Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Herbert Clark Hoover was an American engineer and politician who served as the 31st president of the United States from 1929 to 1933. A member of the Republican Party, he held office during the onset of the Great Depression. Prior to serving as president, Hoover led the Commission for Relief in Belgium, served as the director of the U. S. Food Administration, served as the 3rd U. S. Secretary of Commerce. Born to a Quaker family in West Branch, Hoover took a position with a London-based mining company after graduating from Stanford University in 1895. After the outbreak of World War I, he became the head of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, an international relief organization that provided food to occupied Belgium; when the U. S. entered the war, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover to lead the Food Administration, Hoover became known as the country's "food czar". After the war, Hoover led the American Relief Administration, which provided food to the inhabitants of Central Europe and Eastern Europe.
Hoover's war-time service made him a favorite of many progressives, he unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination in the 1920 presidential election. After the 1920 election, newly-elected Republican President Warren G. Harding appointed Hoover as Secretary of Commerce. Hoover was an unusually active and visible cabinet member, becoming known as "Secretary of Commerce and Under-Secretary of all other departments", he was influential in the development of radio and air travel and led the federal response to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. Hoover won the Republican nomination in the 1928 presidential election, decisively defeated the Democratic candidate, Al Smith; the stock market crashed shortly after Hoover took office, the Great Depression became the central issue of his presidency. Hoover pursued a variety of policies in an attempt to lift the economy, but opposed directly involving the federal government in relief efforts. In the midst of an ongoing economic crisis, Hoover was decisively defeated by Democratic nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election.
Hoover enjoyed one of the longest retirements of any former president, he authored numerous works. After leaving office, Hoover became conservative, he criticized Roosevelt's foreign policy and New Deal domestic agenda. In the 1940s and 1950s, Hoover's public reputation was rehabilitated as he served for Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower in various assignments, including as chairman of the Hoover Commission. Hoover is not ranked in historical rankings of presidents of the United States. Herbert Hoover was born on August 1874 in West Branch, Iowa, his father, Jesse Hoover, was a blacksmith and farm implement store owner of German and English ancestry. Hoover's mother, Hulda Randall Minthorn, was raised in Norwich, Canada, before moving to Iowa in 1859. Like most other citizens of West Branch and Hulda were Quakers; as a child, Hoover attended schools, but he did little reading on his own aside from the Bible. Hoover's father, noted by the local paper for his "pleasant, sunshiny disposition", died in 1880 at the age of 34.
Hoover's mother died in 1884, leaving Hoover, his older brother and his younger sister, May, as orphans. In 1885, Hoover was sent to Newberg, Oregon to live with his uncle John Minthorn, a Quaker physician and businessman whose own son had died the year before; the Minthorn household was considered cultured and educational, imparted a strong work ethic. Much like West Branch, Newberg was a frontier town settled by Midwestern Quakers. Minthorn ensured that Hoover received an education, but Hoover disliked the many chores assigned to him and resented Minthorn. One observer described Hoover as "an orphan seemed to be neglected in many ways." Hoover attended Friends Pacific Academy, but dropped out at the age of thirteen to become an office assistant for his uncle's real estate office in Salem, Oregon. Though he did not attend high school, Hoover learned bookkeeping and mathematics at a night school. Hoover entered Stanford University in 1891, its inaugural year, despite failing all the entrance exams except mathematics.
During his freshman year, he switched his major from mechanical engineering to geology after working for John Casper Branner, the chair of Stanford's geology department. Hoover was a mediocre student, he spent much of his time working in various part-time jobs or participating in campus activities. Though he was shy among fellow students, Hoover won election as student treasurer and became known for his distaste for fraternities and sororities, he served as student manager of both the baseball and football teams, helped organize the inaugural Big Game versus the University of California. During the summers before and after his senior year, Hoover interned under economic geologist Waldemar Lindgren of the United States Geological Survey; when Hoover graduated from Stanford in 1895, the country was in the midst of the Panic of 1893, he struggled to find a job. He worked in various low-level mining jobs in the Sierra Nevada mountain range until he convinced prominent mining engineer Louis Janin to hire him.
After working as a mine scout for a year, Hoover was hired by Bewick, Moreing & Co. a London-based company that operated gold mines in Western Australia. Hoover first went to Coolgardie the center of the Eastern Goldfields. Though Hoover received a $5,000 salary, conditions were h
Earle Chester Clements was an American farmer and politician. He represented the state of Kentucky in both the U. S. House of Representatives and the U. S. Senate and was its 47th Governor, serving from 1947 to 1950. For three decades, he was the leader of a faction of the state's Democratic Party that stood in opposition to the faction led by two-time governor and senator A. B. "Happy" Chandler. After following his father into the local politics of his home county, Clements agreed to chair the gubernatorial campaign of Thomas Rhea in 1935. Committed to Rhea, he turned down an offer from Happy Chandler to chair his campaign, beginning the rift between the two men. Clements went on to the Kentucky Senate in 1941. In 1944, he was selected as Democratic floor leader of the senate and campaigned for a larger budget than that proposed by Republican governor Simeon Willis, his stand against Willis made him popular in the Democratic Party, he went on to serve two terms in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1944 to 1948.
In 1947, Clements succeeded Willis as governor, defeating Harry Lee Waterfield, Chandler's preferred candidate, in the Democratic primary. As governor, Clements raised taxes and used the revenue to increase funding for the state park system and construct and maintain more roads, he achieved advancements in education, including some progress toward desegregation. In 1950, Clements was elected to the U. S. Senate, he resigned as governor to accept his Senate seat. While in the Senate, he served as Democratic party whip under party leader Lyndon Johnson and as executive director of the Senate Democratic Reelection Committee from 1957 to 1959, he was defeated by Thruston Morton in his re-election bid in 1956. At Johnson's insistence, Clements resumed chairing the Senate Democratic Reelection Committee in 1957 and 1959. Clements had supported Bert T. Combs for governor against Chandler in 1955, did so again against Harry Lee Waterfield in 1959. Combs defeated rewarded Clements by appointing him state highway commissioner.
In 1961, Clements and Combs split over a proposed deal to lease dump trucks from a Louisville car dealer. State newspapers charged that the deal was payback to a Combs supporter; when Combs canceled the deal Clements took it as a public rebuke and soon after resigned to work on the presidential campaign of his friend, Lyndon Johnson. Following his split with Combs, Clements allied himself with the Chandler faction, opposing Combs' lieutenant governor, Wilson Wyatt in his bid to unseat Senator Thruston Morton. Clements' influence declined after the split with Combs, by the 1963 gubernatorial race, he was unable to deliver his home county for Chandler in the primary against Edward T. Breathitt. Clements died in his hometown of Morganfield, Kentucky on March 12, 1985. Earle C. Clements was born in Morganfield, Kentucky on October 22, 1896, he was the youngest of four daughters born to Aaron Waller and Sallie Anna Clements. His father was a popular county judge and sheriff in Union County, but Clements at first shunned a political career.
He obtained his early education in the public schools, graduated from Morganfield High School in 1915. In 1915, he enrolled at the University of Kentucky's College of Agriculture. In 1915 and 1916, he played center on the football team, was named to the "All-Southern Team" in 1916, he was a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity. Clements' studies were interrupted by World War I. On July 9, 1917, he enlisted as a private in Company M of the Kentucky National Guard; the company was ordered to Camp Taylor near Louisville, Kentucky where they were mustered into the infantry of the U. S. Army. Clements first served as a guard at Camp Taylor and entered the Officers Training School at Fort Benjamin Harrison near Indianapolis, Indiana, he graduated with the rank of first lieutenant and remained stateside as a professor of military science. He served for a total of 28 months, attaining the rank of captain, was discharged on September 12, 1919. After the war, Clements worked as a rigger in the oil fields of east Texas.
In 1921, his father's health began to fail, he returned to Kentucky to help him on the farm and served as his deputy sheriff. As a hobby, he coached football at his high school alma mater. One of his assistant coaches, Rodes K. Myers, would go on to be lieutenant governor under Keen Johnson. On January 18, 1927, Clements married Sara M. Blue, their only child, Elizabeth Hughes Clements Abell, became social secretary to Lady Bird Johnson and Walter Mondale. In 1922, Clements' father died, Clements was appointed to serve out the remainder of his term, he was subsequently elected to the office. In 1926, he was elected county clerk, he served two terms in that office, with his tenure ending January 1, 1934. In 1934, he was elected county judge. During his two terms, which lasted until 1941, he ordered the paving of 123 miles of road in the county—more than all the previous county judges combined—despite the financial hardships of the Great Depression. In 1935, Thomas Rhea asked Clements to serve as his campaign chairman for the 1935 gubernatorial race.
Clements accepted, had to refuse a request from his boyhood friend, A. B. "Happy" Chandler. Chandler won the Democratic primary, for decades following and Chandler led opposite factions of the Kentucky Democratic Party. Chandler claimed that Clements bolted the party and supported Republican candidate King Swope in the general election.
Andrew J. May
Andrew Jackson May was a Kentucky attorney, an influential New Deal-era politician, chairman of the House Military Affairs Committee during World War II, infamous for his rash disclosure of classified naval information that resulted in the loss of 10 American submarines and 800 sailors, his subsequent conviction for bribery. May was a Democratic member of United States House of Representatives from Kentucky during the 72nd to 79th sessions of Congress. May was born on Beaver Creek, near Prestonsburg in Floyd County, Kentucky, on June 24, 1875. On June 25, 1898, he and his twin brother William H. May graduated from Southern Normal University Law School in Huntingdon and was admitted to the bar the same year, commencing his law practice in Prestonsburg. May and his brother formed the law firm of May & May, not dissolved until the death of his brother on February 20, 1921. May was county attorney of Floyd County, Kentucky, 1901–1909. During this time, May engaged in Democratic Party politics, agricultural pursuits, coal mining and banking.
May was elected as a New Deal Democrat to the Seventy-second Congress and to seven succeeding Congresses. He was Chairman of the powerful Committee on Military Affairs during the Seventy-sixth through Seventy-ninth Congresses, a consistent supporter of the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration. During World War II, May became involved with Murray and Henry Garsson, New York businessmen who sought lucrative munitions contracts being awarded by the U. S. Government. May was responsible for a major release of confidential military information during World War II known as the May Incident. U. S. submarines had been conducting a successful undersea war against Japanese shipping during World War II escaping their anti-submarine depth charge attacks. May revealed the deficiencies of Japanese depth-charge tactics in a press conference held in June 1943 on his return from a war zone junket. At this press conference, he revealed the sensitive fact that American submarines had a high survival rate because Japanese depth charges were exploding at too shallow a depth.
Various press associations sent this leaked news story over their wires and many newspapers published it, including one in Honolulu, Hawaii. After the news became public, Japanese naval antisubmarine forces began adjusting their depth charges to explode at a greater depth. Vice Admiral Charles A. Lockwood, commander of the U. S. submarine fleet in the Pacific, estimated that May's security breach cost the United States Navy as many as ten submarines and 800 crewmen killed in action. He said, "I hear, he would be pleased to know that the Japs set them deeper now." A report from the U. S. Navy's Pacific Submarine Fleet determined that Japanese anti-submarine warfare forces failed to uncover the maximum test depth ability of U. S. fleet submarines during the war. However, the report made no finding as to whether or not Japanese ASW forces altered their depth charge attacks to deeper settings as a consequence of May's revelation to the press. Sometime shortly before or during the U. S. entry into World War II, May became involved with Murray Garsson and Henry Garsson, New York businessmen with no prior arms manufacturing experience who sought lucrative munitions contracts being awarded by the U.
S. Government. May was known to telephone army ordnance and other government officials on the Garssons' behalf to award war contracts, obtain draft deferments, secure other favors for the Garssons and their friends. So numerous were these interventions that one ordnance official referred to them as "blitz calls." After the war, a Senate investigating committee reviewing the Garssons' munitions business discovered evidence that May had received substantial cash payments and other inducements from the Garssons. Following news reports of irregularities concerning his conduct in office, May was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1946 to the Eightieth Congress; the bribery scandal was intensified by testimony of excessive profit-taking in the Garsson munition business, that the Garsson factory produced 4.2-inch mortar shells with defective fuzes, resulting in premature detonation and the deaths of 38 American soldiers. After less than two hours of deliberation, May was convicted by a federal jury on July 3, 1947, on charges of accepting bribes to use his position as Chairman of the Military Affairs Committee to secure munitions contracts during the Second World War.
Murray and Henry Garsson received prison terms. After protracted efforts to avoid incarceration, May subsequently served nine months in federal prison. However, he continued to retain influence in Democratic party politics, President Truman decided to grant May a full pardon in 1952. Unable to revive his political career, he returned home to practice law until his death. May died in Prestonsburg, Kentucky on September 6, 1959, is buried in Mayo Cemetery; the lodge at Jenny Wiley State Resort Park in Prestonsburg, was named after May by Governor Bert T. Combs. List of American federal politicians convicted of crimes List of federal political scandals in the United States News leak Andrew J. May at Find a Grave Loose Lips, DO Sink Ships from ww2pacific.com This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Brent Spence, a native of Newport, was a long time Democratic Congressman and banker from Northern Kentucky. Spence was born in Kentucky to Philip and Virginia Spence, he was graduated from the University of Cincinnati in 1894 with a degree in law and was admitted to the bar that same year. He married Ida Bitterman on September 6, 1919, he was active in local and state politics, serving first in the Kentucky Senate, 1904–1908 as city solicitor of Newport, 1916-1924. In 1930 he was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives from the 5th District, he lost the ensuring primary to Chelf. At the time of his retirement, Spence was one of the oldest members to serve in the House. Spence chaired the U. S. House Banking and Currency Committee, he was a delegate to the 44-nation Bretton Woods Conference in 1944. This led to creating the International Monetary Fund and Bank, Spence's sponsoring legislation in Congress. Spence was a strong supporter of the Fair Deal. During President Roosevelt's administration, he supported the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the National Industrial Recovery Act, the Social Security Act, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.
Altogether Spence was a quiet man, not a good public speaker. However, he could get critical legislation passed, his background in banking is credited for leading him to sponsor the Export-Import Federal Deposit Insurance Act, which doubled insured savings accounts from $5,000 to $10,000. The Brent Spence Bridge of I-75/I-71 which crosses the Ohio River at Covington, Kentucky is named for him, he resided in Kentucky at the time of his death. His funeral service was at St. Paul's Episcopal Church, where he was a lifetime member buried in Evergreen Cemetery. "Brent Spence" in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, John E. Kleber, ed. 1993. Hedlund, Richard. "Brent Spence and the Bretton Woods Legislation", The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 79. United States Congress. "Brent Spence". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Kentucky Historical Markers Brent Spence at Find a Grave Guide to the Brent Spence papers, 1861-1967 housed at the University of Kentucky Libraries Special Collections Research Center
Bethesda is an unincorporated, census-designated place in southern Montgomery County, United States, located just northwest of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C, it takes its name from a local church, the Bethesda Meeting House, which in turn took its name from Jerusalem's Pool of Bethesda. In Aramaic, beth ḥesda means "House of Mercy" and in Hebrew, beit ḥesed means "House of Kindness"; the National Institutes of Health main campus and the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center are in Bethesda, as are a number of corporate and government headquarters. As an unincorporated community, Bethesda has no official boundaries; the United States Census Bureau defines a census-designated place named Bethesda whose center is located at 38°59′N 77°7′W. The United States Geological Survey has defined Bethesda as an area whose center is at 38°58′50″N 77°6′2″W different from the Census Bureau's definition. Other definitions are used by the Bethesda Urban Planning District, the United States Postal Service, other organizations.
According to estimates released by the U. S. Census Bureau in 2013, the community had a total population of 63,374. Most of Bethesda's residents are in Maryland Legislative District 16. Bethesda is situated along a major thoroughfare, the route of an Indian trail. Henry Fleet was an English fur trader and the first European to travel to the area, which he reached by sailing up the Potomac River, he stayed with the Piscataway tribe from 1623 to 1627 as both a guest and a prisoner returned to England. He spoke of potential riches in fur and gold, won funding for another American expedition. Most early settlers in Maryland were tenant farmers who paid their rent in tobacco, colonists continued to push farther north in search of fertile land. Henry Darnall surveyed a 710-acre area in 1694 which became the first land grant in Bethesda. and tobacco farming was the primary way of life in Bethesda throughout the 1700s. The establishment of Washington, D. C. in 1790 deprived Montgomery County of its economic center at Georgetown, although the event had little effect on the small farmers throughout Bethesda.
Between 1805 and 1821, Bethesda became a rural way station after development of the Washington and Rockville Turnpike, which carried tobacco and other products between Georgetown and Rockville, north to Frederick. A small settlement grew around a store and tollhouse along the turnpike by 1862 known as "Darcy's Store", named after the store's owner William E. Darcy; the settlement was renamed in 1871 by postmaster Robert Franck after the Bethesda Meeting House, a Presbyterian church built in 1820. The church burned in 1849 and was rebuilt the same year about 100 yards south, its former location became the Cemetery of the Bethesda Meeting House. Bethesda did not develop beyond a small crossroads village through the 19th century, consisting of a blacksmith shop, a church and school, a few houses and stores. In 1852, the postmaster general established a post office in Bethesda and appointed Rev. A. R. Smith its first postmaster. A streetcar line was established in 1890 and suburbanization increased in the early 1900s, Bethesda began to grow in population.
Communities that were situated near railroad lines had grown the fastest during the 19th century, but mass production of the automobile ended that dependency and Bethesda planners grew the community with the transportation revolution in mind. This included becoming a key stopping point for the B & O railroad on their Georgetown Branch line completed around 1910 that ran from Silver Spring to Georgetown, passing through Bethesda on the way; the branch had a storage yard there and multiple sidings that served the industries in Bethesda in the early 20th century. B & O successor CSX ceased train service on the line in 1985, so the county transformed it into a trail in the rails-to-trails movement; the tracks were removed in 1994 and the first part of the trail was opened in 1998. Subdivisions began to appear on old farmland in the late 19th century, becoming the neighborhoods of Drummond, Woodmont and Battery Park. Farther north, several wealthy men made Rockville Pike famous for its mansions; these included Brainard W. Parker, James Oyster, George E. Hamilton, Luke I.
Wilson, Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor, George Freeland Peter. In 1930, Dr Armistead Peter's pioneering manor house "Winona" became the clubhouse of the Woodmont Country Club on land, now part of the National Institutes of Health campus. Merle Thorpe's mansion "Pook's Hill" became the home-in-exile of the Norwegian Royal Family during World War II. World War II and the subsequent expansion of government further fed the rapid growth of Bethesda. Both the National Naval Medical Center and the NIH complex were built just to the north of the developing downtown, this drew government contractors, medical professionals, other businesses to the area. In recent years, Bethesda has consolidated as the major urban core and employment center of southwestern Montgomery County; this recent growth has been vigorous following the expansion of Metrorail with a station in Bethesda in 1984. Alan Kay built the Bethesda Metro Center over the Red line metro rail which opened up further commercial and residential development in the immediate vicinity.
In the 2000s, the strict height limits on construction in