A Face in the Crowd (film)
A Face in the Crowd is a 1957 American drama film starring Andy Griffith, Patricia Neal and Walter Matthau, directed by Elia Kazan. The screenplay was written by Budd Schulberg and is based on his short story "Your Arkansas Traveler" from the collection Some Faces in the Crowd; the story centers on a drifter named Larry "Lonesome" Rhodes, discovered by the producer of a small-market radio program in rural northeast Arkansas. Rhodes rises to great fame and influence on national television; the character was inspired by Schulberg's acquaintance with Will Rogers Jr. who admitted his famous father's "man of the people" image was a facade. The successes of Arthur Godfrey and Tennessee Ernie Ford were acknowledged in the screenplay; the film earned mixed reviews upon its original release. Decades have seen favorable reappraisals of the movie, in 2008 it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant".
In late 1950s America, a drunken drifter, Larry Rhodes, is plucked out of a rural Arkansas jail by Marcia Jeffries to sing on a radio show at station KGRK. His raw voice, folksy humor and personal charm bring about a strong local following, he lands a television show in Memphis, Tennessee under the stage name "Lonesome" Rhodes, given to him on a whim by Jeffries. With the support of the show's staff writer Mel Miller and Jeffries, the charismatic Rhodes ad libs his way to Memphis area popularity; when he pokes fun at his sponsor, a mattress company, they pull their ads—but when his adoring audience revolts, burning mattresses in the street, the sponsor discovers that Rhodes' irreverent pitches increased sales by 55%, Rhodes returns to the air with a new awareness of his power of persuasion. He begins an affair with Jeffries and proposes to her. An ambitious office worker at the mattress company, Joey DePalma, puts together a deal for Rhodes to star in his own TV show in New York City; the sponsor is Vitajex, an energy supplement which Rhodes ingeniously pitches as a yellow pill which will make men energetic and sexually powerful.
Rhodes' fame and ego balloon. He is approached to help with the TV marketing of a Presidential hopeful, Senator Worthington Fuller of California. Rhodes re-brands the stuffy conservative Fuller with a folksy nickname and promotes him on television. In contrast to his friendly onscreen persona, Rhodes in private life has become an egomaniac who berates his staff. Jeffries' hopes to marry Rhodes are dashed, first when a woman turns up claiming to be Rhodes' legitimate wife, he promises to get a divorce in Juarez and returns married to a 17-year-old drum majorette. When Rhodes says he will "give" 10% of his earnings to Jeffries, she furiously reminds Rhodes of her large role in his success, demands to be made an equal partner on paper. Rhodes agrees. Rhodes' ascent into fame and arrogance begins to turn on him. DePalma has an affair with Rhodes' young wife. Seeking solace, Rhodes pays a night visit to Jeffries' apartment, he proposes a political group called "FIGHTERS FOR FULLER". She hides her feelings of repulsion from him, but gets away from his presence as as she can, in the pouring rain, catching a taxi.
She visits the set of his television show, activates a live microphone over the ending credits that, unbeknownst to Rhodes, broadcasts him mocking Fuller and going on a vitriolic rant about the stupidity of his TV audience, calling them "idiots", "guinea pigs", "trained seals". Unaware that his words have gone out over the airwaves eliciting many angry calls to local television stations and the network, Rhodes departs the television studio in a jovial mood and prophetically tells the elevator operator that he is going "all the way down"; as the elevator numbers go down to 0, his popularity is plummeting as well. DePalma is meeting with a young entertainer who could become Rhodes' replacement. Rhodes arrives at his penthouse, where he was scheduled to address the nation's business and political elite at a dinner party, but none of his guests show up, leaving Rhodes alone in an empty room with the African American butlers and servers, who don't respond to his demands on being loved, are therefore all dismissed.
Rhodes calls the studio and Jeffries, with Miller holding the phone, listens to him rant as he threatens to jump to his death from the penthouse. Jeffries, silent, grabs the phone and screams at Rhodes to jump, to get out of her, everybody's, life. Miller angrily dares Jeffries to tell him the whole truth, they find Rhodes drunk and disconnected from reality. He shouts folksy platitudes and sings at the top of his lungs while his longtime flunky Beanie works an applause machine—Rhodes' own invention—to replace the cheers and laughter of the audience that has abandoned him; when he vows revenge on the TV studio's engineer, Jeffries admits. She demands he never call her again, Miller tells Rhodes that life as he knew it is over, delivers to Rhodes his career coda: Rhodes is not destroyed at all. Both the public's and the network's need for Rhodes, will, "after a reasonable cooling off period" of remorse and contrition, he predicts, return Rhodes to the public eye, but never to his previous height of power and success.
Rhodes ends up screaming from the window of his penthouse for Marcia J
Myron Leon "Mike" Wallace was an American journalist, game show host and media personality. He interviewed a wide range of prominent newsmakers during his seven-decade career, he was one of the original correspondents for CBS' 60 Minutes, which debuted in 1968. Wallace retired as a regular full-time correspondent in 2006, but still appeared on the series until 2008, he interviewed many politicians and academics, such as Pearl S. Buck, Deng Xiaoping, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Jiang Zemin, Ruhollah Khomeini, Kurt Waldheim, Frank Lloyd Wright, Yasser Arafat, Menachem Begin, Anwar Sadat, Manuel Noriega, Nobel Prize winner John Nash, Gordon B. Hinckley, Vladimir Putin, Maria Callas, Barbra Streisand, Salvador Dalí, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Ayn Rand. Wallace, whose family's surname was Wallik, was born on May 9, 1918, in Brookline, Massachusetts, to Russian Jewish immigrant parents, He identified as a Jew throughout his life, his father was a insurance broker. Wallace attended Brookline High School, graduating in 1935.
He graduated from the University of Michigan four years with a Bachelor of Arts. While a college student he was a reporter for the Michigan Daily and belonged to the Alpha Gamma Chapter of the Zeta Beta Tau Fraternity. Wallace appeared as a guest on the popular radio quiz show Information Please on February 7, 1939, when he was in his last year at the University of Michigan. Wallace spent his first summer after graduation working on-air at Interlochen Center for the Arts, his first radio job was as newscaster and continuity writer for WOOD Radio in Grand Rapids, Michigan. This lasted until 1940, when he moved to WXYZ Radio in Michigan, as an announcer, he became a freelance radio worker in Chicago, Illinois. Wallace enlisted in the United States Navy in 1943 and during World War II served as a communications officer on the USS Anthedon, a submarine tender, he saw no combat but traveled to Hawaii and Subic Bay in the Philippines patrolling the South China Sea, the Philippine Sea and south of Japan.
After being discharged in 1946, Wallace returned to Chicago. Wallace announced for the radio shows Curtain Time, Ned Jordan:Secret Agent, Sky King, The Green Hornet, Curtain Time, The Spike Jones Show, it is sometimes reported Wallace announced for The Lone Ranger. From 1946 through 1948 he portrayed the title character on The Crime Files of Flamond, on WGN and in syndication. Wallace announced wrestling in Chicago in the late 1940s and early 1950s, sponsored by Tavern Pale beer. In the late 1940s, Wallace was a staff announcer for the CBS radio network, he had displayed his comic skills. He was the voice of Elgin-American in their commercials on Groucho Marx's You Bet Your Life; as "Myron Wallace", he portrayed New York City detective Lou Kagel on the short-lived radio drama series "Crime on the Waterfront". In 1949, Wallace began to move to the new medium of television. In that year, he starred under the name Myron Wallace in a short-lived police drama, Stand By for Crime. Wallace hosted a number of game shows in the 1950s, including The Big Surprise, Who's the Boss? and Who Pays?.
Early in his career Wallace was not known as a news broadcaster. It was not uncommon during that period for newscasters to announce, do commercials and host game shows. Wallace hosted the pilot episode for Nothing but the Truth, helmed by Bud Collyer when it aired under the title To Tell the Truth. Wallace served as a panelist on To Tell the Truth in the 1950s, he did commercials for a variety of products, including Procter & Gamble's Fluffo brand shortening. Wallace hosted two late-night interview programs, Night Beat and The Mike Wallace Interview on ABC in 1957–1958. See Profiles in Courage, section: Authorship controversy. In 1959, Louis Lomax told Wallace about the Nation of Islam. Lomax and Wallace produced a five-part documentary about the organization, The Hate That Hate Produced, which aired during the week of July 13, 1959; the program was the first time most white people heard about the Nation, its leader, Elijah Muhammad, its charismatic spokesman, Malcolm X. By the early 1960s, Wallace's primary income came from commercials for Parliament cigarettes, touting their "man's mildness".
Between June 1961 and June 1962 he hosted a New York–based nightly interview program for Westinghouse Broadcasting called PM East for one hour. Westinghouse syndicated the series to a few other cities. People in southern and southwestern states were unable to watch it. A frequent guest on the PM East segment was Barbra Streisand. Only the audio of some of her conversations with Wallace survives. Westinghouse wiped the videotapes. In the early 1960s, Wallace was the host of the David Wolper–produced Biography series. After his elder son's death in 1962, Wallace decided to get back into news and hosted an early version of CBS Morning News from 1963 through 1966. In 1964 he interviewed Malcolm X, half-jokingly, commented "I am a dead man already." The black leader was assassinated a few months in February 1965. In 1967, Wallace anchored the documentary CBS Reports: The Homosexuals. "The average homosexual, if there be such, is promiscuous", Wallace said
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Carpetbaggers is a 1961 bestselling novel by Harold Robbins, adapted into a 1964 film of the same title. The prequel Nevada Smith was based on a character in the novel; the term "carpetbagger" refers to an outsider relocating to exploit locals. It derives from postbellum South usage, where it referred to opportunistic Northerners who flocked to pillage the occupied southern states. In Robbins' novel, the exploited territory is the movie industry, the newcomer is a wealthy heir to an industrial fortune who, like Howard Hughes pursued aviation and moviemaking avocations. Ian Parker described the book as "a roman à clef—it was thought to have been inspired by the life of Howard Hughes". In an interview with Dick Lochte, Robbins said "The airplane manufacturer in The Carpetbaggers was Bill Lear, not Howard Hughes, by the way." TV Guide Online's capsule summary of the movie says, however, "Deny it though he might, Harold Robbins used parts of the life of Howard Hughes as the basis for his major character, Jonas Cord."
Lear, developer of the Lear jet and the 8-track tape player, was more famous as an engineer than as an aviator, had no connection with Hollywood. Parallels between Cord and Hughes include: Cord is the heir to his father's Cord Explosives Company, Hughes to his father's Hughes Tool Company. Cord sets aviation records, as did Hughes. Much of the novel concerns itself with Cord's ventures into movie production. Cord owns an airline named ICA. Cord pilots a gigantic flying boat called the Centurion, "the biggest airplane built", to prove its airworthiness in order to meet a naval contract condition. Hughes piloted the Hughes H-4 Hercules or Spruce Goose, by some criteria the largest aircraft built, to prove its airworthiness in order to deflect Congressional criticism of his war contracts. Ian Parker and others identify the character Rina Marlowe with Jean Harlow, whom Howard Hughes had under personal contract for a few years and who many believe had an affair with Hughes. Carroll Baker, the actress who played Rina in The Carpetbaggers, was chosen a year to play the title role in the biopic Harlow.
Fictional Rina Marlowe's husband, cinema director Claude Dunbar, commits suicide shortly after their marriage, as did Jean Harlow's second husband, producer Paul Bern. Marlowe dies tragically of encephalitis in about 1934. In other respects, correspondences between the novel's characters and real individuals are imprecise. In the novel, Jonas Cord's first movie production is entitled The Renegade. Marlowe has a 38C bust, Cord has one of his aeronautical engineers design a special brassiere for her. There is a brief reference to his producing a movie four years entitled Devils in the Sky; these movie titles bear an unmistakable similarity to two famous movies produced and directed by Hughes: The Outlaw and Hell's Angels. In historical fact, it was the 1930 Hell's Angels, rather than The Outlaw, it starred Jean Harlow. Jean Harlow was famous as "Hollywood's Original Blonde Bombshell", but her bust measurement was not extraordinary; the real-life person who did make her screen debut as a star, was famous for her large bust, for whom Hughes did have an engineer design a special brassiere, was Hughes' discovery Jane Russell, who starred in The Outlaw in 1943.
The names of real people whom Robbins' fictional characters resemble are mentioned within the novel further confusing the situation. When Rina Marlowe dies, a studio official says that, to replace Marlowe in an upcoming picture, "I'm talking to Metro about getting Jean Harlow." A fictional Charles Standhurst, who owns "more than twenty newspapers stretched across the nation", is said to be "second only to Hearst". The character Nevada Smith is a cowboy who breaks into the movies by volunteering to perform a risky stunt, becomes fabulously wealthy as a movie cowboy star, becomes proprietor of a Wild West show. In these details he bears a vague resemblance to Tom Mix, a star performer in the 101 Wild West Show and became in turn a movie extra and major star; some see a resemblance between Nevada Smith and William Boyd, who became famous as Hopalong Cassidy. Others say. A 1966 movie entitled Nevada Smith starring Steve McQueen was based on Smith's role in this book; the role of Billy the Kid in Hughes' The Outlaw was played by Jack Buetel, who prior to his movie career was neither an outlaw nor a cowboy, but an insurance clerk.
Murray Schumach's review in The New York Times on June 25, 1961, opens: "It was not quite proper to have printed The Carpetbaggers between covers of a book. It should have been inscribed on the walls of a public lavatory." He complains that the plot is "an excuse for a collection of monotonous episodes about normal and abnormal sex—and violence ranging from simple battery to gruesome varieties of murder". On the day the review was published, The Carpetbaggers was at number nine on the Times bestseller list; the most successful of Robbins' many books, it had sold over eight million copies by 2004. The profile of Robbins in Gale's Contemporary Authors Onl
Sophie Tucker was a Ukrainian-born American singer, comedian and radio personality. Known for her powerful delivery of comical and risqué songs, she was one of the most popular entertainers in America during the first half of the 20th century, she was known by the nickname "The Last of the Red Hot Mamas". Tucker was born Sofya Kalish in 1886 to a Jewish family in Tulchyn, Podolia Governorate, Russian Empire, now Vinnytsia Oblast, Ukraine, they arrived in Boston on September 26, 1887. The family adopted the surname Abuza before immigrating, her father fearing repercussions for having deserted the Russian military; the family lived in Boston's North End for eight years before settling in Hartford and opening a restaurant. At a young age, she began singing at her parents' restaurant for tips. Between taking orders and serving customers, she "would stand up in the narrow space by the door and sing with all the drama I could put into it. At the end of the last chorus, between me and the onions there wasn't a dry eye in the place."In 1903, around the age of 17, Tucker eloped with Louis Tuck, a beer cart driver, from whom she would derive her professional surname.
When she returned home, her parents arranged an Orthodox wedding for the couple. In 1905, she gave birth to a son, Albert. However, shortly after Albert was born, the couple separated and Tucker left the baby with her family to move to New York. After she left her husband, Willie Howard gave Tucker a letter of recommendation to Harold Von Tilzer, a composer and theatrical producer in New York; when it failed to bring her work, Tucker found jobs in cafés and beer gardens, singing for food and tips from the customers. She sent most of what she made back home to Connecticut to support her family. In 1907, Tucker made her first theater appearance, singing at an amateur night in a vaudeville establishment, it was here that she was first made to wear blackface during performance, as her producers thought that the crowd would tease her for being "so big and ugly." By 1908, she had joined a burlesque show in Pittsburgh but was ashamed to tell her family that she was performing in a deep southern accent wearing burnt cork on her face.
While touring that year, luggage including her makeup kit was lost, Tucker was allowed to go on stage without the blackface. She stunned the crowd by saying, "You all can see I'm a white girl. Well, I'll tell you something more: I'm not Southern. I'm a Jewish girl and I just learned this Southern accent doing a blackface act for two years, and now, Mr. Leader, please play my song." Tucker began integrating "fat girl" humor, which became a common thread in her acts. Her songs included "I Don't Want to Get Thin" and "Nobody Loves a Fat Girl, But Oh How a Fat Girl Can Love."In 1909, Tucker performed with the Ziegfeld Follies. Though she was a hit, the other female stars refused to share the spotlight with her, the company was forced to let her go; this caught the attention of William Morris, a theater owner and future founder of the William Morris Agency, which would become one of the largest and most powerful talent agencies of the era. Two years Tucker released "Some of These Days" on Edison Records, written by Shelton Brooks.
The title of the song was used as the title of Tucker's 1945 biography. In 1921, Tucker hired pianist and songwriter Ted Shapiro as her accompanist and musical director, a position he would keep throughout her career. Besides writing a number of songs for her, Shapiro became part of her stage act, playing piano on stage while she sang, exchanging banter and wisecracks with her in between numbers. Tucker remained a popular singer through the 1920s and became friends with stars such as Mamie Smith and Ethel Waters, who introduced her to jazz. Tucker learned from these talented women and became one of the first performers to introduce jazz to white vaudeville audiences. In 1925, Jack Yellen wrote one of her most famous songs, "My Yiddishe Momme"; the song was performed in large American cities. Tucker explained, "Even though I loved the song and it was a sensational hit every time I sang it, I was always careful to use it only when I knew the majority of the house would understand Yiddish. However, you didn't have to be a Jew to be moved by My Yiddishe Momme."
During the Hitler regime, the song was banned by the German government for evoking Jewish culture. By the 1920s, Tucker's success had spread to Europe, she began a tour of England, performing for King George V and Queen Mary at the London Palladium in 1926. Tucker re-released her hit song "Some of These Days", backed by Ted Lewis and his band, which stayed at the number 1 position of the charts for five weeks beginning November 23, 1926, it sold over one million copies and was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA. Tucker was affected by the decline of vaudeville. Speaking about performing in the final show at E. F. Albee's Palace in New York City, she remarked, "Everyone knew the theater was to be closed down, a landmark in show business would be gone; that feeling got into the acts. The whole place the performers, stank of decay. I seemed to smell it, it challenged me. I was determined to give the audience the idea: why brood over yesterday? We have tomorrow; as I sang I could feel the atmosphere change.
The gloom began to lift, the spirit which filled the Palace and which made it famous among vaudeville houses the world over came back. That's what an entertainer can do."In 1929, she made her first movie appearance, in the sound picture Honky Tonk. During the 1930s, Tucker brought elements of nostalgia for the early years of 20th century into her
DuMont Television Network
The DuMont Television Network was one of the world's pioneer commercial television networks, rivalling NBC and CBS for the distinction of being first overall in the United States. It was owned by DuMont Laboratories, a television equipment and set manufacturer, began operation on August 15, 1946; the network was hindered by the prohibitive cost of broadcasting, by regulations imposed by the Federal Communications Commission which restricted the company's growth, by the company's partner, Paramount Pictures. Despite several innovations in broadcasting and the creation of one of the television's biggest stars of the 1950s, the network never found itself on solid financial ground. Forced to expand on UHF channels during an era when UHF tuning was not yet a standard feature on television sets, DuMont fought an uphill battle for program clearances outside its three owned-and-operated stations in New York City, Washington, D. C. and Pittsburgh ending network operations on August 6, 1956. DuMont's latter-day obscurity, caused by the destruction of its extensive program archive by the 1970s, has prompted TV historian David Weinstein to refer to it as the "Forgotten Network".
A few popular DuMont programs, such as Cavalcade of Stars and Emmy Award winner Life Is Worth Living, appear in television retrospectives or are mentioned in books about U. S. television history. DuMont Laboratories was founded in 1931 by Dr. Allen B. DuMont with only $1,000, a laboratory in his basement, he and his staff were responsible for many early technical innovations, including the first consumer all-electronic television receiver in 1938. Their most revolutionary contribution came when the team extended the life of a cathode ray tube from 24 to 1000 hrs, making television sets a practical product for consumers; the company's television receivers soon became the gold standard of the industry. In 1942, DuMont worked with the Army in developing radar technology during World War II; this brought in $5 million for the company. Early sales of television receivers were hampered by the lack of scheduled programming being broadcast. A few months after selling his first set in 1938, DuMont opened his own New York-area experimental television station in Passaic, New Jersey.
In 1940, the station moved to Manhattan as W2XWV on channel 4. Unlike CBS and NBC, which reduced their hours of television broadcasting during World War II, DuMont continued full-scale experimental and commercial broadcasts throughout the war. In 1944, W2XWV became WABD and moved to channel 5 in 1945, the third commercial television station in New York. On May 19, 1945, DuMont opened experimental W3XWT in Washington, D. C. A minority shareholder in DuMont Laboratories was Paramount Pictures, which had advanced $400,000 in 1939 for a 40% share in the company. Paramount had television interests of its own, having launched experimental stations in Los Angeles in 1939 and Chicago in 1940. DuMont's association with Paramount would come back to haunt DuMont later. Soon after his experimental Washington station signed on, DuMont began experimental coaxial cable hookups between his laboratories in Passaic and his two stations, it is said that one of those broadcasts on the hookup announced that the U. S. had dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, 1945.
This was considered to be the official beginning of the DuMont Network by both Thomas T. Goldsmith, the network's chief engineer and DuMont's best friend, DuMont himself. Regular network service began on August 15, 1946, on WABD and W3XWT. In 1947, W3XWT became WTTG, named after Goldsmith; the pair were joined in 1949 by WDTV in Pittsburgh. Although NBC in New York was known to have station-to-station television links as early as 1940 with WPTZ in Philadelphia and WRGB Schenectady, New York, DuMont received its station licenses before NBC resumed its sporadic network broadcasts after the war. ABC had just come into existence as a radio network in 1943 and did not enter network television until 1948 when it signed on a flagship station in New York City, WJZ-TV. CBS waited until 1948 to begin network operations, because it was waiting for the Federal Communications Commission to approve its color television system. Other companies, including Mutual, the Yankee Network, Paramount, were interested in starting television networks, but were prevented from doing so by restrictive FCC regulations.
Despite no history of radio programming or stable of radio stars to draw on and perennial cash shortages, DuMont was an innovative and creative network. Without the radio revenues that supported mighty NBC and CBS, DuMont programmers relied on their wits and on connections with Broadway; the network provided original programs that are remembered more than 60 years later. The network ignored the standard business model of 1950s TV, in which one advertiser sponsored an entire show, enabling it to have complete control over its content. Instead, DuMont sold commercials to many different advertisers, freeing producers of its shows from the veto power held by sole sponsors; this became the standard model for US television. Some commercial time was sold regionally on a co-op basis. DuMont holds another important place in American TV history. WDTV's sign-on made it possible for stations in the Midwest to receive live network programming from stations on the East
Carol Elaine Channing was an American actress, singer and comedian, known for starring in Broadway and film musicals. Her characters radiated a fervent expressiveness and an identifiable voice, whether singing or for comedic effect. Channing began as a Broadway musical actress starring in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes in 1949 and Hello, Dolly! in 1964, winning the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical for the latter. She revived both roles several times throughout her career, most playing Dolly in 1995, she was nominated for her first Tony Award in 1956 for The Vamp, followed by a nomination in 1961 for Show Girl. She received her fourth Tony Award nomination for the musical Lorelei in 1974; as a film actress, she won the Golden Globe Award and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance as Muzzy in Thoroughly Modern Millie. Her other film appearances include The First Traveling Skidoo. On television, she appeared as an entertainer on variety shows, from The Ed Sullivan Show in the 1950s to Hollywood Squares.
She performed The White Queen in the TV production of Alice in Wonderland, she had the first of many TV specials in 1966 An Evening with Carol Channing. Channing was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame in 1981 and received a Lifetime Achievement Tony Award in 1995, she continued to perform and make appearances well into her 90s, singing songs from her repertoire and sharing stories with fans, cabaret-style. She released her autobiography Just Lucky I Guess in 2002, Larger Than Life was released in 2012, a documentary film about her career. Channing was born in Seattle, Washington, on January 31, 1921, the only child of Adelaide and George Channing, her father, born George Christian Stucker, was multiracial and changed his surname before Carol's birth. He became a Christian Science practitioner and teacher. George Channing's mother, was African-American, his father, George Stucker, was the son of German immigrants. Carol's maternal grandparents, Otto Glaser and Paulina Ottmann, were both of German origin.
A city editor at The Seattle Star, he took a job in San Francisco and the family moved to California when Channing was two years old. Channing attended Aptos Junior High School and Lowell High School in San Francisco, graduating in 1938, she won the Crusaders' Oratorical Contest and a free trip to Hawaii with her mother in June 1937. When she was 16, she left home to attend Bennington College in Vermont and her mother told her for the first time that her father's mother was African American and his father was German American, her mother felt that the time was right to tell her since now that she was going off to college and would be on her own, she didn't want her to be surprised if she had a black baby. Channing wrote:I know it's true the moment I sing and dance. I'm proud. It's one of the great strains in show business. I'm so grateful. My father was a dignified man and as white as I am. My grandparents were Nordic German, so I took after them. Channing publicly revealed her African-American ancestry in 2002.
Channing majored in drama at Bennington and during an interview in 1994 admitted that she first wanted to perform on stage as a singer when she was in the fourth grade. She recalled being drawn to the stage after seeing Ethel Waters perform. Channing stated that in the fourth grade she ran for and was elected class secretary: "I stood up in class and campaigned by kidding the teachers; the other kids laughed. I loved the feeling — it was a good feeling, she read the class minutes every Friday impersonating the children who were discussed. She considers the fact that she was able to see plays while young to have been an important inspiration:I was lucky enough to grow up in San Francisco and it was the best theater town that Sol Hurok knew and he brought everybody from all over the world and we schoolchildren got to see them with just 50-cent tickets, her election to class secretary continued through grammar and high school: "It was good training—like stock" Those weekly sessions in front of students became a habit which she carried to Bennington College, where she would entertain every Friday night.
During her junior year she began trying out for acting parts on Broadway. After playing a small part in revue, The New Yorker magazine noted her performance: "You'll be hearing more from a comedienne named Carol Channing." The inspiration she received from that brief notice made. However, it was four years. During that period she performed at small functions or benefits, including some in the Catskill resorts, she worked in Macy's bakery. Channing was introduced to the stage while helping her mother deliver newspapers to the backstage of theatres, her first job on stage in New York City was in Marc Blitzstein's No for an Answer, starting January 1941, at the Mecca Temple. She was 19 years old. Channing moved to Broadway for Let's Face It!, in which she was an understudy for Eve Arden, 13 years older than Channing. In 1966, Arden was hired to play the title role in Hello Dolly! in a road company after Channing left to star in the film Thoroughly Modern Millie role. Channing won the Sarah Siddons Award for her work in Chicago theatre in 1966.
Five years Channing had a featured role in Lend an Ear, for which she received her Theatre World Award and launched her as a star performer. Channing credited illustrator Al Hirschfeld for helping