Zelmo "Big Z" Beaty was an American basketball player. He played eight seasons in the National Basketball Association and four in the rival American Basketball Association. A three-time ABA All-Star, Beaty was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame as a player in 2016. Zelmo Beaty Jr. was born on October 25, 1939 in Hillister, Texas, a small town of 250. He attended Scott High School in Woodville and played for Coach John Payton winning back to back Prairie View Interscholastic League 1A state championships in 1957 & 1958. For college, Beaty attended Prairie View A&M. "From 1958–1962 at Prairie View A&M Beaty averaged 25 points and 20 rebounds per game and was a two-time first team NAIA All-American. The "Big Z" led Prairie View A&M to the NAIA national basketball title in 1962 and was named the Chuck Taylor Tournament MVP." He was selected with the third pick of the 1962 National Basketball Association Draft by the St. Louis Hawks. Beaty was named to the inaugural NBA All-Rookie Team in 1963.
He averaged more than 20 points per game in three different seasons, over ten rebounds per game in six of his seven seasons with the Hawks. A physical player, Beaty led the NBA in personal fouls in 1962–63 and 1965–66, tied for the league lead in disqualifications during the 1963–64 season. Beaty made two NBA All-Star Game appearances in 1966 and 1968 before leaving the NBA to play in the rival American Basketball Association. In his first season in the ABA, Beaty led the league in field goal percentage, was third in the league in rebounds per game, helped lead the Utah Stars to the 1971 ABA title, was awarded the ABA Playoffs Most Valuable Player Award, he played a total of four seasons with the Stars, being named to the All-ABA Second Team twice and making the ABA All-Star Game three times, before returning to the NBA as a member of the Los Angeles Lakers. He served as president of the ABA's Player Association, as well as union player representative with the Hawks. Beaty retired in 1975 with combined ABA/NBA totals of 9,665 rebounds.
He served as a coach for the ABA's Virginia Squires. After pro ball, Beaty worked in financial planning, he worked as a substitute physical education teacher in Seattle elementary schools. Beaty died from cancer on August 2013 at his home in Bellevue, Washington, he was 73 years old. He had been married to his wife for about fifty years, had two children. Beaty was selected to be inducted into the 2014 National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame class and the 2016 Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame class. Career statistics and player information from Basketball-Reference.com Remember the ABA: Zelmo Beaty Remembering Zelmo Beaty
Norfolk Scope is a multi-function complex in Norfolk, comprising an 11,000-person arena, a 2,500-person theater known as Chrysler Hall, a 10,000 square foot-exhibition hall and a 600-car parking garage. The arena was designed by Italian architect/engineer Pier Luigi Nervi in conjunction with the local firm Williams and Tazewell, which designed the entire complex. Nervi's design for the arena's reinforced concrete dome derived from the PalaLottomatica and the much smaller Palazzetto dello Sport, which were built in the 1950s for the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. Construction on Scope began in June 1968 at the northern perimeter of Norfolk's downtown and was completed in 1971 at a cost of $35 million. Federal funds covered $23 million of the cost, when it opened formally on November 12, 1971, the structure was the second-largest public complex in Virginia, behind only the Pentagon. Featuring the world's largest reinforced thinshell concrete dome, Scope won the Virginia Society of the American Institute of Architects Test of Time award in 2003.
Wes Lewis, director of Old Dominion University's civil engineering technology program, called it "a beautiful marrying of art and engineering." Noted architectural critic James Howard Kunstler described the design as looking like "yesterday's tomorrow."The name "Scope", a contraction of kaleidoscope, emphasizes the venue's re-configurability. The facility logo, which features a multi-colored, abstracted kaleidoscope image, was designed by Raymond Loewy's firm Loewy/Snaith of New York. After watching the 1960 Rome Summer Olympics on television, seeing the Palazzo and Palazzetto dello Sport, Brad Tazewell and Jim Williams, two Norfolk architects, solicited U. S. Sen. A. Willis Robertson, father of Pat Robertson, to build a sports complex in Norfolk. Subsequently, President Lyndon B. Johnson asked Robertson to support federal funding for a multimillion-dollar cultural center in Colorado and Robertson said he would if Johnson would support one in Norfolk. Williams and Tazewell was subsequently commissioned.
The complex was an important part of the first phase of Norfolk's post-World War II revitalization. A large section of the city's downtown was razed, the Scope complex was to "anchor" its northern corner, with the Vincent Kling designed Courthouse and Civic complex anchoring the Eastern edge of downtown; the arena is located on its 14-acre site above a raised plinth, below, located a parking garage for 640 cars. The facility includes a 65,000 sq ft exhibit hall as well as the adjacent Chrysler Hall, a music and theater venue, home to the Virginia Symphony Orchestra; the arena's seating can be reconfigured to accommodate from 10,253 for sporting events up to 13,800 for concerts. With a concrete monolithic dome measuring 440 ft in diameter and a height of 110 ft, the dome was, at the time of its construction, the largest of its kind in the world — and was displaced as the record holder after the construction of the Seattle Kingdome. After the demolition of the larger Kingdome in 2000, Scope reclaimed the title as having the world's largest reinforced thin-shell concrete dome.
Supported by 24 flying buttresses, the arena roof encloses 85,000 sq ft. With over 1,000 pilings, the facility was constructed 10' below the city's water table; the roof is a ribbed concrete dome, independent of seating bowl formed of sloped concrete beams supporting precast treads and risers which form the seating bowl. The perimeter of the dome roof is supported by a combination of vertical columns and inclined buttresses, which tie into a tension ring below ground. A concentric ring 7' 9" wide, is suspended from the dome, for service and lighting needs. During preparations for the first hosting of the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus, a bear escaped its cage and ran across the wet paint on the floor of the unfinished Exhibition Hall below. During the first presentation in the Exhibition Hall of the Hampton Roads Automobile Show, visitors could spot bear tracks in the painted floor, between the exhibitions; the arena has undergone $11 million of renovations since 2003, including the replacement of a center-hung scoreboard with a matrix screen on each side with a center-hung scoreboard with LED video and matrix boards and two LED end-zone videoboards in 2008.
A new glass wall has been installed, is expected to be extended in order to expand the arena's main concourse at a cost of $3.5 million in 2014. This would result in additional restrooms and concession stands at the arena. There has been discussion about expanding the Norfolk Scope, by adding 5,000 seats and 24 luxury suites, in the near future, in order to remain competitive with neighboring venues in the southeastern and mid-Atlantic states. Norfolk Scope Official Site
Richmond Coliseum is an arena located in Richmond, Virginia. It is a venue most used for various large concerts. Holding 13,500 people, the arena opened in 1971, the region is looking to replace the aging facility with a larger one; until John Paul Jones Arena opened in 2006, the Richmond Coliseum was the largest sports arena in Virginia. The Virginia Commonwealth University Rams men's basketball team played in the arena until the 7,500-seat Siegel Center opened on the VCU campus in 1999. Elvis Presley performed a concert at the coliseum on April 10, 1972 with footage being used in the film Elvis on Tour which documented Presley's spring tour of that year; the Richmond Coliseum was the former part-time home of the Virginia Squires of the American Basketball Association. The Squires played there in addition to Roanoke Civic Center, Norfolk Scope and Hampton Coliseum from 1970 until just before the ABA–NBA merger in 1976; the Coliseum hosted the Southern Conference men's basketball tournaments in 1973 and 1974.
The Sun Belt Conference men's basketball tournament was held there in 1988. The Colonial Athletic Association men's collegiate basketball tournament has been contested at the Richmond Coliseum since 1990. On March 1, 2006, a deal was signed to keep the tournament in Richmond until 2012; the Coliseum served as the primary home for the MEAC Men's Basketball Tournament between 1998 and 2005, with some games played at the Arthur Ashe Athletic Center. In 1994, the Coliseum hosted the Women's NCAA Division I Basketball Championship. Charlotte Smith of the University of North Carolina sank a buzzer-beating three-pointer to defeat Louisiana Tech, 60–59, in the final; the Richmond Coliseum held the men's NCAA Tournament 1st and second rounds there in 1990 and 1996. In 1997, a transformer fire caused electrical problems and forced events to be canceled or postponed that year, it has been a regular stop for professional wrestling promotions through the years, including the old NWA Mid-Atlantic territory, more WWE.
In recent years, it hosted the fifteenth WWF In Your House 15: A Cold Day in Hell pay-per-view in 1997, WWE Armageddon on December 17, 2006, hosted the televised portion of the 2010 WWE Draft. It held WWE Friday Night SmackDown on November 16, 2010, it held WWE Raw on Monday, June 6, 2011 featuring WWE Hall of Famer Steve Austin to announce the winner of WWE Tough Enough. It held Monday Night Raw again May 21, 2012 following Over the Limit in which John Cena lost a match against John Laurinaitis, with Laurinaitis only winning after The Big Show intervened, it held WWE Friday Night SmackDown on December 30, 2012, the final WWE event of the year. It hosted the the July 14, 2014 and the May 18, 2015 editions of Raw. On September 11, 2016, it hosted the return of Backlash; the Coliseum has been a site for the Professional Bull Riders. In 1998 and 1999, a Bud Light Cup Series event known as the Lane Frost Memorial was held in the Coliseum. On October 22, 2008, it hosted a rally for presidential candidate Barack Obama, drawing over 13,000 people.
A similar crowd was drawn for the 2009 Republican Party of Virginia convention. In 2016, the Virginia General Assembly passed a bill, signed by governor Terry McAuliffe, authorizing the Richmond Metropolitan Transportation Authority to build a replacement, as a way to get regional cooperation; as of April 2018 no plan has been yet approved. The Richmond Coliseum is laid out on six levels. In order from lowest to highest they are the event level, the mezzanine, the lower concourse, the upper concourse, the 300 level and the ring; the event level is where the event floor is located, as well as all the support rooms for events and the building. Team locker rooms, star dressing rooms, Exhibition halls, the Coliseum Club and the kitchens are located on the event level; the Clay Street tunnel, one of the innovative features of the coliseum, is on the event level and allows vehicles, including tractor trailers and monster trucks, to pull into the coliseum. It is accessed at the intersection of Eighth Street.
The tunnel provides storage for shows and parking for coliseum personnel. The mezzanine is; the Leigh Street entrance is on this level. The lower concourse is the access for suites; the Fifth Street and Sixth Street entrances are located on this level, as well as exits to the areas above Clay Street and Leigh Street. The upper concourse is the access for all upper level seating and the 300 level is access to the highest seats on either radius of the coliseum; the ring is where the spotlights is the access to the catwalk. Official website "We Can't All Age Gracefully" Virginia Memory
Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 242,803. Norfolk is located at the core of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, named for the large natural harbor of the same name located at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, it is one of nine cities and seven counties that constitute the Hampton Roads metro area known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA. The city is bordered to the north by the Chesapeake Bay, it shares land borders with the independent cities of Chesapeake to its south and Virginia Beach to its east. Norfolk is one of the oldest cities in Hampton Roads, is considered to be the historic, urban and cultural center of the region; the city has a long history as a strategic transportation point. The largest Navy base in the world, Naval Station Norfolk, is located in Norfolk along with one of NATO's two Strategic Command headquarters; the city has the corporate headquarters of Norfolk Southern Railway, one of North America's principal Class I railroads, Maersk Line, which manages the world's largest fleet of US-flag vessels.
As the city is bordered by multiple bodies of water, Norfolk has many miles of riverfront and bayfront property, including beaches on the Chesapeake Bay. It is linked to its neighbors by an extensive network of interstate highways, bridges and three bridge-tunnel complexes, which are the only bridge-tunnels in the United States. In 1619 the Governor of the Virginia Colony, Sir George Yeardley, incorporated four jurisdictions, termed citties, for the developed portion of the colony; these formed the basis for colonial representative government in the newly minted House of Burgesses. What would become Norfolk was put under the Elizabeth Cittie incorporation. In 1634 King Charles I reorganized the colony into a system of shires; the former Elizabeth Cittie became Elizabeth City Shire. After persuading 105 people to settle in the colony, Adam Thoroughgood was granted a large land holding, through the head rights system, along the Lynnhaven River in 1636; when the South Hampton Roads portion of the shire was separated, Thoroughgood suggested the name of his birthplace for the newly formed New Norfolk County.
One year it was divided into two counties, Upper Norfolk and Lower Norfolk, chiefly on Thoroughgood's recommendation. This area of Virginia became known as the place of entrepreneurs, including men of the Virginia Company of London. Norfolk developed in the late-seventeenth century as a "Half Moone" fort was constructed and 50 acres were acquired from local natives of the Powhatan Confederacy in exchange for 10,000 pounds of tobacco; the House of Burgesses established the "Towne of Lower Norfolk County" in 1680. In 1691, a final county subdivision took place when Lower Norfolk County split to form Norfolk County and Princess Anne County. Norfolk was incorporated in 1705. In 1730, a tobacco inspection site was located here. According to the Tobacco Inspection Act, the inspection was "At Norfolk Town, upon the fort land, in the County of Norfolk. In 1736 George II granted it a royal charter as a borough. By 1775, Norfolk developed into what contemporary observers argued was the most prosperous city in Virginia.
It was an important port for exporting goods beyond. In part because of its merchants' numerous trading ties with other parts of the British Empire, Norfolk served as a strong base of Loyalist support during the early part of the American Revolution. After fleeing the colonial capital of Williamsburg, the Royal Governor of Virginia, John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, tried to reestablish control of the colony from Norfolk. Dunmore secured small victories at Norfolk but was soon driven into exile by the Virginia militia, commanded by Colonel Woodford, his departure brought an end to more than 168 years of British colonial rule in Virginia. On New Year's Day, 1776, Lord Dunmore's fleet of three ships shelled the city of Norfolk for more than eight hours; the gunfire, combined with fires started by the British and spread by the Patriots, destroyed more than 800 buildings, constituting nearly two-thirds of the city. The Patriot forces destroyed the remaining buildings for strategic reasons the following month.
Only the walls of Saint Paul's Episcopal Church survived subsequent fires. A cannonball from the bombardment remains within the wall of Saint Paul's. Following recovery from the Revolutionary War's burning and her citizens struggled to rebuild. In 1804, another serious fire along the city's waterfront destroyed some 300 buildings and the city suffered a serious economic setback. During the 1820s, agrarian communities across the American South suffered a prolonged recession, which caused many families to migrate to other areas. Many moved further into Kentucky and Tennessee; such migration followed the exhaustion of soil due to tobacco cultivation in the Tidewater, where it had been the primary commodity crop for generations. Virginia made some attempts to phase out slavery and manumissions increased in the two decades following the war. Thomas Jefferson Randolph gained passage of an 1832 resolution for gradual abolition in the state. However, by that time the increased demand fr
Hampton is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 137,436; as one of the seven major cities that compose the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, it is on the southeastern side of the Virginia Peninsula. Hampton traces its history to the city's Old Point Comfort, the home of Fort Monroe for 400 years, named by the 1607 voyagers, led by Captain Christopher Newport, who first established Jamestown as an English colonial settlement. Since consolidation in 1952, Hampton has included the former Elizabeth City County and the incorporated town of Phoebus, consolidated by a mutual agreement. After the end of the American Civil War, historic Hampton University was established opposite from the town on the Hampton River, providing an education for many newly-freed former slaves and for area Native Americans. In the 20th century, the area became the location of Langley Air Force Base, NASA Langley Research Center, the Virginia Air and Space Center.
Hampton features many miles of waterfront and beaches. For residents and visitors alike, the city features a wide array of business and industrial enterprises and residential areas, historical sites. Most the new Peninsula Town Center development opened in May 2010 on the site of the former Coliseum Mall. Located in the area adjacent to the Hampton Coliseum and the Convention Center, the new urbanism-type project features a wide mix of retail stores and other attractions. Development of new residential development and additional public facilities are underway at Buckroe Beach, long a noted resort area. Located on the Hampton Roads Beltway, it hosts the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel on Interstate 64. First opened in 1957, it was the world's first bridge-tunnel, crossing the mouth of the Hampton Roads harbor, which serves as the gateway to the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean from the eastern United States' largest ice-free harbor and its tributary rivers. Expanded in the 1970s, the HRBT remains deepest such facility.
In December 1606, three ships carrying men and boys left England on a mission sponsored by a proprietary company. Lead by Captain Christopher Newport, they sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to North America. After a long voyage, they first landed at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay on the south shore at a place they named Cape Henry. During the first few days of exploration, they identified the site of Old Point Comfort as a strategic defensive location at the entrance to the body of water that became known as Hampton Roads; this is formed by the confluence of the Elizabeth and James rivers. The latter is the longest river in Virginia. Weeks on May 14, 1607, they established the first permanent English settlement in the present-day United States about 25 miles further inland from the Bay which became the site of fortifications during the following 200 years. South, near the entrance to Hampton River, the colonists seized the Native American community of Kecoughtan under Virginia's Governor, Sir Thomas Gates.
The colonists established their own small town, with a small Anglican church, on July 9, 1610. This came to be known as part of Hampton.. Hampton was named for Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, an important leader of the Virginia Company of London, for whom the Hampton River, Hampton Roads and Southampton County were named; the area became part of Elizabeth Cittie in 1619, Elizabeth River Shire in 1634, was included in Elizabeth City County when it was formed in 1643. By 1680, the settlement was known as Hampton, it was incorporated as a town in 1705 and became the seat of Elizabeth City County. In the latter part of August 1619, an English ship flying a Dutch flag, the White Lion, appeared off shore from Point Comfort, its cargo included 20 plus Africans captured from the slave ship Sao Joao Bautista. These were the first Africans to come ashore on English-occupied land in what would become the United States. John Rolfe, the widower of Pocahontas, wrote in a letter that he was at Point Comfort and witnessed the arrival of the first Africans.
Although these first Bantu men from Angola were considered indentured servants, their arrival marked the beginning of slavery in North America. Two of the first Africans to arrive at Old Point Comfort in 1619 were Isabella, their child, the first of African descent born in North America, was born baptized January 1624. Shortly after the War of 1812, the US Army built a more substantial stone facility at Old Point Comfort, it was called Fort Monroe in honor of President James Monroe. The new installation and adjacent Fort Calhoun were completed in 1834. Fort Monroe and the surrounding area played several important roles during the American Civil War. Although most of Virginia became part of the Confederate States of America, Fort Monroe remained in Union hands, it became notable as a historic and symbolic site of early freedom for former slaves under the provisions of contraband policies and the Emancipation Proclamation. After the War, former Confederate President, Jefferson Davis was imprisoned in the area now known as the Casemate Museum on the base.
To the south of Fort Monroe, the Town of Hampton had the misfortune to be burned during both the American Revolutionary War and the American Civil War. From the ruins of Hampton left by evacuating Confederate
Roanoke is an independent city in the U. S. state of Virginia. At the 2010 census, the population was 97,032, it is located in the Roanoke Valley of the Roanoke Region of Virginia. Roanoke is the largest municipality in Southwest Virginia, is the principal municipality of the Roanoke Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a 2010 population of 308,707, it is composed of the independent cities of Roanoke and Salem, Botetourt, Craig and Roanoke counties. Bisected by the Roanoke River, Roanoke is the commercial and cultural hub of much of Southwest Virginia and portions of Southern West Virginia; the town first called Big Lick was established in 1852 and chartered in 1874. It was named for a large outcropping of salt which drew the wildlife to the site near the Roanoke River. In 1882 it became the town of Roanoke, in 1884 it was chartered as the independent city of Roanoke; the name Roanoke is said to have originated from an Algonquian word for shell "money". The name for the river was that used by the Algonquian speakers who lived 300 miles away where the river emptied into the sea near Roanoke Island.
The native people who lived near where the city was founded did not speak Algonquian. They spoke Siouan languages and Catawban. There were Cherokee speakers in that general area who fought with the Catawba people; the city grew through annexation through the middle of the 20th century. The last annexation was in 1976; the state legislature has since prohibited cities from annexing land from adjacent counties. Roanoke's location in the Blue Ridge Mountains, in the middle of the Roanoke Valley between Maryland and Tennessee, made it the transportation hub of western Virginia and contributed to its rapid growth. During colonial times the site of Roanoke was an important hub of roads; the Great Indian Warpath which merged into the colonial Great Wagon Road, one of the most traveled roads of 18th-century America, ran from Philadelphia through the Shenandoah Valley to the future site of the City of Roanoke, where the Roanoke River passed through the Blue Ridge. The Carolina Road branched off in Cloverdale, Virginia to Boones Mill, on to the Yadkin River Valley.
The Roanoke Gap proved a useful route for immigrants to settle the Carolina Piedmont region. At Roanoke Gap, another branch of the Great Wagon Road, the Wilderness Road, continued southwest to Tennessee. In the 1850s, Big Lick became a stop on the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad which linked Lynchburg with Bristol on the Virginia-Tennessee border. After the American Civil War, William Mahone, a civil engineer and hero of the Battle of the Crater, was the driving force in the linkage of three railroads, including the V&T, across the southern tier of Virginia to form the Atlantic, Mississippi & Ohio Railroad, a new line extending from Norfolk to Bristol, Virginia in 1870. However, the Financial Panic of 1873 wrecked the AM&O's finances. After several years of operating under receiverships, Mahone's role as a railroad builder ended in 1881 when northern financial interests took control. At the foreclosure auction, the AM&O was purchased by E. W. Clark & Co. a private banking firm in Philadelphia which controlled the Shenandoah Valley Railroad under construction up the valley from Hagerstown, Maryland.
The AM&O was renamed Western Railway. Frederick J. Kimball, a civil engineer and partner in the Clark firm, headed the new line and the new Shenandoah Valley Railroad. For the junction for the Shenandoah Valley and the Norfolk and Western roads and his board of directors selected the small Virginia village called Big Lick, on the Roanoke River. Although the grateful citizens offered to rename their town "Kimball", at his suggestion, they agreed to name it Roanoke after the river; as the N&W brought people and jobs, the Town of Roanoke became an independent city in 1884. In fact, Roanoke became a city so that it earned the nickname "Magic City". Kimball's interest in geology was instrumental in the development of the Pocahontas coalfields in western Virginia and West Virginia, he pushed N&W lines through the wilds of West Virginia, north to Columbus and Cincinnati, south to Durham, North Carolina, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. This gave the railroad the route structure; the Virginian Railway, an engineering marvel of its day, was conceived and built by William Nelson Page and Henry Huttleston Rogers.
Following the Roanoke River, the VGN was built through the City of Roanoke early in the 20th century. It merged with the N&W in 1959; the opening of the coalfields made N&W Pocahontas bituminous coal world-famous. Transported by the N&W and neighboring Virginian Railway, local coal-fueled half the world's navies. Today it stokes steel mills and power plants all over the globe; the Norfolk & Western was famous for manufacturing steam locomotives in-house. It was N&W's Roanoke Shops that made the company known industry-wide for its excellence in steam power; the Roanoke Shops, with its workforce of thousands, is where the famed classes A, J, Y6 locomotives were designed and maintained. New steam locomotives were built there until 1953, long after diesel-electric had emerged as the motive power of choice for most North American railroads. About 1960, N&W was the last major railroad in the United States to convert from steam to diesel power; the presence of the railroad made Roanoke attractive to manufacturers.
American Viscose opened a large rayon plant in Southeast Roanoke in October 1917. This plant closed in 1958; when N&W converted to diesel, 2,000 railroad workers were laid off. Roanoke has a weak mayor-city manager form of government; the city
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal