The Metropolitan Cathedral–Basilica of the Assumption of Our Lady of Valencia, alternatively known as Saint Mary's Cathedral or Valencia Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic parish church in Valencia, Spain. The cathedral was consecrated in 1238 by the first bishop of Valencia after the Reconquista, Pere d'Albalat, Archbishop of Tarragona, was dedicated to Saint Mary by order of James I the Conqueror, it was built over the site of the former Visigothic cathedral, which under the Moors had been turned into a mosque. Valencian Gothic is the predominant architectural style of the cathedral, although it contains Romanesque, French Gothic, Renaissance and Neoclassical elements; the cathedral contains numerous 15th-century paintings, some by local artists, others by artists from Rome engaged by the Valencian Pope Alexander VI who, when still a cardinal, made the request to elevate the Valencian See to the rank of metropolitan see, a category granted by Pope Innocent VIII in 1492. Most of Valencia Cathedral was built between the 13th century and the 15th century, this style was Gothic.
However, its construction went on for centuries. As a consequence there is a mixture of artistic styles, ranging from the early Romanesque, Valencian Gothic, Renaissance and Neoclassical. Excavations of Almoina Archaeological Centre have unearthed the remains of the ancient Visigothic cathedral, which became a mosque. There is documentary evidence that some decades after the Christian conquest of the city, the mosque-cathedral remained standing with the Koranic inscriptions on the walls, until 22 June 1262, when the bishop Andreu d'Albalat resolved to knock it down and build a new cathedral in its place according to the plans of the architect Arnau Vidal. Hypothetically, the ancient Muslim mosque would correspond with the current transept of the cathedral, the Apostles' gate would be the entrance to the mosque and the Almoina gate the mihrab. Stones from neighboring quarries in Burjassot and Godella were used to build the cathedral, but from other more distant quarries such as those in Benidorm and Xàbia which came by boat.
Some reasons for the simplicity and sobriety of Valencia Cathedral are that it was built to mark the Christian territory against the Muslims, that it was not a work by a king, but by the local bourgeoisie. Although there are several styles of construction, this cathedral is a Gothic building, a cruciform plan with transepts north and south, a crossing covered by an octagonal tower, with an ambulatory and a polygonal apse; this cathedral was begun at the end of the 13th century at the same time as the mosque was being demolished. The first part to be finished was the ambulatory with its eight radiating chapels, the Almoina Romanesque gate. Between 1300 and 1350 the crossing was finished and its west side went up as far as the Baroque Apostles' Gate. Three out of the four sections of the naves and transepts were built; the crossing tower was begun. The old chapter house, where the canons met to discuss internal affairs, the belfry, known as "Micalet" or "El Miguelete", were separate from the rest of the church, but in 1459 the architects Francesc Baldomar and Pere Compte expanded the nave and transepts in a further section, known as Arcada Nova, joined both the chapter house and the Micalet with the rest of the cathedral, thereby attaining 94 metres in length and 53.65 metres in width.
The centuries of the Renaissance had little influence on the architecture of the cathedral but much more on its pictorial decoration, such as the one at the high altar, sculptural decoration, such as the one in the Resurrection chapel. During the Baroque period, the German Konrad Rudolf designed in 1703 the main door of the cathedral, known as the Iron gate due to the cast-iron fence that surrounds it; because of the War of the Spanish Succession he could not finish it, this task fell to the sculptors Francisco Vergara and Ignacio Vergara. Its concave shape, which causes a unique and studied perspective effect, was distorted during the 20th century because of the demolition of some adjacent buildings to expand the square. A project to renew the building was launched during the last third of the 18th century, whose intention was to give a uniform neoclassical appearance to the church, different from the original Gothic style, considered a vulgar work in comparison. Works started in 1774, directed by the architect Antoni Gilabert Fornés.
The reshuffle affected both constructive and ornamental elements: the pinnacles were removed outside, the Gothic structure was masked by stucco and other pseudo-classical elements. In 1931 the church was declared a historic and artistic landmark by the Spanish government, but during the Spanish Civil War it was burned, which meant that it lost part of its decorative elements; the choir, located in the central part, was dismantled in 1940 and moved to the bottom of the high altar. The musical organs, which had suffered major damage during the war, were never rebuilt. In 1970, the Houses of Canons, a building attached to the chapels facing Micalet street, were demolished to give the cathedral back its previous appearance, at the same time elements of little or no architectural value were removed; the task of removing the Neoclassical elements in order to recover the original Gothic aspect was u
Jesus referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, is described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament. All modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew, baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry, he preached orally and was referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers, he was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, the community they formed became the early Church.
The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25th as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on his resurrection on Easter; the used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini, the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe; the Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or as non-scriptural. Jesus figures in non-Christian religions and new religious movements.
In Islam, Jesus is considered one of the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God; the Quran states. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, was neither divine nor resurrected. A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of <father's name>", or the individual's hometown. Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth". Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon", "the carpenter's son", or "Joseph's son". In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth"; the name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς. The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע, a variant of the earlier name יהושע, or in English, "Joshua", meaning "Yah saves".
This was the name of Moses' successor and of a Jewish high priest. The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus; the 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus. The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is given as "Yahweh is salvation". Since early Christianity, Christians have referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ"; the word Christ was a office, not a given name. It derives from the Greek Χριστός, a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh meaning "anointed", is transliterated into English as "Messiah". In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture. Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.
In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term "Christian" has been in use since the 1st century; the four canonical gospels are the foremost sources for the message of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23. Acts of the Apostles refers to the early ministry of its anticipation by John the Baptist. Acts 1:1 -- 11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus. In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus are cited several times; some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel
A folk dance is developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region. Not all ethnic dances are folk dances. For example, ritual dances or dances of ritual origin are not considered to be folk dances. Ritual dances are called "Religious dances" because of their purpose; the terms "ethnic" and "traditional" are used when it is required to emphasize the cultural roots of the dance. In this sense, nearly all folk dances are ethnic ones. If some dances, such as polka, cross ethnic boundaries and cross the boundary between "folk" and "ballroom dance", ethnic differences are considerable enough to mention, they share some or all of the following attributes: Dances are held at folk dance gatherings or social functions by people with little or no professional training to traditional music. Dances not designed for public performance or the stage, though they may be arranged and set for stage performances. Execution dominated by an inherited tradition from various international cultures rather than innovation.
New dancers learn informally by observing others or receiving help from others. More controversially, some people define folk dancing as dancing for which there is no governing body or dancing for which there are no competitive or professional institutions; the term "folk dance" is sometimes applied to dances of historical importance in European culture and history. For other cultures the terms "ethnic dance" or "traditional dance" are sometimes used, although the latter terms may encompass ceremonial dances. There are a number of modern dances, such as hip hop dance, that evolve spontaneously, but the term "folk dance" is not applied to them, the terms "street dance" or "vernacular dance" are used instead; the term "folk dance" is reserved for dances which are to a significant degree bound by tradition and originated in the times when the distinction existed between the dances of "common folk" and the dances of the modern ballroom dances originated from folk ones. Varieties of European folk dances include: Sword dances include long sword dances and rapper dancing.
Some choreographed dances such as contra dance, Scottish country dance, modern Western square dance, are called folk dances, though this is not true in the strictest sense. Country dance overlaps with contemporary folk ballroom dance. Most country dances and ballroom dances originated from folk dances, with gradual refinement over the years. People familiar with folk dancing can determine what country a dance is from if they have not seen that particular dance before; some countries' dances have features that are unique to that country, although neighboring countries sometimes have similar features. For example, the German and Austrian schuhplattling dance consists of slapping the body and shoes in a fixed pattern, a feature that few other countries' dances have. Folk dances sometimes evolved long before current political boundaries, so that certain dances are shared by several countries. For example, some Serbian and Croatian dances share the same or similar dances, sometimes use the same name and music for those dances.
International folk dance groups exist in cities and college campuses in many countries, in which dancers learn folk dances from many cultures for recreation. Balfolk events are social dance events with live music in Western and Central Europe, originating in the folk revival of the 1970s and becoming more popular since about 2000, where popular European partner dances from the end of the 19th century such as the schottische, polka and waltz are danced, with additionally other European folk dances from France, but from Sweden and other countries. Attan - The national dance of Pakistan. Folk dance of Pashtuns tribes of Pakistan including the unique styles of Quetta and Waziristan in Pakistan. Lewa - Baluch folk dance in Pakistan. Khattak Dance - Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Chitrali Dance - Chitral, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Azerbaijani dances Kurdish dance Dabke, a folk dance of the Levant Thabal chongba Assyrian folk dance Armenian dance Bhangra, a Punjabi harvest dance in Pakistan and music style that has become popular worldwide.
Bihu, an Assamese dance celebrating the arrival of spring, traditionally the beginning of the Assamese New Year Garba Circular Devotional dance from Gujarat danced the world over Kalbelia is one of the most sensuous dance forms of Rajasthan, performed by the kalbelia tribe Khigga, a common folk dance among Assyrian people Israeli folk dance Odori, Japanese traditional dance danced in long parades in the streets where anyone can join in Buyō, typical dance of the Japanese geishas or dance artists Kyushtdepdi - The national dance of Turkmenistan Yangge Romvong Bon dance Rimse Kachāshī Nongak Cariñosa Tinikling Singkil Maglalatik Binasuan Pandanggo Pista Kuratsa Magkasuyo Sayaw sa Bangko Itik-itik kuratsa La Jota Moncadena Balse Marikina Paraguanen Kuntao Silat Amil Bangsa Benjan Lerion Kalesa Zapin Bamboo dance Baile Folklorico Hula Haka List of ethnic and folk dances sorted by origin Dance basic topics, a list of general dance topics Balfolk, contemporary folk dance practised across Europe Elizabeth Burchinal, authority on American folk dance Folk Dance Hawaii Folk dancing at Curlie Dancilla Folklore People Community Folk Dance Folklore Festivals Folklore Festivals Society for International Folk Dancing
Mercado Central, Valencia
Mercado Central or Mercat Central is a public market located in across from the Llotja de la Seda and the church of the Juanes in central Valencia, Spain. It is one of the main works of the Valencian Art Nouveau. In 1839, the spot had been used to inaugurate an open-air marketplace called Mercat Nou. By the end of the century the city of Valencia sponsored a contest for the construction of a new roofed market. A new contest in 1910 selected the present design by Alejandro Soler March and Francisco Guàrdia Vial, who had trained at the School of Architecture of Barcelona and collaborated with Luis Doménech Montaner. Construction began in 1914 and was not completed until 1928 by the Valencian architect Enrique Viedma Vidal; the Central Market of Valencia is one of the largest in Europe, covers more than 8,000 square metres, over two floors, with a predominantly Valencian Art Nouveau style. Its unusual roof comprises original domes and sloping sections at different heights, while the interior seems to be lined in a range of materials such as iron, wood and polychromed tiles.
The beauty of the building stands out on account of the light that enters through the roof at various points, through coloured window panels. The style blends a modern Valencian Art Nouveau style but mirrors some of the architectural influences of nearby buildings such as the Valencian Gothic style Lonja de la Seda and the eclectic Gothic-baroque church of Sants Juanes, it celebrates the power of iron and glass to permit the construction of large open spaces, but still utilizes domes at crossings. Most vendors sell food items, although souvenir shops and restaurants are located inside the market as well, it is a popular location for locals alike. Website of the Central Market of Valencia Central Market of Valencia Turespaña, Spain National Tourism Agency. Valencia Tourism
Torres de Serranos
The Serrans Gate or Serranos Gate known as Serrans Towers or Serranos Towers is one of the twelve gates that formed part of the ancient city wall, the Christian Wall, of the city of Valencia, Spain. It was built in Valencian Gothic style at the end of the 14th century, its name is due to its location in the northeast of the old city centre, making it the entry point for the royal road connecting Valencia with the comarca or district of Els Serrans as well as the entry point for the royal road to Barcelona, or because the majority of settlers near there in the time of James I of Aragon were from the area around Teruel, whose inhabitants were called serrans by the Valencians. Alternatively, the gate may have been named after an important family, the Serrans, who lived in a street with the same name, it is an important one of the best preserved monuments of Valencia. Of the ancient city wall, pulled down in 1865 on the orders of the provincial governor Cirilio Amorós, only the Serrans Towers, the 15th century Quart Towers, some other archaeological remains and ruins, such as those of the Jewish Gate, have survived.
The Torres de Serrans were built in 1392, by Pere Balaguer. It was the main entrance to the city and it was built with a defensive function. From 1586 until 1887 the towers were used as a prison for nobles. Commissioned by the Valencian government, the Serrans Towers were built by the architect Pere Balaguer, inspired by other Gothic gates with polygonal towers, such as the Porta de Sant Miquel in Morella and the Royal Gate of the Poblet Monastery, showing Genoese influences. Construction began on 6 April 1392, on the site of an older gateway; the walls consist of solid stone, as their main purpose was fortification. However, they are covered with a cladding of limestone from Alginet, a town near Valencia, in order to give the building a more luxurious, distinguished appearance. In 1397, when the works were nearly finished, it became apparent that the access to the main floor had to be improved. An enormous, monumental stone staircase was built, enlarging the building and facilitating its use for welcoming parties.
The works were completed in March 1398. For a long time, its main purpose was to defend the city in the event of a siege or attack, but it was regularly used for ceremonies, such as official welcoming ceremonies for ambassadors and kings, as it was deemed to be the main entrance to the city. After one of the main prisons of Valencia burnt down in 1586, the towers were turned into a prison for knights and the nobility until the prisoners were transferred to the monastery of Saint Austin in 1887. Since they have been used for different purposes, for instance for a wide range of official ceremonies and as a museum. During the Spanish Civil War, works of art from the Prado Museum were stored in the building, which made a number of modifications necessary; the reinforced concrete was covered by a one-meter layer of soil. Another one-meter layer of soil was laid on the second floor, the terrace was covered with sandbags. Moreover, an automatic system of humidity and temperature control was installed.
This project was directed by the architect of the Artistic Treasures Board. Like the Cuart Towers, the Serranos Towers survived the demolition of the city wall due to their use as a prison, but the building its internal structure, was damaged. Thus, the large arches opening out onto the internal part of the building were walled up, several windows were built into the outside walls, the battlements crowning the towers disappeared. In 1871, the city council decided to fill in the ditch in front of the gate, which affected the appearance of the building. Between 1893 and 1914, its restoration, directed by the sculptor José Aixá, was carried out by The Royal Academy of San Carlos. In 2000, the stone surfaces were cleaned. At present, the Serranos Towers are open to the public. From the top of the building, visitors can enjoy an amazing view of the city of Valencia, they are used for different official ceremonies of the City of Valencia, the most famous of, the crida, the opening ceremony of the Fallas.
On the last Sunday of February, the Fallera Mayor declares the Fallas open from a platform erected in front of the building, followed by the singing of the anthem of the Valencian Community
The nave is the central part of a church, stretching from the main entrance or rear wall, to the transepts, or in a church without transepts, to the chancel. When a church contains side aisles, as in a basilica-type building, the strict definition of the term "nave" is restricted to the central aisle. In a broader, more colloquial sense, the nave includes all areas available for the lay worshippers, including the side-aisles and transepts. Either way, the nave is distinct from the area reserved for clergy; the nave extends from the entry—which may have a separate vestibule —to the chancel and may be flanked by lower side-aisles separated from the nave by an arcade. If the aisles are high and of a width comparable to the central nave, the structure is sometimes said to have three naves, it provides the central approach to the high altar. The term nave is from navis, the Latin word for ship, an early Christian symbol of the Church as a whole, with a possible connection to the "ship of St. Peter" or the Ark of Noah.
The term may have been suggested by the keel shape of the vaulting of a church. In many Scandinavian and Baltic countries a model ship is found hanging in the nave of a church, in some languages the same word means both'nave' and'ship', as for instance Danish skib, Swedish skepp or Spanish; the earliest churches were built when builders were familiar with the form of the Roman basilica, a public building for business transactions. It had a wide central area, with aisles separated by columns, with windows near the ceiling. Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome is an early church, it was built in the 4th century on the orders of Roman emperor Constantine I, replaced in the 16th century. The nave, the main body of the building, is the section set apart for the laity, while the chancel is reserved for the clergy. In medieval churches the nave was separated from the chancel by the rood screen. Medieval naves were divided into the repetition of form giving an effect of great length. During the Renaissance, in place of dramatic effects there were more balanced proportions.
Longest nave in Denmark: Aarhus Cathedral, 93 m Longest nave in England: St Albans Cathedral, St Albans, 85 m Longest nave in Ireland: St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, 91 m, externally Longest nave in France: Bourges Cathedral, 91 m, including choir where a crossing would be if there were transepts Longest nave in Germany: Cologne cathedral, 58 m, including two bays between the towers Longest nave in Italy: St Peter's Basilica in Rome, 91 m, in four bays Longest nave in Spain: Seville, 60 m, in five bays Longest nave in the United States: Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, New York City, United States, 70 m Highest vaulted nave: Beauvais Cathedral, France, 48 m, but only one bay of the nave was built. Highest completed nave: Rome, St. Peter's, Italy, 46 m Abbey, with architectural discussion and groundplans Cathedral architecture Cathedral diagram List of highest church naves
Acislo Antonio Palomino de Castro y Velasco was a Spanish painter of the Baroque period, a writer on art, author of El Museo pictórico y escala óptica, which contains a large amount of important biographical material on Spanish artists. Antonio Palomino was born to a respectable family at Bujalance, near Córdoba in 1653, he studied philosophy and law at Córdoba, had lessons in painting from Juan de Valdés Leal, who visited there in 1672, afterwards from Juan de Alfaro y Gamez in 1675. After taking minor orders Palomino moved to Madrid in 1678, where he associated with Alfaro, Claudio Coello, Juan Carreño de Miranda, executed some indifferent frescoes, he soon afterwards married a lady of rank, having been appointed alcalde of the mesta, was himself ennobled. The artist visited Valencia in 1697, remained there for three or four years, again devoting himself to fresco painting, including the ceilings of the church of the Santos Juanes. Between 1705 and 1715 he spent considerable amounts of time in Granada and Córdoba.
He painted the ceiling fresco in the dome of the sacristy of the Cartuja de Granada. After the death of his wife in 1725 Palomino took priest's orders, he died on 13 August 1726. Palomino's El Museo pictórico y escala óptica first appeared in 1715–24 in a three-volume folio edition; the first two parts, on the theory and practice of the art of painting, have had little influence. The third, subtitled El Parnaso español pintoresco laureado, contains a large amount of important biographical material relating to Spanish artists, despite its uneven style, has led to the author being called "the Spanish Vasari", it was translated into English in 1739 as An account of the lives and works of the most eminent Spanish painters and architects. A German version was published at Dresden in 1781, a reprint of the entire work at Madrid in 1797. A modern English translation of the abridgment by Nina Ayala Mallory came out in 1987 from Cambridge University Press. Las vidas de los pintores y estatuarios eminentes españoles, que con sus heroycas obras, han ilustrado la nacion An account of the lives and works of the most eminent Spanish painters and architects, tr. from the Musæum pictorium