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Virginia Capes

The Virginia Capes are the two capes, Cape Charles to the north and Cape Henry to the south, that define the entrance to Chesapeake Bay on the eastern coast of North America. In 1610, a supply ship learned of the famine at Jamestown; the importance of Chesapeake Bay in American history has long made the Virginia Capes strategically significant, most notably in the naval Battle of the Chesapeake, crucial to the American victory at the Siege of Yorktown ending the American Revolutionary War. As a result, the area was garrisoned, beginning with the construction of Fort Monroe and Fort Wool in 1819. During the American Civil War, a pivotal battle between the ironclad warships USS Monitor and CSS Virginia was fought in Hampton Roads; the Virginia was attempting to break the Union blockade, strangling the Confederacy. During World War I, additional gun batteries were installed on Cape Henry at Fort Story and on Fisherman's Island near Cape Charles. During World War II, the coast artillery batteries at Fort Story were expanded and additional batteries were installed at Fort John Custis on Cape Charles to guard the entrance to Hampton Roads Harbor.

More because of the close proximity of many military installations, including Naval Station Norfolk, Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek–Fort Story, NAS Oceana, the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Newport News Shipbuilding, the Capes area has been used for the initial trials of new Navy ships and for military training exercises

Randles Hill

Randles Hill is a hill located in the suburb of Mulgampola in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Randles Hill received its name when Sir John Scurrah Randles generously donated the money through the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society to purchase a significant land parcel, for the relocation and construction of Kingswood College. Randles was a prominent Methodist, English philanthropist. Randles's significant gift came as a result of a visit to the district by Rev. William Goudie and Mr Robert Simpson, a prominent member of the laymen's missionary movement, who on return to England convinced Randles of the benefit of such a contribution. Randles subsequently donated a further Rs. 180,626 to the construction of the college buildings. The area was named as Randles Hill by the founder of L. E. Blaze. Randles Hill Railway Station is the second school based railway station in Sri Lanka; the first such railway station is at Richmond Hill, which services Rippon College and Richmond College in Galle. The Randles Hill station is a railway halt located on the Matale Line, close to the level crossing at Mulgampola, between Peradeniya Junction and Kandy railway station


The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, 419.2 million years ago, to the beginning of the Carboniferous, 358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon, where rocks from this period were first studied; the first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land, forming extensive forests which covered the continents. By the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods became well-established. Fish reached substantial diversity during this time, leading the Devonian to be dubbed the Age of Fishes; the placoderms began dominating every known aquatic environment. The ancestors of all four-limbed vertebrates began adapting to walking on land, as their strong pectoral and pelvic fins evolved into legs. In the oceans, primitive sharks became more numerous than in the Late Ordovician.

The first ammonites, species of molluscs, appeared. Trilobites, the mollusc-like brachiopods, the great coral reefs were still common; the Late Devonian extinction which started about 375 million years ago affected marine life, killing off all placodermi, all trilobites, save for a few species of the order Proetida. The palaeogeography was dominated by the supercontinent of Gondwana to the south, the continent of Siberia to the north, the early formation of the small continent of Euramerica in between; the period is named after Devon, a county in southwestern England, where a controversial argument in the 1830s, over the age and structure of the rocks found distributed throughout the county was resolved by the definition of the Devonian period in the geological timescale. The Great Devonian Controversy was a long period of vigorous argument and counter-argument between the main protagonists of Roderick Murchison with Adam Sedgwick against Henry De la Beche supported by George Bellas Greenough.

Murchison and Sedgwick named the period they proposed as the Devonian System. While the rock beds that define the start and end of the Devonian period are well identified, the exact dates are uncertain. According to the International Commission on Stratigraphy, the Devonian extends from the end of the Silurian 419.2 Mya, to the beginning of the Carboniferous 358.9 Mya – in North America, at the beginning of the Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous. In nineteenth-century texts the Devonian has been called the "Old Red Age", after the red and brown terrestrial deposits known in the United Kingdom as the Old Red Sandstone in which early fossil discoveries were found. Another common term is "Age of the Fishes", referring to the evolution of several major groups of fish that took place during the period. Older literature on the Anglo-Welsh basin divides it into the Downtonian, Dittonian and Farlovian stages, the latter three of which are placed in the Devonian; the Devonian has erroneously been characterised as a "greenhouse age", due to sampling bias: most of the early Devonian-age discoveries came from the strata of western Europe and eastern North America, which at the time straddled the Equator as part of the supercontinent of Euramerica where fossil signatures of widespread reefs indicate tropical climates that were warm and moderately humid but in fact the climate in the Devonian differed during its epochs and between geographic regions.

For example, during the Early Devonian, arid conditions were prevalent through much of the world including Siberia, North America, China, but Africa and South America had a warm temperate climate. In the Late Devonian, by contrast, arid conditions were less prevalent across the world and temperate climates were more common; the Devonian Period is formally broken into Early and Late subdivisions. The rocks corresponding to those epochs are referred to as belonging to the Lower and Upper parts of the Devonian System. Early DevonianThe Early Devonian lasted from 419.2 ± 2.8 to 393.3 ± 2.5 and began with the Lochkovian stage 419.2 ± 2.8 to 410.8 ± 2.5, followed by the Pragian from 410.8 ± 2.8 to 407.6 ± 2.5 and by the Emsian, which lasted until the Middle Devonian began, 393.3± 2.7 million years ago. During this time, the first ammonoids appeared. Ammonoids during this time period differed little from their nautiloid counterparts; these ammonoids belong to the order Agoniatitida, which in epochs evolved to new ammonoid orders, for example Goniatitida and Clymeniida.

This class of cephalopod molluscs would dominate the marine fauna until the beginning of the Mesozoic era. Middle DevonianThe Middle Devonian comprised two subdivisions: first the Eifelian, which gave way to the Givetian 387.7± 2.7 million years ago. During this time the jawless agnathan fishes began to decline in diversity in freshwater and marine environments due to drastic environmental changes and due to the increasing competition and diversity of jawed fishes; the shallow, oxygen-depleted waters of Devonian inland lakes, surrounded by primitive plants, provided the environment necessary for certain early fish to develop such essential characteristics as well developed lungs, the ability to crawl out of the water and onto the land for short periods of time. Late DevonianFinally, the Late Devonian started with the Frasnian, 382.7 ± 2.8 to 372.2 ± 2.5, during which the first forests took shape on land. The first tetrapods appeared in the fossil record in the ensuing Famennian subdivision, the beginning and end of whi


Elongation protein 4 homolog known as ELP4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ELP4 gene. This gene encodes a component of the six subunit elongator complex, a histone acetyltransferase complex that associates directly with RNA polymerase II during transcriptional elongation; the human gene can complement sensitivity phenotypes of yeast ELP4 deletion mutants. Alternatively spliced variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described but the full-length nature of only one has been determined. In a study published in February 2009, researcher linked this gene to the most common form of human epilepsy, namely Rolandic epilepsy; this is the first gene to be linked with rolandic epilepsy. It has been found that children with Rolandic epilepsy have a mutation of gene coding for the Elongator Protein Complex 4, involved in transcription and tRNA modification. Furthermore, Elp4 is needed for histone acetyltransferase activity which makes DNA more accessible for transcription.

The lack of the Elp4/5/6 led to no HAT activity. The importance of HAT activity is the initiation of transcription as well as its assistance of RNA polymerase II in transcription elongation through chromatin and acetyl-CoA dependent pathways. Although Rolandic epilepsy, observed as autosomal dominant with high penetrance, develops around age 3 and disappears by age 12 there are serious problems that need to be addressed that occur while a child has RE. One of the major problems that can arise from RE is cognitive impairment. Though the cognitive impairment seen in Rolandic Epilepsy is of unclear etiology, one contributing factor may be increased glucose uptake in cortical areas, most notably in the associative cortex; these changes in glucose uptake may somehow disrupt the learning process and prevents the child from making the associations necessary to learn new things, how most human learning is achieved. Other factors which may contribute to cognitive impairment include seizure frequency, abnormal electrical activity in between seizures, medication side effects, to only name a few.

The Elongator Protein Complex is. This means that it helps cortical neurons to exhibit dendrite branching and radial migration of neurons to form the close knit neural network of the cerebral cortex. If ELP is not working properly or is not being expressed at the correct levels the neurons in that region in particular would not be properly situated in relation to each other for proper brain activity; the expression of ELP and the fourth sub-unit in particular is the cause of Rolandic epilepsy and other cognitive impairment in life if the condition is severe enough or if it is not treated effectively

Rustum Ghazaleh

Rustum Ghazaleh transl. From Arabic as Rostom Ghazale, Rustom Ghazalah, Rustom Ghazali. Ghazaleh was born into a Sunni Muslim family in Qarfa village in Daraa Governorate on 3 May 1953. Ghazaleh joined the Syrian Arab Army as a first lieutenant and platoon commander of a mechanized infantry unit in 1973, just in time for the Yom Kippur War but did not see frontline combat, he trained in artillery and military intelligence in the Soviet Union. He was an artillery spotter and commander of a mechanized battalion during the Lebanese Civil War, he was appointed by Syrian President Bashar al-Assad in December 2002 to succeed the late Ghazi Kanaan as head of Syrian military intelligence in Lebanon. He traveled to the Bekaa valley where he had a residence and his headquarters in Anjar, has been accused of involvement in the Bekaa drug trade and other smuggling ventures. In early 2005, the killing of Rafik Hariri led to intense pressure on Syria. Ghazale's and Kanaan's foreign assets were frozen by the United States for their role in the alleged occupation of Lebanon and other suspected irregularities.

Syria withdrew its 15,000 man strong army. Ghazaleh relocated to Syria. However, some Lebanese and foreign observers alleged that Syria keeps interfering with Lebanese politics through parts of its intelligence apparatus left behind in the country. Kanaan allegedly committed suicide. In September 2005, Ghazaleh was questioned on the Hariri assassination by United Nations investigator Detlev Mehlis. In December 2005, former Syrian vice president Abdul Halim Khaddam accused Ghazaleh of political corruption, dictatorial rule in Lebanon and of threatening Hariri prior to his death. After the withdrawal from Lebanon little was heard of him. However, at the beginning of the protests in Daraa, Ghazaleh was sent by Bashar al-Assad to assure locals of the president's good intentions, he told them: "We have released the children" - a reference to several teenagers who were arrested for writing anti-government graffiti inspired by the events in Egypt and Tunisia. In May 2011, the European Union said Ghazaleh was head of military intelligence in Damascus countryside governorate, which borders Daraa governorate, was involved in the repression of dissent in the region.

He is considered part of Assad's inner circle. On 24 July 2012, Ghazaleh was appointed chief of political security, he is opposed to the prominent role played by Hezbollah and other foreign fighters in the Syrian Civil War, a stance which led to him being attacked by the bodyguards of the pro-Iranian Lt. Gen Rafiq Shahadah in early 2015. Ghazaleh was beaten by the bodyguards of Lt. Gen. Rafiq Shahadah over a disagreement the two had regarding Iranian involvement in the 2015 Southern Syria offensive, with news emerging two months that Ghazaleh had died after complications from a severe head wound which resulted in him having been clinically dead for several weeks prior. A figure close to Assad regime officials claimed the argument had been over fuel smuggling, while a Lebanese journalist suspected that Ghazaleh was "gotten rid of" due to the role he could have played in the Special Tribunal for Lebanon. Saad Hariri stated that Ghazaleh had contacted him the day before he was beaten, wanting to appear on television to announce details regarding the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, while an analyst claimed Ghazaleh had seen the end was near for the Assad regime and wanted to defect.

Assad regime media failed to report Ghazaleh's death

Flower's Barrow

Flower’s Barrow is an Iron Age hillfort, built over 2500 years ago, above Worbarrow Bay in Dorset on the south coast of England. Flower’s Barrow is located about 16 kilometres from Swanage and about six kilometres south of Wareham. Towering to the north over Worbarrow Bay is Flower’s Barrow ridge; this forms the western end of the ridge. The ancient hillfort of Flower's Barrow rises behind the beach at Arish Mell; the hill lies directly west of the ghost village of Tyneham. Flower’s Barrow has a limited future because the southern part is falling into the sea at Worbarrow Bay due to coastal erosion. More than half of it has disappeared. Access to Flower’s Barrow hillfort is possible by foot, either from Tyneham, with a steep uphill walk, or alternatively from the viewing point and car park at Whiteway Hill walking along the hill to the west. Flower's Barrow is only accessible; the ranges are owned by the Ministry of Defence and are part of the Armoured Fighting Vehicles Gunnery School. The more than 2,830-hectare ranges lie within an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and stretches along the coastline between Lulworth Cove to just west of Kimmeridge.

Safety warnings about explosives and unexploded shells are posted around the site by the MoD, visitors are advised to keep to official footpaths and abide to local site notices, because tanks and armoured vehicles are used in this area. This early Iron Age hillfort, taken over by the Romans when they invaded, has double and triple ramparts; the parallel double ramparts on the east and west flanks are connected along the northern border and are unmistakably visible. Because the cliff face acted as defence, it is probable that there were never ramparts along the southern end. Several sections of the interior of the hillfort have been exposed following coastal erosion. Hut circles are visible within the interior of the fort. During a minor excavation in 1939 fragments of Iron Age pottery, as well as sling-stones and bones were found in a pit near the western entrance. Subsequent landslides have revealed the floor of the hillfort; the continual ground disturbances at the southern fringe increase the possibility of further archaeological finds.

However, the twin hazards of the cliff erosion and the possibility of unexploded military shells from the Lulworth Ranges command extreme caution. Visitors are warned to keep between the yellow MoD markers; the steep angular layers of rock, that are visible in the bay, reveal the complex sedimentary folding that disturbed the geology in this vicinity. These folds were caused by tectonic pressures some 30 million years ago as the African and European continents collided. At this time the cliff sediments were twisted horizontally and this is why the Chalks that are between 85 and 145 million years old are found at the rear of the bay; the sediments that form Mupe Ledges, the Mupe Rocks and the peninsula Worbarrow Tout are 150-million-year-old Portland Limestone and 147-million-year-old Purbeck Beds. The Jurassic Coast Trust. A Walk Through the Official Guide to the Jurassic Coast. Coastal Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9544845-0-7