developed his original theology known as the "new divinity". In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians and joined the Church of England, they were returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and struggled to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, but he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library. Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the peri
Breaking called breakdancing or b-boying/b-girling, is an athletic style of street dance. While diverse in the amount of variation available in the dance, breakdancing consists of four kinds of movement: toprock, power moves and freezes. Breakdancing is set to songs containing drum breaks in hip-hop, soul music and breakbeat music, although modern trends allow for much wider varieties of music along certain ranges of tempo and beat patterns. Breaking was created by African American youth during early 1970s; the earliest breakdancing groups included the "Zulu Kings" and "Clark Kent". By the late seventies, the dance had begun to spread to other communities and was gaining wider popularity. A practitioner of this dance is called b-girl, or breaker. Although the term "breakdance" is used to refer to the dance in popular culture and in the mainstream entertainment industry, "b-boying" and "breaking" are the original terms and are preferred by the majority of the pioneers and most notable practitioners.
Instead of the original term b-boying, the mainstream media promoted the art-form as breakdancing, by which it came to be known. Some enthusiasts consider "breakdancing" an ignorant and derogatory term due to the media’s exploitation of the artform; the media displayed a simplified version of the dance, making it seem like the so-called "tricks" were everything trading the culture for money and promotion. The term "breakdancing" is problematic because it has become a diluted umbrella term that includes popping and electric boogaloo, which are not styles of "breakdance", but are funk styles that were developed separately from breaking in California; the dance itself is properly called "breaking" by rappers such as KRS-One, Talib Kweli, Mos Def, Darryl McDaniels of Run-D. M. C; the terms "b-boy", "b-girl", "breaker" were the original terms used to describe the dancers who performed to DJ Kool Herc's breakbeats. DJ Kool Herc is a Jamaican-American DJ, responsible for developing the foundational aspects of hip-hop music.
The obvious connection of the term "breaking" is to the word "breakbeat". DJ Kool Herc has commented that the term "breaking" was 1970s slang for "getting excited", "acting energetically" or "causing a disturbance". Most breaking pioneers and practitioners prefer the terms "b-boy", "b-girl", and/or "breaker" when referring to these dancers. For those immersed in hip-hop culture, the term "breakdancer" may be used to disparage those who learn the dance for personal gain rather than for commitment to the culture. B-boy London of the New York City Breakers and filmmaker Michael Holman refer to these dancers as "breakers". Frosty Freeze of the Rock Steady Crew says, "we were known as b-boys", hip-hop pioneer Afrika Bambaataa says, "b-boys, what you call break boys... or b-girls, what you call break girls." In addition, co-founder of Rock Steady Crew Santiago "Jo Jo" Torres, Rock Steady Crew member Marc "Mr. Freeze" Lemberger, hip-hop historian Fab 5 Freddy, rappers Big Daddy Kane and Tech N9ne use the term "b-boy".
Many elements of breakdancing can be seen in other antecedent cultures prior to the 1970s. B-boy pioneers Richard "Crazy Legs" Colon and Kenneth "Ken Swift" Gabbert, both of Rock Steady Crew, cite James Brown and Kung Fu films as influences. Many of the acrobatic moves, such as the flare, show clear connections to gymnastics. In the 1877 book'Rob Roy on the Baltic' John MacGregor describes seeing near Norrköping a'...young man quite alone, practicing over and over the most inexplicable leap in the air...he swung himself up, round on his hand for a point, when his upper leg described a great circle...'. The engraving shows a young man breakdancing; the dance was called the Giesse Harad Polska or'salmon district dance'. In 1894 Thomas Edison filmed Walter Wilkins, Denny Toliver and Joe Rastus dancing and performing a "breakdown". In 1898 he filmed a young street dancer performing acrobatic headspins. However, it was not until the 1970s that b-boying developed as a defined dance style in the United States.
There is evidence of this style of dancing in Kaduna, Nigeria in 1959. Beginning with DJ Kool Herc, Bronx-based DJs would take the rhythmic breakdown sections of dance records and prolong them by looping them successively; the breakbeat provided a rhythmic base that allowed dancers to display their improvisational skills during the duration of the break. This led to the first battles—turn-based dance competitions between two individuals or dance crews judged with respect to creativity and musicality; these battles occurred in cyphers—circles of people gathered around the breakers. Though at its inception the earliest b-boys were "close to 90 percent African-American", dance crews such as "SalSoul" and "Rockwell Association" were populated entirely by Puerto Rican-Americans. A separate but related dance form which influenced breakdancing is uprock called rocking or Brooklyn rock. Uprock is an aggressive dance that involves two dancers mimicking ways of fighting each other using mimed weaponry in rhythm with the music.
Uprock as a dance style of its own never gained the same widespread popularity as breakdancing, except for some specific moves adopted by breakers who use it as a variation for their toprock. When used in a breakdancing battle, opponents respond by performing similar uprock moves creating a short uprock battle; some breakers argue that because uprock was a separate dance style it should never be mixed with breakdancing and that the uprock moves performed by breakers toda
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture. Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repertoire of movements, or by its historical period or place of origin. An important distinction is to be drawn between the contexts of theatrical and participatory dance, although these two categories are not always separate. Other forms of human movement are sometimes said to have a dance-like quality, including martial arts, cheerleading, figure skating, synchronized swimming, marching bands, many other forms of athletics. Theatrical dance called performance or concert dance, is intended as a spectacle a performance upon a stage by virtuoso dancers, it tells a story using mime and scenery, or else it may interpret the musical accompaniment, specially composed. Examples are western ballet and modern dance, Classical Indian dance and Chinese and Japanese song and dance dramas.
Most classical forms are centred upon dance alone, but performance dance may appear in opera and other forms of musical theatre. Participatory dance, on the other hand, whether it be a folk dance, a social dance, a group dance such as a line, chain or square dance, or a partner dance such as is common in western Western ballroom dancing, is undertaken for a common purpose, such as social interaction or exercise, of participants rather than onlookers; such dance has any narrative. A group dance and a corps de ballet, a social partner dance and a pas de deux, differ profoundly. A solo dance may be undertaken for the satisfaction of the dancer. Participatory dancers all employ the same movements and steps but, for example, in the rave culture of electronic dance music, vast crowds may engage in free dance, uncoordinated with those around them. On the other hand, some cultures lay down strict rules as to the particular dances in which, for example, men and children may or must participate. Archeological evidence for early dance includes 9,000-year-old paintings in India at the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures, dated c. 3300 BC.
It has been proposed that before the invention of written languages, dance was an important part of the oral and performance methods of passing stories down from one generation to the next. The use of dance in ecstatic trance states and healing rituals is thought to have been another early factor in the social development of dance. References to dance can be found in early recorded history; the Bible and Talmud refer to many events related to dance, contain over 30 different dance terms. In Chinese pottery as early as the Neolithic period, groups of people are depicted dancing in a line holding hands, the earliest Chinese word for "dance" is found written in the oracle bones. Dance is further described in the Lüshi Chunqiu. Primitive dance in ancient China was associated with shamanic rituals. During the first millennium BCE in India, many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life. Bharata Muni's Natyashastra is one of the earlier texts, it deals with drama, in which dance plays an important part in Indian culture.
It categorizes dance into four types – secular, abstract, interpretive – and into four regional varieties. The text elaborates various hand-gestures and classifies movements of the various limbs, steps and so on. A strong continuous tradition of dance has since continued in India, through to modern times, where it continues to play a role in culture, and, the Bollywood entertainment industry. Many other contemporary dance forms can be traced back to historical, traditional and ethnic dance. Dance is though not performed with the accompaniment of music and may or may not be performed in time to such music; some dance may provide its own audible accompaniment in place of music. Many early forms of music and dance were created for each other and are performed together. Notable examples of traditional dance/music couplings include the jig, tango and salsa; some musical genres have a parallel dance form such as baroque dance. Rhythm and dance are linked in history and practice; the American dancer Ted Shawn wrote.
A musical rhythm requires two main elements. The basic pulse is equal in duration to a simple step or gesture. Dances have a characteristic tempo and rhythmic pattern; the tango, for example, is danced in 24 time at 66 beats per minute. The basic slow step, called a "slow", lasts for one beat, so that a full "right–left" step is equal to one 24 measure; the basic forward and backward walk of the dance is so coun
The Gaskell Ball is a Victorian-styled ball held by Ye Gaskell Occasional Dance Society in Oakland, United States, popular among historical re-creationists and vintage dance enthusiasts. The ball came to be over 25 years ago, as an offshoot of a dance portion of the Great Dickens Christmas Fair held in San Francisco; the event was held at Oakland's Scottish Rite Center on the shore of Lake Merritt every two months through the end of 2014. Due to the increased costs of the hall, the event has become less frequent. Music for the event is provided by a popular local band; the evening includes a basic vintage waltz lesson for early attendees and some small potluck refreshments. Dances are taught during a brief course before the ball begins, include vintage waltz, polka and several English country dances. Groups will form on the sidelines to dance alternate arrangements to the English Country songs. Full Victorian dress is not required. A minimum of semi-formal attire is requested by the ball staff.
Although exercised, the staff reserves the right to refuse entrance to those who are inappropriately attired. There are occasional performances by local dance troupes during the intermission, however there is no official dance group affiliated with the ball; the Gaskell Ball is a favorite among dancers from the Stanford, UC Berkeley and UC Santa Cruz social dance circles, is credited for popularizing John Hertz's Congress of Vienna Waltz and Richard Powers' Bohemian National Polka choreographies. The Gaskell Ball is named for the British writer Elizabeth Gaskell; the Gaskell Ball originated in 1979, when the troupe playing the Gaskell family at the Charles Dickens Fair decided to hold a ball in her honor. The first ball was held at a women's college in Oakland. In proceeding years it was held at the Veterans' Auditorium in Oakland. In the 1990s the ball was moved to accommodate the increased attendance; the Gaskell Ball homepage The Oakland Scottish Rite Center Richard Powers Stanford Social Dance Richard Powers' Bohemian National Polka choreography
The Regency in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a period when King George III was deemed unfit to rule due to his illness and his son ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent. On the death of George III in 1820, the Prince Regent became George IV; the term Regency can refer to various stretches of time. The period from 1795 to 1837, which includes the latter part of the reign of George III and the reigns of his sons George IV and William IV, is sometimes regarded as the Regency era, characterised by distinctive trends in British architecture, fashions and culture, it ended in 1837 when Queen Victoria succeeded William IV. The Regency is noted for its elegance and achievements in the fine arts and architecture; this era encompassed a time of great social and economic change. War was waged with Napoleon and on other fronts, affecting commerce both at home and internationally, as well as politics. Despite the bloodshed and warfare, the Regency was a period of great refinement and cultural achievement and altering the societal structure of Britain as a whole.
One of the greatest patrons of the arts and architecture was the Prince Regent himself. Upper-class society flourished in a sort of mini-Renaissance of refinement; as one of the greatest patrons of the arts, the Prince Regent ordered the costly building and refurbishing of the beautiful and exotic Brighton Pavilion, the ornate Carlton House, as well as many other public works and architecture. This required dipping into the treasury and the Regent, the King's exuberance outstripped his pocket, at the people's expense. Society was considerably stratified. In many ways, there was a dark side to the fashion in England at this time. In the dingier, less affluent areas of London, womanising, the existence of rookeries, constant drinking ran rampant; the population boom—the population increased from just under a million in 1801 to one and a quarter million by 1820—created a wild, roiling and vibrant scene. According to Robert Southey, the difference between the strata of society was vast indeed: The squalor that existed beneath the glamour and gloss of Regency society provided sharp contrast to the Prince Regent's social circle.
Poverty was addressed only marginally. The formation of the Regency after the retirement of George III saw the end of a more pious and reserved society, gave birth of a more frivolous, ostentatious one; this change was influenced by the Regent himself, kept removed from the machinations of politics and military exploits. This did nothing to channel his energies in a more positive direction, thereby leaving him with the pursuit of pleasure as his only outlet, as well as his sole form of rebellion against what he saw as disapproval and censure in the form of his father. Driving these changes was not only money and rebellious pampered youth, but significant technological advancements. In 1814, The Times adopted steam printing. By this method it could now print 1,100 sheets every hour, not 200 as before—a fivefold increase in production capability and demand; this development brought about the rise of the wildly popular fashionable novels in which publishers spread the stories and flaunting of the rich and aristocratic, not so secretly hinting at the specific identity of these individuals.
The gap in the hierarchy of society was so great that those of the upper classes could be viewed by those below as wondrous and fantastical fiction, something out of reach yet tangibly there. 1811 George Augustus Frederick, Prince of Wales, began his nine-year tenure as regent and became known as The Prince Regent. This sub-period of the Georgian era began the formal Regency; the Duke of Wellington held off the French at Fuentes Albuhera in the Peninsular War. The Prince Regent held a fete at 9:00 p.m. June 19, 1811, at Carlton House in celebration of his assumption of the Regency. Luddite uprisings. Glasgow weavers riot. 1812 Prime Minister Spencer Perceval was assassinated in the House of Commons. Final shipment of the Elgin Marbles arrived in England. Sarah Siddons retired from the stage. Shipping and territory disputes started the War of 1812 between the United Kingdom and the United States; the British were victorious over French armies at the Battle of Salamanca. Gas company founded. Charles Dickens, English writer and social critic of the Victorian era, was born on 7 February 1812.
1813 Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen was published. William Hedley's Puffing Billy, an early steam locomotive, ran on smooth rails. Quaker prison reformer Elizabeth Fry started her ministry at Newgate Prison. Robert Southey became Poet Laureate. 1814 Invasion of France by allies led to the Treaty of Paris, ended one of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon was exiled to Elba; the Duke of Wellington was honoured at Burlington House in London. British soldiers burn the White House. Last River Thames Frost Fair was held, the last time the river froze. Gas lighting introduced in London streets. 1815 Napoleon I of France defeated by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena; the English Corn Laws restricted corn imports. Sir Humphry Davy patented the miners' safety lamp. John Loudon Macadam's road construction method adopted. 1816 Income tax abolished. A "year without a summer" followed a volcanic eruption in Indonesia. Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein. William Cobbett published his newspaper as a pamphlet.
The British returned Indonesia to the Dutch. Regent's Canal, phase one of c