Sanskrit moksha or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death. It is a blissful state of existence of a soul, attained after the destruction of all karmic bonds. A liberated soul is said to have attained its true and pristine nature of infinite bliss, infinite knowledge and infinite perception; such a soul is revered in Jainism. In Jainism, moksha is the noblest objective that a soul should strive to achieve. In fact, it is the only objective. With the right view and efforts all souls can attain this state; that is why Jainism is known as mokṣamārga or the "path to liberation". According to the Sacred Jain Text, Tattvartha sutra:Owing to the absence of the cause of bondage and with the functioning of the dissociation of karmas the annihilation of all karmas is liberation. From the point of view of potentiality of mokṣa, Jain texts bifurcates the souls in two categories–bhavya and abhavya. Bhavya souls are those souls who have faith in mokṣa and hence will make some efforts to achieve liberation.
This potentiality or quality is called bhavyata. However, bhavyata itself does not guarantee mokṣa, as the soul needs to expend necessary efforts to attain it. On the other hand, abhavya souls are those souls who cannot attain liberation as they do not have faith in mokṣa and hence never make any efforts to attain it. According to Jainism, the Ratnatraya or "three Gems", samyagdarśana, samyagjñāna and samyakchāritra, together constitute the mokṣamarga or the path to liberation. According to Acharya KundaKunda's Samayasara:Belief in the nine substances as they are is right faith. Knowledge of these substances without doubt, delusion or misapprehension, is right knowledge. Being free from attachment etc. is right conduct. These three, constitute the path to liberation. Samyak Darsana or rational perception is the rational faith in the true nature of every substance of the universe. Samyak Caritra or rational conduct is the natural conduct of a living being, it consists in following austerities, engaging in right activities and observance of vows and controls.
Once a soul secures samyaktva, mokṣa is assured within a few lifetimes. The fourteen stages on the path to liberation are called Gunasthāna; these are: Those who pass the last stage are called siddha and become established in Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct. Nirvāna means final release from the karmic bondage; when an enlightened human, such as an Arihant or a Tirthankara, extinguishes his remaining aghatiya karmas and thus ends his worldly existence, it is called nirvāna. Technically, the death of an Arhat is called their nirvāṇa, as he has ended his worldly existence and attained liberation. Moksha follows nirvāṇa. However, the terms moksa and nirvana are used interchangeably in the Jain texts. An Arhat becomes the liberated one, after attaining nirvana. In that night in which the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, freed from all pains, the eighteen confederate kings of Kasi and Kosala, the nine Mallakis and nine Licchavis, on the day of new moon, instituted an illuminations on the Poshadha, a fasting day.
A liberated soul dwell in Siddhashila with infinite faith, infinite knowledge, infinite perception, infinite perfection. According to the Jain text, Puruşārthasiddhyupāya: Having achieved the ultimate goal, knowing everything that needs to be known, enjoying eternal and supreme bliss, the Omniscient, Effulgent Soul, rests permanently in the Highest State. Nirvana Kanda Dundas, The Jains, Routledge, ISBN 9781134501656 Jain, Vijay K. Acharya Umasvami's Tattvarthsutra, Uttarakhand: Vikalp Printers, ISBN 81-903639-2-1, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain. Jain, Vijay K. Acharya Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya: Realization of the Pure Self, With Hindi and English Translation, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-4-5, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain. Jain, Vijay K. Acarya Pujyapada's Istopadesa – the Golden Discourse, ISBN 978-81-903639-6-9, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain. Jaini, Padmanabh S.
The Jaina Path of Purification, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1578-5 Jaini, Padmanabh S. ed. Collected Papers On Jaina Studies, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1691-9
Digambara is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara. The word Digambara is a combination of two words: dig and ambara, referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. Digambara monks do not wear any clothes; the monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers and shastra. One of the most important scholar-monks of Digambara tradition was Kundakunda, he authored Prakrit texts such as the Pravacanasāra. Other prominent Acharyas of this tradition were, Virasena and Siddhasena Divakara; the Satkhandagama and Kasayapahuda have major significance in the Digambara tradition. Relics found from Harrapan excavations such as seals depicting Kayotsarga posture, idols in Padmasana and a nude bust of red limestone, give insight into the antiquity of the Digambara tradition; the presence of gymnosophists in Greek records as early as the fourth century BC, supports the claim of the Digambaras that they have preserved the ancient Śramaṇa practice.
Dundas talks about the archeological evidences which indicate that Jain monks moved from the practice of total nudity towards wearing clothes in period. Ancient Tirthankara statues found in Mathura are naked; the oldest Tirthankara statue wearing a cloth is dated in 5th century CE. Digamabara statues of tirthankara belonging to Gupta period has half-closed eyes. According to Digambara texts, after liberation of the Lord Mahavira, three Anubaddha Kevalīs attained Kevalajñāna sequentially – Gautama Gaņadhara, Acharya Sudharma, Jambusvami in next 62 years. During the next hundred years, five Āchāryas had complete knowledge of the scriptures, as such, called Śruta Kevalīs, the last of them being Āchārya Bhadrabahu. Spiritual lineage of heads of monastic orders is known as Pattavali. Digambara tradition consider Dharasena to be the 33rd teacher in succession of Gautama, 683 years after the nirvana of Mahavira; the word Digambara is a combination of two Sanskrit words: dik and ambara, referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space.
Digambara monks do not wear any clothes as it is considered to be parigraha, which leads to attachment. A Digambara monk has 28 mūla guņas; these are: five. The monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers for removing small insects without causing them injury and shastra; the head of all monastics is called Āchārya. The Āchārya has 36 primary attributes in addition to the 28 mentioned above; the monks perform kayotsarga daily, in a rigid and immobile posture, with the arms held stiffly down, knees straight, toes directed forward. Female monastics in Digambara tradition are known as aryikas. Statistically, there are more Digambara nuns. Digambar Akhara', along with other akharas participates in various inter-sectarian religious activities including Kumbh Melas; the Digambara Jains worship nude idols of tirthankaras and siddha. The tirthankara is seated in yoga posture or standing in the Kayotsarga posture; the "sky-clad" Jaina statue expresses the perfect isolation of the one who has stripped off every bond.
His is an absolute "abiding in itself," a strange but perfect aloofness, a nudity of chilling majesty, in its stony simplicity, rigid contours, abstraction. The Digambara sect of Jainism rejects the authority of the texts accepted by the other major sect, the Svetambaras. According to the Digambaras, Āchārya Dharasena guided two Āchāryas and Bhutabali, to put the teachings of Mahavira in written form, 683 years after the nirvana of Mahavira; the two Āchāryas wrote Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama on palm leaves, considered to be among the oldest known Digambara texts. Āchārya Bhutabali was the last ascetic. On, some learned Āchāryas started to restore and put into written words the teachings of Lord Mahavira, that were the subject matter of Agamas. Digambaras group the texts into four literary categories called anuyoga; the prathmanuyoga contains the universal history, the karananuyoga contains works on cosmology and the charananuyoga includes texts about proper behaviour for monks and Sravakas. Most eminent Digamabara authors include Kundakunda, Pujyapada, Akalanka, Vidyanandi and Asadhara.
The Digambara tradition can be divided into modern community. Mula Sangha can be further divided into heterodox traditions. Orthodox traditions included Nandi, Sena and Deva sangha. Heterodox traditions included Dravida, Yapaniya and Mathura sangha. Other traditions of Mula sangha include Deshiya Balatkara Gana traditions. Modern Digambara community is divided into various sub-sects viz. Terapanthi, Taranpanthi and Totapanthi. Digambara community was divided into Terapanthi and Bisapanthi on the acceptance of authority of Bhattaraka; the Bhattarakas of Shravanabelagola and
Dravyasaṃgraha is a 10th-century Jain text in Jain Sauraseni Prakrit by Acharya Nemicandra belonging to the Digambara Jain tradition. It is a composition of 58 gathas giving an exposition of the six dravyas that characterize the Jain view of the world: sentient, non-sentient, principle of motion, principle of rest and time, it has gained widespread popularity. Dravyasaṃgraha has played an important role in Jain education and is memorized because of its comprehensiveness as well as brevity. 10th century Jain Acarya, Nemicandra Siddhānta Cakravartin is regarded as the author of Dravyasaṃgraha. He was the teacher of Camundaraya—the general of the Western Ganga Dynasty of Karnataka. Nemicandra was a prolific author and a specialist in summarizing and giving lucidly the essence of teachings in various fields, he wrote Trilokasāra, Labdhisāra, Kṣapaṇasāra, Gommaṭasāra. Although not much is known about him from his own works, at the end of the Trilokasāra and of the Gommaṭasāra, he introduces himself as a pupil of Abhayanandi, Vīranandi and Kanakanandi.
He is said to have inspired Camundaraya to build the famous Bāhubali statue at Shravanabelagola. Vahuvali Charitra notes. After establishing the statue of Bāhubali, Camundaraya offered villages yielding a revenue of 96,000 gold coins to Nemicandra for daily worship of and festivals for Gommatesvara. Dravyasaṃgraha has played an important role in Jain education and is memorized because of its comprehensiveness and brevity; the composition of Dravyasaṃgraha is influenced from the earlier Jain works such as Umāsvāti's Tattvārthasūtra and Kundakunda's Pañcāstikāyasara because these works are based on the same topics as the Dravyasaṃgraha. According to Nalini Balbir, the Dravyasaṃgraha is a work of definitions of concepts with mnemonic perspective. In its 58 verses, the author makes skillful use of āryā metre. Nemicandra's presentation is articulated around the opposition between the conventional and the absolute points of view, or around the contrast between the material and the spiritual angles.
Sarat Chandra Ghoshal, the translator of Dravyasaṃgraha, divides the entire text in three convenient parts—the first part deals with six dravyas, the second with seven tattvas and the third part describes the way to attain liberation. In tine opening verse, along with the usual mangalacharana, it is mentioned that dravya consists of jiva and ajiva. In the second verse Jiva is defined:The sentient substance is characterized by the function of understanding, is incorporeal, performs actions, is co-extensive with its own body, it is the enjoyer, located in the world of rebirth emancipated has the intrinsic movement upwards. The various characteristics of Jiva mentioned in the definition are taken up one by one in verses 3–14. Dravyasaṃgraha classifies the embodied souls on the basis of the number of senses possessed by it: from one to five senses. After this detailed description of Jivas the author proceeds to describe Ajivas—Pudgala, adharma and Kala, each of, defined in verses 16–22. Among these, as per verse 23, the Jiva, dharma and akasa are called astikayas, the extensibles or conglomerates.
The second part deals with the seven tattvas: jīva, ajīva, āsrava, bandha, saṃvara, nirjarā and mokṣa. Together with puṇya and pāpa they form nine padārtha; some call all nine as nine tattvas. The third part of Dravyasaṃgraha begins with verse 39 describing the means to attain liberation from conventional and real point of views; the three jewels of Jainism known as Ratnatraya—Samyak darśana, samyak jñāna and samyak cāritra —which are essential in achieving liberation—are defined and the importance of dhyāna is emphasized. On meditation, Nemicandra says: Do not be deluded, do not be attached, do not feel aversion for things which are dear or not dear, if you desire a steady mind for the attainment of extraordinary meditation. Do not act, do not talk, do not think at all, so that the soul is steady and is content in the self; this indeed is supreme meditation. Verses 49 to 54 of the Dravyasaṃgraha, succinctly characterizes the five Supreme Beings and their characteristics. Having destroyed the four inimical varieties of karmas, possessed of infinite faith, happiness and power, housed in most auspicious body, that pure soul of the World Teacher should be meditated on.
One of the most popular commentaries of Dravyasaṃgraha is that by Brahmadeva from around the 14th century. Other commentaries on the work include: Balacandra – Tika on Nemicandra's Dravyasamgraha Mallisena – Commentary on Nemicandra Siddhantin's Dravyasamgraha Brahmadeva – Vrtti on Nemicandra's Dravyasamgraha Hamsaraja – Commentary on Nemicandra's Dravyasamgraha. Ramacandra – Commentary on Nemicandra's Dravyasamgraha. Jain Agama
The Dilwara Temples are located about 2½ kilometres from Mount Abu, Rajasthan's only hill station. These Jain temples were built by Vimal Shah and designed by Vastupala-Tejpal, Jain ministers of Dholka, between the 11th and 13th centuries AD and are famous for their use of marble and intricate marble carvings; the five marble temples of Dilwara are a sacred pilgrimage place of the Jains. Some consider them to be one of the most beautiful Jain pilgrimage sites in the world; the temples have an opulent entranceway, the simplicity in architecture reflecting Jain values like honesty and frugality. The temples are in the midst of a range of forested hills. A high wall shrouds the temple complex. Although Jains built some beautiful temples at other places in Rajasthan, Dilwara temples are believed to be the most beautiful example of architectural perfection; the ornamental detail spreading over the minutely carved ceilings, doorways and panels is marvellous. There are five temples in each with its own unique identity.
Each is named after the small village. These are: Vimal Vasahi, dedicated to Shri Rishabhadev. Luna Vasahi, dedicated to the 22nd Jain Tirthankara, Shri Neminatha. Pittalhar, dedicated to the first Jain Tirthankar, Shri Rishabhadev. Parshvanath, dedicated to the 23rd Jain Tirthankara, Shri Parshvanatha. Mahavir Swami, dedicated to the last Jain Tirthankara, Shri Mahaviraswami. Among all the five legendary marble temples of Dilwara, the most famous of those are the Vimal Vasahi and the Luna Vasahi temples; this temple carved out of white marble was built in 1031 A. D. by Vimal Shah, a minister of Bhima I, the Chaulukya king of Gujarat. The temple is dedicated to Lord Rishabha; the temple stands in an open courtyard surrounded by a corridor, which has numerous cells containing smaller idols of the tirthankaras. The richly carved corridors, arches, and'mandaps' or porticoes of the temple are amazing; the ceilings feature engraved designs of lotus-buds, petals and scenes from Jain mythology. The Navchowki is a collection of nine rectangular ceilings, each containing beautiful carvings of different designs supported on ornate pillars.
The Gudh mandap is a simple hall once you step inside its decorated doorway. Installed here is the idol of Adi Nath or Lord Rishabdev, as he is known; the mandap is meant for Aarti to the deity. The Hastishala was constructed by Prithvipal, a descendant of Vimalsha in 1147-49 and features a row of elephants in sculpture with the members of the family riding them; the Luna Vasahi temple is dedicated to Lord Neminath. This magnificent temple was built in 1230 by two Porwad brothers - Vastupal and Tejpal - both ministers of a Virdhaval, the Vaghela ruler of Gujarat; the temple built in memory of their late brother Luna was designed after the Vimal Vashi temple. The main hall or Rang mandap features a central dome from which hangs a big ornamental pendent featuring elaborate carving. Arranged in a circular band are 72 figures of Tirthankars in sitting posture and just below this band are 360 small figures of Jain monks in another circular band; the Hathishala or elephant cell features 10 beautiful marble elephants neatly polished and realistically modelled.
The Navchowki features some of the most magnificent and delicate marble stone cutting work of the temple. Each of the nine ceilings here seems to exceed the others in grace; the Gudh mandap features a black marble idol of the 22nd tirthankar Neminatha. The Kirthi Stambha is a big black stone pillar; the pillar was constructed by Maharana Kumbha of Mewar. The remaining three temples of Dilwara are smaller but just as elegant as the other two; this temple was built by a minister of Sultan Begada of Ahmedabad. A massive metal statue of the first tirthankara, Rishabha Dev, cast in five metals, is installed in the temple; the main metal used in this statue is'Pital', hence the name'Pittalhar'. The Shrine consists of a main Gudh mandap and Navchowki, it seems that the construction of the corridor was left unfinished. The old mutilated idol was replaced and installed in 1468-69 AD weighing 108 maunds according to the inscription on it; the image was cast by an artist'Deta', 8 ft. high, 5.5 ft. broad and the figure is 41 inches in height.
In Gudh Mandap on one side, a big marble Panch-Tirthi sculpture of Adinath is installed. Some shrines were constructed in 1490, before construction was abandoned; this temple, dedicated to Lord Parshvanath, was built by Mandlik and his family in 1458-59. It consists of the tallest of all the shrines at Dilwara. On all the four faces of the sanctum on the ground floor are four big mandaps; the outer walls of the sanctum comprise beautiful sculptures in gray sandstone, depicting Dikpals, Yakshinis and other decorative sculptures comparable to the ones in Khajuraho and Konark. This is a small structure dedicated to Lord Mahavira. Being small it is a marvelous temple with carvings on its walls. On the upper walls of the porch there are pictures painted in 1764 by the artists of Sirohi; the temples have undergone repairs time to time. Allauddin Khilji had attacked and damaged the temples in 1311. In 1321, Bijag and Lalag of Mandore had undertaken repairs. In 1906, Lallubhai Jaichand of Patan had the temples repaired and reconsecrated on April 25, 1906, under the supervision of Yati Hemasagar.
Extensive repairs were again undertaken during 1950-1965 by Anandji Kalyanji with the work done by the Sompura firm Amritlal Mulshankar Trivedi. The older marble has a yellow patina, where as
Dravya is a term used to refer to a substance. According to the Jain philosophy, the universe is made up of six eternal substances: sentient beings or souls, non-sentient substance or matter, principle of motion, the principle of rest and time; the latter five are united as the ajiva. As per the Sanskrit etymology, dravya means substances or entity, but it may mean real or fundamental categories. Jain philosophers distinguish a substance from a body, or thing, by declaring the former as a simple element or reality while the latter as a compound of one or more substances or atoms, they claim that there can be a partial or total destruction of a body or thing, but no substance can be destroyed. According to Jain philosophy, this universe consists of infinite jivas or souls that are uncreated and always existing. There are two main categories of souls: un-liberated mundane embodied souls that are still subject to transmigration and rebirths in this samsara due to karmic bondage and the liberated souls that are free from birth and death.
All souls are found in bondage with karma since beginning-less time. A soul has to make efforts to eradicate the karmas attain its pure form. 10th-century Jain monk Nemichandra describes the soul in Dravyasamgraha:The sentient substance is characterized by the function of understanding, is incorporeal, performs actions, is co-extensive with its own body. It is the enjoyer, located in the world of rebirth emancipated has the intrinsic movement upwards; the qualities of the soul are upyoga. Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer to the disappearing of one state and appearing of another state and these are the modes of the soul, thus Jiva with its attributes and modes, roaming in samsara, may lose its particular form and assume a new one. Again this form may be lost and the original acquired. Matter is classified as solid, gaseous, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter i.e. ultimate particles. Paramāṇu or ultimate particle is the basic building block of all matter.
It possesses at all times four qualities, namely, a color, a taste, a smell, a certain kind of palpability. One of the qualities of the paramāṇu and pudgala is that of indestructibility, it combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. It cannot be created nor destroyed and the total amount of matter in the universe remains the same. Dharma means the principles of Motion. Dharma and Adharma are by themselves not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without Dharma motion is not possible; the medium of motion helps matter and the sentient that are prone to motion to move, like water fish. However, it does not set in motion those. Without adharma and stability is not possible in the universe; the principle of rest helps matter and the sentient that are liable to stay without moving, like the shade helps travellers. It does not stabilize those that move. According to Champat Rai Jain:The necessity of Adharma as the accompanying cause of rest, that is, of cessation of motion will be perceived by any one who will put to himself the question, how jīvas and bodies of matter support themselves when coming to rest from a state of motion.
Gravitation will not do, for, concerned with the determination of the direction which a moving body may take... Space is a substance that accommodates the living souls, the matter, the principle of motion, the principle of rest and time, it is all-pervading and made of infinite space-points. Kāla is said to be the cause of continuity and succession. Champat Rai Jain in his book "The Key of Knowledge wrote:... As a substance which assists other things in performing their ‘temporal’ gyrations, Time can be conceived only in the form of whirling posts; that these whirling posts, as we have called the units of Time, cannot, in any manner, be conceived as parts of the substances that revolve around them, is obvious from the fact that they are necessary for the continuance of all other substances, including souls and atoms of matter which are simple ultimate units, cannot be imagined as carrying a pin each to revolve upon. Time must, therefore, be considered as a separate substance which assists other substances and things in their movements of continuity.
Jaina philosophers call the substance of Time as Niścay Time to distinguish it from vyavhāra Time, a measure of duration- hours and the like. Out of the six dravyas, five except time have been described as astikayas, that is, extensions or conglomerates. Since like conglomerates, they have numerous space points, they are described as astikaya. There are innumerable space points in the sentient substance and in the media of motion and rest, infinite ones in space. Time has only one. Hence the corresponding conglomerates or extensions are called—jivastikaya, dharmastikaya and akastikaya. Together they are called the five astikayas; these substances have some common gunas such as: Astitva: indestructibility.
Bhaktamara Stotra is a famous Jain Sanskrit prayer. It was composed by Acharya Manatunga; the name Bhaktamara comes from a combination of two Sanskrit names, "Bhakta" and "Amar". The prayer praises the first Tirthankara of Jainism in this time cycle. There are forty-eight verses in total; the last verse gives the name of the author Manatunga. Bhaktamar verses have been recited as a stotra, sung as a stavan, somewhat interchangeably. Other Jain prayers have taken after these. Bhaktamar stotra word by word meaning in hindi. Https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=1RdKg9zmOevWA40Z7aXK4boUHN2I9GtF4 According to legends, Manatunga Āchārya was chained and imprisoned by the local King Bhoja. Mantunga Āchārya composed this stotra in the prison. With the completion of each verse, a chain broke. Manatunga was free. Legends associate Manatunga with a ruler named Bhoja; however Manatunga lived a few centuries before Raja Bhoja of Dhara. He is identified by some scholars as Kshapanaka, one of the Navaratnas in the court of legendary Vikramaditya.
An unidentified Sanskrit poet Matanga, composer of "Brahaddeshi" on music theory, may have been the same person. Bhaktamara stotra was composed sometime in the Gupta or the post-Gupta period, making Manatunga contemporary with other navaratnas like Kalidasa and Varahamihira. Several spots near Bhopal and Dhar are traditionally associated with Manatunga. Bhaktamara Stotra is believed to be at least a thousand years old, though many believe it to be still older. Bhaktamara Stotra has been passed down from generation to generation, it is an ageless panegyric. The importance and effectiveness is believed to have increased with the passage of time. Bhaktamara Stotra is recited by many with religious regularity; the original Stotra is in Sanskrit and written in Devnagiri script. The Bhaktamar Stotra has 48 stanzas; every stanza has four parts. Every part has 14 letters; the complete panegyric is formed by 26 88 letters. It is said that some specific stanzas are miraculously effective for fulfilment of different purposes.
Bhaktamara stotra is illustrated in paintings. At the Sanghiji temple at Sanganer, there is a panel illustrating each verse; the verses of Bhaktamar are thought to possess magical properties. A mystical diagram, yantra, is associated with each verse. "Sadhak Shivaanand Saraswati" has painted a number of yantras associated with Bhaktamar stotra. There is a temple at Bharuch with a section dedicated to its author Manatunga; the Bhaktamara Stotra is composed in the meter "Vasantatilka". All the fourteen syllables of this meter are divided between short and long syllables i.e. seven laghu and seven gurus and this belongs to sakvari group of meters. It is believed that such an equal division into short and long syllables will help an aspirant attain the state of equanimity the meter itself serving as a catalyst. Jain, Vijay K. Acharya Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya, ISBN 9788190363945 Dundas, The Jains, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X
Jain cosmology is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe and its constituents according to Jainism. Jain cosmology considers the universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having neither beginning nor end. Jain texts describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist; this Universe, according to Jainism, is broad at the top, narrow at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom. According to Jains, the Universe is made up of six simple and eternal substances called dravya which are broadly categorized under Jiva and Ajiva as follows: Jīva Jīva i.e. Souls – Jīva exists as a reality, having a separate existence from the body that houses it, it is characterised by upayoga. Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer to the disappearing of one state of soul and appearing of another state, these being the modes of the soul. Ajīva Pudgala – Matter is classified as solid, gaseous, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter i.e. ultimate particles.
Paramāṇu or ultimate particle is the basic building block of all matter. The Paramāṇu and Pudgala are indestructible. Matter combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. According to Jainism, it destroyed. Dharma-dravya and Adharma-dravya – Dharmastikāya and Adharmastikāya are distinctly peculiar to Jaina system of thought depicting the principle of Motion and Rest, they are said to pervade the entire universe. Dharma and Adharma are by itself not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without Dharmastikāya motion is not possible and without Adharmastikāya rest is not possible in the universe. Ākāśa – Space is a substance that accommodates the living souls, the matter, the principle of motion, the principle of rest and time. It is all-pervading and made of infinite space-points. Kāla – Kāla is an eternal substance according to Jainism and all activities, changes or modifications can be achieved only through the progress of time. According to the Jain text, Dravyasaṃgraha: Conventional time is perceived by the senses through the transformations and modifications of substances.
Real time, however, is the cause of imperceptible, minute changes that go on incessantly in all substances. The Jain doctrine postulates an eternal and ever-existing world which works on universal natural laws; the existence of a creator deity is overwhelmingly opposed in the Jain doctrine. Mahāpurāṇa, a Jain text authored by Ācārya Jinasena is famous for this quote: According to Jains, the universe has a firm and an unalterable shape, measured in the Jain texts by means of a unit called Rajju, supposed to be large; the Digambara sect of Jainism postulates that the universe is fourteen Rajju high and extends seven Rajjus from north to south. Its breadth is seven Rajjus at the bottom and decreases till the middle where it is one Rajju; the width increases till it is five Rajju and again decreases till it is one Rajju. The apex of the universe is one Rajju wide and eight Rajju high; the total space of the world is thus 343 cubic Rajju. The svetambara view differs and postulates that there is constant increase and decrease in the breadth and the space is 239 cubic Rajju.
Apart from the apex, the abode of liberated beings, the universe is divided into three parts. The world is surrounded by three atmospheres: dense-wind and thin-wind, it is surrounded by infinitely large non-world, empty. The whole world is said to be filled with living beings. In all the three parts, there is the existence of small living beings called nigoda. Nigoda are of two types: Itara-nigoda. Nitya-nigoda are those which will reborn as nigoda throughout eternity where as Itara-nigoda will be reborn as other beings too; the mobile region of universe is one Rajju broad and fourteen Rajju high. Within this, there are animals and plants everywhere where as Human beings are restricted to 2.5 continents of middle world. The beings inhabiting lower world are called Naraki. Deva live in top three realms of lower world. Living beings are divided in fourteen classes: 1. Fine beings with one sense. 2. Crude beings with one sense. 3. Beings with two sense. 4. Beings with three sense. 5. Beings with four sense. 6.
Beings with five sense without mind. 7. Beings with five sense with a mind; these can be developed which makes it a total of fourteen. Human beings are the only ones which can attain salvation; the early Jains contemplated the nature of the earth and universe and developed a detailed hypothesis on the various aspects of astronomy and cosmology. According to the Jain texts, the universe is divided into 3 parts: Urdhva Loka – the realms of the gods or heavens Madhya Loka – the realms of the humans and plants Adho Loka – the realms of the hellish beings or the infernal regionsThe following Upanga āgamas describe the Jain cosmology and geography in a great detail: Sūryaprajñapti – Treatise on Sun Jambūdvīpaprajñapti - Treatise on the island of Roseapple tree.