Training Support Center Hampton Roads
Training Support Center Hampton Roads is the current name of the facility in Virginia Beach, Virginia USA, long-known as "FTC Dam Neck". It is the home of the "Fleet Combat Training Center Atlantic" of the United States Navy. TSC Hampton Roads is located near the former town of Dam Neck Mills, located in Princess Anne County, it was the site of the 19th century Dam Neck Mills Lifesaving Station of the United States Lifesaving Service, one of five spaced at intervals along the coast in Virginia from Cape Henry south to the border of North Carolina. The U. S. Lifesaving Service merged with other agencies to form the United States Coast Guard in 1915; the area's lifesaving history along the coast line of the Graveyard of the Atlantic is commemorated at the Old Coast Guard Station Museum located in the 1903 Seatack Lifesaving Service Station at 24th street adjacent to the boardwalk of Virginia Beach. The Old Coast Guard Station Museum has artifacts from the 1891 shipwreck of the Dictator, displays of period lifesaving equipment, educational programs, an online "Tower Cam", offering Internet users a similar view to those of members of the Lifesaving crews had over 100 years ago.
The United States Navy acquired the property during World War II to train anti-aircraft gunners. Since that time the mission was expanded to include training of Combat Systems operators and maintenance technicians. One notable former tenant command was Naval Guided Missile School, which provided training for the Polaris and Trident 1 Backfit submarine-launched ballistic missile systems and various surface missile systems. In 2004, FTC Dam Neck was reorganized and renamed Training Support Center Hampton Roads, to align it with the U. S. Navy's "Revolution In Training"; the actual training activity is the Center for Surface Combat Systems, headquartered in Dahlgren, Virginia. TSC Hampton Roads supports the training mission. Other tenant commands at Dam Neck include the United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group, Tactical Training Group Atlantic, Combat Direction System Activity Dam Neck. TSC Hampton Roads is home to the Navy and Marine Corps Intelligence Training Center, which trains Marines and sailors in military intelligence.
Nearby, Dam Neck Annex is part of Naval Air Station Oceana. FTC Dam Neck History of the Dam Neck facility Combat Direction System Activity, Dam Neck
Sumner Increase Kimball
Sumner Increase Kimball was the organizer of the United States Life-Saving Service and the General Superintendent of the Life-Saving Service from 1878-1915. A lawyer and a legislative administrator, Kimball spent his life creating and leading the Life-Saving Service, one of the predecessor services that became the US Coast Guard, transforming it from an uneven collection of facilities round the US coastline into a coherent and well-trained organization. Kimball was born in Lebanon, raised in Sanford, graduated from Bowdoin College in 1855, admitted to the bar in 1858, he was elected to the Maine House of Representatives in 1859. He became a clerk in the United States Treasury Department in 1862, was placed in charge of the Revenue Marine Bureau there in 1871; when the Life-Saving Bureau was organized in 1878 he was appointed its head. Under his direction, the Life-Saving Service was extended to the Great Lakes, he served as superintendent of the Lifesaving Service for 37 years. Kimball served in several other positions at the Treasury Department.
He was the author of Organization and Methods of the United States Life-Saving Service and Joshua James: Life-Saver. Biography - detailed biography, with photographs, on U. S. Coast Guard website The United States Life-Saving Service, contemporary article printed in The Bay State Monthly, 1890 Sumner Increase Kimball at Find a Grave
Martha Jane Coston was an inventor and businesswoman best known for her invention of the Coston flare, a device for signaling at sea. She was born Martha Hunt in Baltimore and moved to Philadelphia in the 1830s. At age 15 or 16, she eloped with a Benjamin Franklin Coston, age 21, who had acquired a reputation as a promising inventor; as a young man, he became director of the U. S. Navy’s scientific laboratory in Washington, D. C. At the Washington Navy Yard, he developed a percussion primer for cannons, he experimented with color-coded night signals to allow communication between ships, which at that time was limited to visual signals such as flags during the day and lanterns at night. After a dispute over payment for his work on the percussion primer, Coston resigned his commission with the Navy in 1847 and became president of the Boston Gas Company, his work with chemical fumes at both the Navy Yard and the Boston Gas Company caused his health to deteriorate, he died in 1848 as a result of the chemical exposure.
His work on the signal flares, while important, was limited to plans and chemical formulas. The years following Benjamin Coston's death were filled with more tragedy for Martha Coston. While searching through her husband's papers, she discovered the notes he had written on night signaling at the Navy Yard, her husband’s incomplete work needed substantial additional effort before it could be turned into a practical signaling system. For nearly ten years, Martha Coston worked to develop a system of flare signaling based on her husband's earlier work. With a limited knowledge of chemistry and pyrotechnics, she relied on the advice of hired chemists and fireworks experts, with mixed results. A breakthrough came in 1858, while she was witnessing the fireworks display in New York City celebrating the completion of the transatlantic telegraph cable, she established the Coston Manufacturing Company to manufacture the signal flares, entered into a business relationship with a pyrotechnics developer to provide the necessary blue color.
On April 5, 1859, she was granted U. S. Patent number 23,536 for a pyrotechnic night signal and code system. Using different combinations of colors, it enabled ships to signal to one another, to signal to shore. Captain C. S. McCauley of the U. S. Navy recommended the use of her flares to Secretary of the Navy Isaac Toucey in 1859. After extended testing, which demonstrated the effectiveness of the system, the U. S. Navy ordered an initial set of 300 flares, placed an order for $6000 worth of the flares. Coston obtained patents in England, Italy, Denmark and the Netherlands, sailed to England to begin marketing her invention there and in other parts of Europe, she remained in Europe until 1861, when she returned to the U. S. on the outbreak of the Civil War. She went directly to Washington, where she petitioned Congress to purchase the patent so that the flares could be used in the approaching conflict. After some delay, Congress passed an act on August 5, 1861, authorizing the U. S. Navy to purchase the patent for $20,000, though less than the $40,000 she had demanded.
Coston flares were used extensively by the U. S. Navy during the Civil War. Coston flares played an important role in coordinating naval operations during the battle of Fort Fisher in North Carolina on January 13–15, 1865. In 1871, Coston obtained a patent in her own name - Patent No. 115,935, Improvement in Pyrotechnic Night Signals. In addition to working on improvements to the signaling system, she continued to press claims for additional compensation from the U. S. government. Due to wartime inflation, the Coston Manufacturing Company supplied flares to the U. S. Navy at less than cost, Coston estimated that the government owed her $120,000 in compensation. Although she pressed her claims for over ten years, she was offered only $15,000 additional reimbursement; every station of the United States Life-Saving Service was equipped with Coston flares, which were used to signal ships, warn of dangerous coastal conditions, summon surfmen and other rescuers to a wreck scene. Many accounts of wrecks and rescues describe the use of the Coston flare, instrumental in saving thousands of lives.
While Martha Coston died in 1904, her company called the Coston Signal Company and the Coston Supply Company, remained in business until at least 1985. In 2006 Martha Coston was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. Coston is buried in Lot 62, at Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia. Coston, Martha J. A Signal Success; the Life and Travels of Mrs. Martha J. Coston, Lippincott Co. Philadelphia, PA, 1886. Shanks and York, The United States Life-Saving Service, at pages 123-125, Costaño Books, Petaluma, CA 1996 ISBN 0-930268-16-4 Signal Corps Association, showing sample flare code signals, signal book and flare box Found in "Signal Success" is the Submarine page 11 bottom page. Wrighten by Martha J Coston 1886 and Lippincott Publishing co. A Woman With Flare, By C. KAY LARSON, New York Times, November 2, 2012 Martha Coston at Find a Grave
“Customs” means the Government Service, responsible for the administration of Customs law and the collection of duties and taxes and which has the responsibility for the application of other laws and regulations relating to the importation, movement or storage of goods. Each country has its own laws and regulations for the import and export of goods into and out of a country, which its customs authority enforces; the import or export of some goods may be forbidden. A wide range of penalties are faced by those. A customs duty is a tax on the importation or exportation of goods. Commercial goods not yet cleared through customs are held in a customs area called a bonded store, until processed. All authorized. At airports, customs functions as the point of no return for all passengers. Anyone arriving at an airport must clear customs before they can enter a country; those who breach the law will be detained by customs and returned to their original location. Traditionally customs has been considered as the fiscal subject that charges customs duties and other taxes on import or export.
For the recent decades the views on the functions of customs have expanded and now covers three basic issues: taxation and trade facilitation. The terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, has become the factor that prompted a significant strengthening of the security component in the operations of the modern customs authorities, after which security-oriented control measures for supply chains have been implemented for the aims of preventing risk identification; the most complete guidelines for customs security functions implementation is provided in the WCO SAFE Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade, which have received five editions in 2005, 2007, 2010, 2012 and 2018. The trade facilitation objectives were introduced into routine of customs authorities in order to reduce trade transaction costs; the contemporary understanding of the “trade facilitation” concept is based on the Recommendation No. 4 of UN / CEFACT “National Trade Facilitation Bodies”.
According to its provisions “facilitation covers formalities, procedures and operations related to international trade transactions. Its goals are simplification and standardization, so that transactions become easier and more economical than before”. In many countries, customs procedures for arriving passengers at many international airports and some road crossings are separated into red and green channels. Passengers with goods to declare go through the red channel. Passengers with nothing to declare go through the green channel. However, entry into a particular channel constitutes a legal declaration, if a passenger going through the green channel is found to be carrying goods above the customs limits or prohibited items, he or she may be prosecuted for making a false declaration to customs, by virtue of having gone through the green channel; each channel is a point of no return, once a passenger has entered a particular channel, they cannot go back. Australia, New Zealand, the United States do not operate a red and green channel system.
Airports in EU countries such as Finland, Ireland or the United Kingdom have a blue channel. As the EU is a customs union, travellers between EU countries do not have to pay customs duties. Value-added tax and excise duties may be applicable if the goods are subsequently sold, but these are collected when the goods are sold, not at the border. Passengers arriving from other EU countries go through the blue channel, where they may still be subject to checks for prohibited or restricted goods. Luggage tickets for checked luggage travelling within the EU are green-edged so they may be identified. In most EU member states, travellers coming from other EU countries can use the green lane. All airports in the United Kingdom operate a channel system, however some don't have a red channel, they instead have a red point phone which serves the same purpose. Customs are a public service provided by the government of the respective country that collects the duties levied on imported goods as well as providing security measures through which people enter and exit the country.
A public good/service is defined by being non-excludable. Once cannot avoid customs when exiting or entering a country thus making it non-excludable. There is some congestion when going through airports, with the average wait time in customs in American Domestic airports being 75.1 minutes, the congestion doesn’t discriminate based on rival-consumption thus making it a public service. Customs is part of one of the three basic functions of a government, namely: administration. However, in a bid to mitigate corruption, many countries have privatised their customs; this has occurred by way of contracting pre-shipment inspection agencies, which examine the cargo and verify the declared value before importation occurs. The country's customs is obliged to accept the agency's report for the purpose of assessing duties and taxes at the port of entry. While engaging a pre-shipment inspection agency may appear justified in a country with an inexperienced or inadequate customs establishment, the measure has not been able to plug the loophole and protect revenue.
It has been found that evasion of
Cape Henry is a cape on the Atlantic shore of Virginia located in the northeast corner of Virginia Beach. It is the southern boundary of the entrance to the long estuary of the Chesapeake Bay. Across the mouth of the bay to the north is Cape Charles the opposite point of the Bay's gateway. Named for two sons of King James I of England in 1607, together Cape Henry and Cape Charles form the Virginia Capes. Cape Henry was named on April 26, 1607 in honor of Henry Frederick Stuart, the elder of two sons of King James I of England to survive to the age of 18 and heir-apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of England, by an expedition of the London Company branch of the proprietary Virginia Company headed by Captain Christopher Newport. After an unusually long voyage of 144 days from England, it was their first landfall, an event which has come to be called "The First Landing". Soon after this landing the English colonists erected a wooden cross and gave thanks for a successful crossing to a new land.
In the First Charter of Virginia, King James I devoted parcels of land for the purpose of spreading the Christian religion. The Charter reads in part: "We commending, graciously accepting of, their Desires for the Furtherance of so noble a Work, which may, by the Providence of Almighty God, hereafter tend to the Glory of his Divine Majesty, in propagating of Christian Religion to such People, as yet live in Darkness and miserable Ignorance..." Captain Newport, with his three ships, Susan Constant, the Godspeed, the Discovery, the group of 104 men and boys, subsequently explored inland and established Jamestown on an island for protection offshore from the north shore further upstream on the James River which became the first permanent English settlement in North America. The following year of 1608, Captain John Smith took a crew with a small boat outfitted with a sail and proceeded north up the Chesapeake Bay exploring and mapping its coasts and rivers and bays up to the named Susquehanna River which fed the Bay.
In 1781, the waters off of these Virginia Capes and the entrance to the Chesapeake and Hampton Roads harbor were the site of an important naval clash between warships of the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of England near the end of the American Revolutionary War in the Battle of the Capes. The victory of the French Navy over the British Royal Navy cut off the King's Army troops of Lord Charles Cornwallis surrounded and under siege for a month at Yorktown, Virginia, a short distance up the Bay on the Western Shore's York River, they had been pursued after a series of clashes for several years in the Southern Theater in Georgia and the Carolinas by rebel patriot regular forces of soldiers under the command of Gen. Nathanael Greene and Daniel Morgan, along with irregular bands of guerilla partisans sniping and wearing down the Redcoats by attrition; as Cornwallis headed northward to the rich untouched colony of Virginia and hoping to be reinforced / resupplied or evacuated if necessary on the ragged shores of the Carolina coast or the Chesapeake where British seapower and naval dominance could be brought to bear.
The French fleet under Admiral deGrasse sent from the Caribbean Sea and West Indies islands with an unusual naval victory over the British taskforce who had sent a second fleet from occupied New York retreating back northward, supposed to reinforce and guard Cornwallis' seaward side. The British general was forced to surrender in October 1781 to a combined jointly commanded American-French Army with German states mercenary allies under Gen. George Washington, Gen. Marquis de Lafayette and French Army troops under Gen. Rochambeau who had deceived Gen. William Howe commander in New York where the Northern Theater had stalemated and sneaked out slipping and gaining several weeks march southward down the East Coast to surprise and catch Cornwallis' Redcoats camped at Yorktown in a siege. For the first time in the six year long rebellion, the insurgents had numerical superiority in numbers and artillery along with adequate cooperating seapower from the French allies; the little known sea Battle of the Capes a few miles off the American Virginia coast was the nail in the coffin to assure colonial independence as the War ended a year and a half with the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
The Cape Henry Memorial commemorates The First Landing of the settlers. Nearby, the historic Cape Henry Lighthouse was the first in the United States. Of historical interest, the passenger station built in 1902 and served by the original Norfolk Southern Railway was restored late in the 20th century and is used as an educational facility by Fort Story, an army base located at Cape Henry, established in 1914. First Landing State Park occupies and protects the rest of the cape itself, as well as some of the nearby area. Shore Drive, a locally well-known road, facilitates viewing of the rest of the shoreline in Cape Henry. NPS Cape Henry website Cape Henry Lighthouse info
A cutter is a small to medium-sized vessel, depending on its role and definition. It was a smallish single- or double-masted, decked sailcraft designed for speed rather than capacity; as such, it was gaff-rigged, with two or more headsails and a bowsprit of some length, with a mast sometimes set farther back than on a sloop. While a workboat, as used by harbor pilots, the military, privateers, sailing cutters today are most fore-and-aft rigged private yachts. Powered cutters vary in size depending on their function, with small boats for ferrying passengers between larger craft and shore sometimes referred to as cutters, rugged smallish vessels serving the traditional role of delivering harbor pilots, large ocean-going U. S. Coast Guard or UK Border Force ships referred to as cutters by tradition. Open oared cutters were carried aboard 18th century naval vessels and rowed by pairs of men sitting side-by-side on benches. A similar form that evolved among London watermen remains in use today in club racing.
The cutter is one of several types of sailboats. Traditionally the sloop rig was a rig with a single mast located forward of 70% of the length of the sailplan. In this traditional definition a sloop could have multiple jibs on a fixed bowsprit. Cutters had a rig with a single mast more centrally located, which could vary from 50% to 70% of the length of the sailplan, with multiple headsails and a running bowsprit. A mast located aft of 50% would be considered a mast aft rig. Somewhere in the 1950s or 2000s there was a shift in these definitions such that a sloop only flew one headsail and a cutter had multiple headsails and mast position became irrelevant. In this modern idiom, a cutter is a sailing vessel with one mast. Cutters carry a staysail directly in front of the mast, set from the forestay. A traditional vessel would normally have a bowsprit to carry one or more jibs from its end via jibstay on travelers. In modern vessels the jib may be set from a permanent stay fixed to the end of a fixed bowsprit, or directly to the stem fitting of the bow itself.
In these cases, that may be referred to as the forestay, the inner one, which will be less permanent in terms of keeping the mast up, may be called the stays'l stay. A sloop carries only one head sail, called either the foresail or jib.. The cutter rig a gaff rig version where the sails aft the mast were divided between a mainsail below the gaff and a topsail above, was useful for sailing with small crews as the total sail area was divided into smaller individual sails; these could be managed without the need for large crews, winches, or complex tackles, making the cutter suitable for pilot and coast guard duties. For example, a pilot cutter may only have two people on board for its outward trip—the pilot to be delivered to a ship and an assistant who had to sail the cutter back to port single-handed; the cutter sailing rig became so ubiquitous for these tasks that the modern-day motorised vessels now engaged in these duties are known as'cutters'. The open cutter carried aboard naval vessels in the 18th century was rowed by pairs of men sitting side-by-side on benches.
The cutter, with its transom, was broader in proportion compared to the longboat, which had finer lines. The watermen of London used similar boats in the 18th century decorated as depicted in historical prints and pictures of the River Thames in the 17th and 18th centuries; the modern waterman's cutter is based on drawings of these boats. They are 34 feet long with a beam of 4 ft 6 in, they can carry a cox and passengers. The organisers of the Great River Race developed the modern version in the 1980s and now many of the fleet of 24 compete annually in this "Marathon of the River". Watermen's cutters compete annually in the Port of London Challenge, the Port Admirals' Challenge. Cutter races are to be found at various town rowing and skiffing regattas. In addition the cutters perform the role of ceremonial Livery Barges with the canopies and armorial flags flying on special occasions. Cutters have been used for record-breaking attempts and crews have achieved record times for sculling the English Channel in 1996 and for sculling non-stop from London to Paris in 1999.
A pulling cutter was a boat carried by sailing ships for work in sheltered water in which load-carrying capacity was needed, for example in laying a kedge. This operation was the placing of a light anchor at a distance from the ship so as to be able to haul her off in its direction; the oars were double-banked. That is, there were two oarsmen on each thwart. In a seaway, the longboat was preferred to the cutter as the finer lines of the stern of the former meant that it was less to broach to in a following sea. In the Royal Navy the cutters were replaced by 32-foot motor cutters. However, the cutters' traditional work had grown beyond the capacity of a boat as ships became larger. Though a pulling boat, this cutter could be rigged for sailing; some small powered fishing craft are referred to as cutters. Cutters were used by several navies in the 17th and 18th centuries and were the smallest commissioned ships in the fleet; as with cutters in general they were distinguished by their large fore-aft sail plans with multiple headsails carried on a long bowsprit, sometimes as long as half the length of the boat's hull.
The rig gave the cutter excellent maneuverability and they were much better at sailing to windward than a larger square rigged ship. Larger naval cutters had the ability to hoist two or
United States Department of the Treasury
The Department of the Treasury is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government. Established by an Act of Congress in 1789 to manage government revenue, the Treasury prints all paper currency and mints all coins in circulation through the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the United States Mint, respectively. S. government debt instruments. The Department is administered by the Secretary of the Treasury, a member of the Cabinet. Senior advisor to the Secretary is the Treasurer of the United States. Signatures of both officials appear on all Federal Reserve notes; the first Secretary of the Treasury was Alexander Hamilton, sworn into office on September 11, 1789. Hamilton was appointed by President George Washington on the recommendation of Robert Morris, Washington's first choice for the position, who had declined the appointment. Hamilton established—almost singlehandedly—the nation's early financial system and for several years was a major presence in Washington's administration.
His portrait appears on the obverse of the ten-dollar bill, while the Treasury Department building is depicted on the reverse. The current Secretary of the Treasury is Steven Mnuchin, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 13, 2017. Jovita Carranza, appointed on April 28, 2017, is the incumbent treasurer; the history of the Department of the Treasury began in the turmoil of the American Revolution, when the Continental Congress at Philadelphia deliberated the crucial issue of financing a war of independence against Great Britain. The Congress had no power to levy and collect taxes, nor was there a tangible basis for securing funds from foreign investors or governments; the delegates resolved to issue paper money in the form of bills of credit, promising redemption in coin on faith in the revolutionary cause. On June 22, 1775—only a few days after the Battle of Bunker Hill—Congress issued $2 million in bills. On July 29, 1775, the Second Continental Congress assigned the responsibility for the administration of the revolutionary government's finances to joint Continental treasurers George Clymer and Michael Hillegas.
The Congress stipulated. To ensure proper and efficient handling of the growing national debt in the face of weak economic and political ties between the colonies, the Congress, on February 17, 1776, designated a committee of five to superintend the Treasury, settle accounts, report periodically to the Congress. On April 1, a Treasury Office of Accounts, consisting of an Auditor General and clerks, was established to facilitate the settlement of claims and to keep the public accounts for the government of the United Colonies. With the signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, the newborn republic as a sovereign nation was able to secure loans from abroad. Despite the infusion of foreign and domestic loans, the united colonies were unable to establish a well-organized agency for financial administration. Michael Hillegas was first called Treasurer of the United States on May 14, 1777; the Treasury Office was reorganized three times between 1778 and 1781. The $241.5 million in paper Continental bills devalued rapidly.
By May 1781, the dollar collapsed at a rate of from 500 to 1000 to 1 against hard currency. Protests against the worthless money swept the colonies, giving rise to the expression "not worth a Continental". Robert Morris was designated Superintendent of Finance in 1781 and restored stability to the nation's finances. Morris, a wealthy colonial merchant, was nicknamed "the Financier" because of his reputation for procuring funds or goods on a moment's notice, his staff included a comptroller, a treasurer, a register, auditors, who managed the country's finances through 1784, when Morris resigned because of ill health. The treasury board, consisting of three commissioners, continued to oversee the finances of the confederation of former colonies until September 1789; the First Congress of the United States was called to convene in New York on March 4, 1789, marking the beginning of government under the Constitution. On September 2, 1789, Congress created a permanent institution for the management of government finances:Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall be a Department of Treasury, in which shall be the following officers, namely: a Secretary of the Treasury, to be deemed head of the department.
Alexander Hamilton took the oath of office as the first Secretary of the Treasury on September 11, 1789. Hamilton had served as George Washington's aide-de-camp during the Revolution and was of great importance in the ratification of the Constitution; because of his financial and managerial acumen, Hamilton was a logical choice for solving the problem of the new nation's heavy war debt. Hamilton's first official act was to submit a report to Congress in which he laid the foundation for the nation's financial health. To the surprise of many legislators, he insisted upon federal assumption and dollar-for-dollar repayment of the country's $75 million debt in order to revitalize the public credit: "he debt of the United States was the price of liberty; the faith of America has been pledged for it, with solemnities that give peculiar force to the obligation." Hami