The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
In criminal law, kidnapping is the abduction or unlawful transportation of a person, usually to hold the person against his or her will. This may be done for ransom, wikipedia. org/wiki/Stockholm_syndrome Kidnapping that does not result in a homicide is an offence that comes with a maximum possible penalty of life imprisonment. A murder that results from kidnapping is classified as 1st-degree, with a sentence of imprisonment that results from conviction. Part 1 allows sentencing kidnappers to maximum imprisonment of 8 years or a fine of the fifth category, part 2 allows maximum imprisonment of 9 years or a fine of the fifth category if there are serious injuries. Part 3 allows maximum imprisonment of 12 years or a fine of the fifth if the victim has been killed. Part 4 allows sentencing people that collaborate with kidnapping, part 1,2 and 3 will apply to them. Kidnapping is an offence under the law of England and Wales. In R v D, Lord Brandon said, the nature of the offence is an attack on, and infringement of and this is the case regardless of the age of the child. A very small child will not have the understanding or intelligence to consent and this means that absence of consent will be a necessary inference from the age of the child.
It is a question of fact for the jury whether a child has sufficient understanding. Lord Brandon said, I should not expect a jury to find at all frequently that a child under fourteen had sufficient understanding and intelligence to give its consent. If, on the hand, the child did not consent. Mode of trial Kidnapping is an indictable-only offence, sentence Kidnapping is punishable with imprisonment or fine at the discretion of the court. There is no limit on the fine or the term of imprisonment that may be imposed provided the sentence is not inordinate. The use of force to take and detain will be regarded as an assault, law in the United States follows from English common law. The fact that a victim may have been taken across state lines brings the crime within the ambit of federal criminal law. Most states recognize different types of kidnapping and punish accordingly, New York bases its definition of first-degree kidnapping on the duration and purpose. There are several deterrents to kidnapping in the United States of America, among these are, The extreme logistical challenges involved in successfully exchanging the money for the return of the victim without being apprehended or surveiled
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term crime does not, in criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition. The most popular view is that crime is a created by law, in other words, something is a crime if declared as such by the relevant. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence is an act not only to some individual. Such acts are forbidden and punishable by law, the notion that acts such as murder and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What precisely is an offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, the state has the power to severely restrict ones liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which investigations and trials must adhere, usually, to be classified as a crime, the act of doing something criminal must – with certain exceptions – be accompanied by the intention to do something criminal.
While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime, breaches of private law are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure. With institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State can compel populations to conform to codes, authorities employ various mechanisms to regulate certain behaviors in general. In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctions, and collectively these constitute a criminal justice system, Legal sanctions vary widely in their severity, they may include incarceration of temporary character aimed at reforming the convict. Some jurisdictions have penal codes written to inflict permanent harsh punishments, legal mutilation, usually a natural person perpetrates a crime, but legal persons may commit crimes. Conversely, at least under U. S. law, nonpersons such as animals cannot commit crimes, the sociologist Richard Quinney has written about the relationship between society and crime.
When Quinney states crime is a phenomenon he envisages both how individuals conceive crime and how populations perceive it, based on societal norms. The word crime is derived from the Latin root cernō, meaning I decide, originally the Latin word crīmen meant charge or cry of distress. The Ancient Greek word krima, from which the Latin cognate derives, typically referred to a mistake or an offense against the community. In 13th century English crime meant sinfulness, according to etymonline. com and it was probably brought to England as Old French crimne, from Latin crimen. In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following, indictment, crime, the word may derive from the Latin cernere – to decide, to sift
A drug cartel is any criminal organization with the intention of supplying drug trafficking operations. They range from loosely managed agreements among various drug traffickers to formalized commercial enterprises, the term was applied when the largest trafficking organizations reached an agreement to coordinate the production and distribution of cocaine. Since that agreement was broken up, drug cartels are no longer actually cartels, the basic structure of a drug cartel is as follows, Considered the eyes and ears of the streets, the falcons are the lowest rank in any drug cartel. They are responsible for supervising and reporting the activities of the police, the military, The second highest position in the drug cartel organization, responsible for supervising the hitmen and falcons within their own territory. They are allowed to carry out low-profile executions without permission from their bosses, Drug lords, The highest position in any drug cartel, responsible for supervising the entire drug industry, appointing territorial leaders, making alliances, and planning high-profile executions.
It is worth noting that there are other operating groups within the drug cartels, for example, the drug producers and suppliers, although not considered in the basic structure, are critical operators of any drug cartel, along with the financiers and money launderers. In addition, the arms suppliers operate in a completely different circle, nigerian mafia The United States of America is the worlds largest consumer of cocaine and other illegal drugs. S. According to the United Nations, there was an increase of trafficking through Venezuela since 2002. In 2005 Venezuela severed ties with the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, following the departure of the DEA from Venezuela and the expansion of DEAs partnership with Colombia in 2005, Venezuela became more attractive to drug traffickers. Between 2008 and 2012, Venezuelas cocaine seizure ranking among other countries declined, Venezuela has its own Cosa Nostra family as if it is Sicilian territory, according to the Italian police. The structure and hierarchy of the Mafia has been reproduced in Venezuela.
The Cuntrera-Caruana clan had direct links with the ruling Commission of the Sicilian Mafia, pasquale and Gaspare Cuntrera were expelled from Venezuela in 1992, almost secretly smuggled out of the country, as if it concerned one of their own drug transports. It was imperative they could not contact people on the outside who could have used their connections to stop the expulsion. Their expulsion was ordered by a commission of the Venezuelan Senate headed by Senator Cristobal Fernandez Dalo and they were arrested in September 1992 at Fiumicino airport, and in 1996 were sentence to 13–20 years. Norte del Valle Cartel, In 2008 the leader of the Colombian Norte del Valle Cartel, in 2010 Venezuela arrested and deported to the United States Jaime Alberto Beto Marin, head of the Norte del Valle Cartel. The Cartel of the Suns According to Jackson Diehl, deputy Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post, the Bolivarian government of Venezuela shelters one of the world’s biggest drug cartels. There have been allegations that former president Hugo Chávez and Diosdado Cabello being involved with drug trafficking, Death and Sex in Old Mexico.
Mexico, Drug Cartels a Growing Threat
Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force or by putting the victim in fear. At common law, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to deprive the person of that property. Precise definitions of the offence may vary between jurisdictions, under English law, most forms of theft are triable either way, whereas robbery is triable only on indictment. The word rob came via French from Late Latin words of Germanic origin, among the types of robbery are armed robbery involving use of a weapon and aggravated robbery involving use of a deadly weapon or something that appears to be a deadly weapon. Highway robbery or mugging takes place outside or in a place such as a sidewalk, street. Carjacking is the act of stealing a car from a victim by force, extortion is the threat to do something illegal, or the offer to not do something illegal, in the event that goods are not given, primarily using words instead of actions. Criminal slang for robbery includes blagging or stick-up, and steaming, in Canada, the Criminal Code makes robbery an indictable offence, subject to a maximum penalty of life imprisonment.
If the accused uses a restricted or prohibited firearm to commit robbery, there is a minimum sentence of five years for the first offence. Robbery is an offence in the Republic of Ireland. Robbery is an offence in England and Wales. Aggravated theft Robbery is the offence of aggravated theft. Aggravated robbery There are no offences of aggravated robbery and this requires evidence to show a theft as set out in section 1 of the Theft Act 1968. In R v Robinson the defendant threatened the victim with a knife in order to recover money which he was actually owed and his conviction for robbery was quashed on the basis that Robinson had an honest, although unreasonable, belief in his legal right to the money. See R v Skivington 1 QB166,2 WLR655,131 JP265,111 SJ72,1 All ER483,51 Cr App R167, CA. It was argued that the theft should be regarded as complete by this time, and R v Gomez, should apply, the threat or use of force must take place immediately before or at the time of the theft. Force used after the theft is complete will not turn the theft into a robbery, the words or immediately after that appeared in section 23 of the Larceny Act 1916 were deliberately omitted from section 8.
The book Archbold said that the facts in R v Harman and it was held in R v Dawson and James that force is an ordinary English word and its meaning should be left to the jury. This approach was confirmed in R v Clouden and Corcoran v Anderton, stealing may involve a young child who is not aware that taking other persons property is not in order
Burglary is an unlawful entry into a building or other location for the purposes of committing an offence. Usually that offence is theft, but most jurisdictions include others within the ambit of burglary, to engage in the act of burglary is to burgle or to burglarize. Breaking can be actual, such as by forcing open a door, or constructive. Breaking does not require that anything be broken in terms of damage occurring. Entering can involve either physical entry by a person, or the insertion of an instrument to remove property, insertion of a tool to gain entry may not constitute entering by itself. Note that there must be a breaking and an entering for common law burglary, breaking without entry or entry without breaking is not sufficient for common law burglary. Although rarely listed as an element, the law required that entry occur as a consequence of the breaking. For example, if a wrongdoer partially opens a window with a pry bar—but notices an open door, the use of the pry bar would not constitute an entry even if a portion of the prybar entered the residence.
Under the instrumentality rule the use of an instrument to effect a breaking would not constitute an entry, however, if any part of the perpetrators body entered the residence in an attempt to gain entry, the instrumentality rule did not apply. The use of the word “therein” adds nothing and certainly does not limit the scope of burglary to those wrongdoers who break, the situs of the felony does not matter, and burglary occurs if the wrongdoer intended to commit a felony at the time he broke and entered. The common law elements of burglary often vary between jurisdictions, the etymology originates from Anglo-Saxon or Old English, one of the Germanic languages. According to one textbook, The word burglar comes from the two German words burg, meaning house, and laron, meaning thief, the British verb burgle is a late back-formation. In Canada and entering is prohibited by section 348 of the Criminal Code and is a hybrid offence and entering is defined as trespassing with intent to commit an indictable offence.
The crime is commonly referred to in Canada as break and enter, there is no crime of burglary as such in Finland. However, if theft is committed during unlawful entering, a person is guilty of theft or aggravated depending on the circumstances of the felony. In Sweden, burglary does not exist as an offence in itself, instead, if a person simply breaks into any premise, they are technically guilty of either unlawful intrusion or breach of domiciliary peace, depending on the premise in question. Breach of domiciliary peace is only when a person unlawfully intrudes or remains where another has his living quarters. The only punishments available for any of these offences are fines, in such cases, the maximum punishment is two years imprisonment
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, which simultaneously serves as the nations prime federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Department of Justice, Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, although many of the FBIs functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint and these overseas offices exist primarily for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not usually conduct unilateral operations in the host countries.
The FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation and its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, in the fiscal year 2012, the Bureaus total budget was approximately $8.12 billion. In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created an urgent perception that America was under threat from anarchists. The Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, the Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the breakage of the Oregon land fraud scandal at approximately the turn of the 20th Century, President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General.
Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the Secret Service, for personnel, on May 27,1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelts urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26,1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including veterans of the Secret Service. Its first Chief was Stanley Finch, Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908. The bureaus first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the White Slave Traffic Act, or Mann Act, in 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation. The following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition, in the same year, its name was officially changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J.
Edgar Hoover served as Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, Hoover was substantially involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure
A murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, in most countries, a person convicted of murder generally faces a long-term prison sentence, possibly a life sentence where permitted. In many common law jurisdictions, a convicted of murder will receive a mandatory life sentence. In jurisdictions where capital punishment exists, the penalty may be imposed for such an act, however. The modern English word murder descends from the Proto-Indo-European mrtró which meant to die, the Middle English mordre is a noun from Anglo-Saxon morðor and Old French murdre.
Middle English mordre is a verb from Anglo-Saxon myrdrian and the Middle English noun, the elements of common law murder are, Unlawful killing through criminal act or omission of a human by another human with malice aforethought. Killing – At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest – the total, with advances in medical technology courts have adopted irreversible cessation of all brain function as marking the end of life. Сriminal act or omission – Killing can be committed by an act or an omission. of a human – This element presents the issue of life begins. At common law, a fetus was not a human being, life began when the fetus passed through the vagina and took its first breath. By another human – In early common law, suicide was considered murder, the requirement that the person killed be someone other than the perpetrator excluded suicide from the definition of murder. With malice aforethought – Originally malice aforethought carried its everyday meaning – a deliberate, Murder necessarily required that an appreciable time pass between the formation and execution of the intent to kill.
The courts broadened the scope of murder by eliminating the requirement of actual premeditation and deliberation as well as true malice, all that was required for malice aforethought to exist is that the perpetrator act with one of the four states of mind that constitutes malice. The four states of mind recognized as constituting malice are, Under state of mind, intent to kill, thus, if the defendant intentionally uses a deadly weapon or instrument against the victim, such use authorizes a permissive inference of intent to kill. In other words, intent follows the bullet, examples of deadly weapons and instruments include but are not limited to guns, deadly toxins or chemicals or gases and even vehicles when intentionally used to harm one or more victims. In Australian jurisdictions, the risk must amount to a foreseen probability of death. Under state of mind, the doctrine, the felony committed must be an inherently dangerous felony, such as burglary, rape. Importantly, the underlying felony cannot be a lesser included offense such as assault, as with most legal terms, the precise definition of murder varies between jurisdictions and is usually codified in some form of legislation
New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu
Harassment covers a wide range of behaviours of an offensive nature. It is commonly understood as behaviour that disturbs or upsets, in the legal sense, it is behaviour that appears to be disturbing or threatening. Sexual harassment refers to persistent and unwanted sexual advances, typically in the workplace, a hypothesis about the origin of the verb harasser is harace/harache, which was used in the 14th century in expressions like courre à la harache and prendre aucun par la harache. This dictionary suggests a relation of haro/hare with the old lower franconian *hara, the origin itself of harass is thought to be the old Scandinavian hârr with the Romanic suffix –as, which meant grey or dimmish horsehair. Controversial is the relation to the Arabic word for horse whose roman transliteration is faras. In those dictionaries the relationship with harassment were an interpretation of the hare as to urge/set a dog on, despite the fact that it should indicate a shout to come. The American Heritage Dictionary prudently indicates this origin only as possible, electronic harassment is the unproven belief of the use of electromagnetic waves to harass a victim.
Psychologists have identified evidence of auditory hallucinations, delusional disorders, or other disorders in online communities supporting those who claim to be targeted. Landlord harassment is the creation, by a landlord or his agents. Such a strategy is often sought because it avoids costly legal expenses, landlord harassment carries specific legal penalties in some jurisdictions, but enforcement can be very difficult or even impossible in many circumstances. It is a form of cyber bullying, Harassment directs multiple repeating obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing, for example, on the targets race, nationality, or sexual orientation. This often occurs in chat rooms, through newsgroups, and by sending hate e-mail to interested parties. This may include stealing photos of the victim and their families, doctoring these photos in offensive ways, power harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a political nature, often occurring in the environment of a workplace including hospitals and universities.
It includes a range of behavior from mild irritation and annoyances to serious abuses which can even involve forced activity beyond the boundaries of the job description, power harassment is considered a form of illegal discrimination and is a form of political and psychological abuse, and bullying. This is humiliating, intimidating or abusive behaviour which is difficult to detect. This characteristically lowers a person’s self-esteem or causes one torment and this can take the form of verbal comments, engineered episodes of intimidation, aggressive actions or repeated gestures. Falling into this category is workplace harassment by individuals or groups mobbing, community-based psychological harassment, meanwhile, is stalking by a group against an individual using repeated distractions that the individual is sensitized to. The targeting of an individual because of their race or ethnicity, the harassment may include words and actions that are specifically designed to make the target feel degraded due to their race or ethnicity
Homicide refers to one human killing another. These different types of homicides are often treated differently in human societies, some are considered crimes. Criminal homicide takes many forms including accidental or purposeful murder, the crime committed in a criminal homicide is determined by the mental state of the committing person and the extent of the crime. Instead, the individual is placed under the category of “insane”, in some jurisdictions, a homicide that occurs during the commission of a crime may constitute murder, regardless of the actors intent to commit homicide. In the United States, this is known as the felony murder rule, criminal homicides include voluntary and involuntary manslaughter. An example of voluntary manslaughter is hitting someone with an intent to kill them, the perpetrator does not receive the same legal action against them as a person convicted of murder. While most homicides by civilians are criminally prosecutable, a right of self-defense is widely recognized, including, in dire circumstances and it goes like this, They needed killing.
In essence, it was a justification for murder in the old days in Texas that the victim had horrible or violent character, a Texas jury which accepts this controversial Texas defense is hypothetically free to acquit the defendant, even if that involves disregarding the judges instructions. Penalization of juries for employing jury nullification has been forbidden since 1670 under the precedent known as Bushels Case, homicides may be non-criminal when conducted with the sanction of the state. The most obvious examples are capital punishment, in which the state punishes a criminal with death, homicides committed in action during war are usually not subject to criminal prosecution either. Sources included multiple agencies and field offices of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the report estimated that in 2010, the total number of homicides globally was 468,000. More than a third occurred in Africa, 31% in the Americas, 27% in Asia, 5% in Europe and 1% in Oceania. Since 1995, the rate has been falling in Europe, North America, and Asia, but has risen to a near “crisis point” in Central America.
Of all homicides worldwide, 82% of the victims were men, on a per-capita scaled level, the homicide rate in Africa and the Americas is more than double the global average, whereas in Asia and Oceania it is roughly half. UNODC, in its 2013 global report, estimated the number of homicides worldwide dropped to 437,000 in 2012. Americas accounted for 36% of all homicides globally, Africa 31%, Asia 28%, Europe 5% and Oceania 0. 3%. The worlds average homicide rate stood at 6.2 per 100,000 population in 2012 and they are the most violent regions globally, outside of regions experiencing wars and religious or sociopolitical terrorism. Asia exclusive of West Asia and Central Asia, Western Europe, Northern Europe, about 41% of the homicides worldwide occurred in 2012 with the use of guns, 24% with sharp objects such as knife, and 35% by other means such as poison