The Belgian Congo was a Belgian colony in Central Africa from 1908 until independence in 1960. The former colony adopted its present-day name, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in 1964. Colonial rule in the Congo began in the late 19th century. King Leopold II of Belgium attempted to persuade the Belgian government to support colonial expansion around the then-largely unexplored Congo Basin, their ambivalence resulted in Leopold's establishing a colony himself. With support from a number of Western countries, Leopold achieved international recognition for a personal colony, the Congo Free State, in 1885. By the turn of the century, the violence used by Free State officials against indigenous Congolese and a ruthless system of economic exploitation led to intense diplomatic pressure on Belgium to take official control of the country, which it did by creating the Belgian Congo in 1908. Belgian rule in the Congo was based on the "colonial trinity" of state and private-company interests; the privileging of Belgian commercial interests meant that large amounts of capital flowed into the Congo and that individual regions became specialised.
On many occasions, the interests of the government and of private enterprise became linked, the state helped companies to break strikes and to remove other barriers raised by the indigenous population. The colony was divided into hierarchically organised administrative subdivisions, run uniformly according to a set "native policy"; this contrasted the practice of British and French colonial policy, which favoured systems of indirect rule, retaining traditional leaders in positions of authority under colonial oversight. During the 1940s and 1950s the Belgian Congo experienced extensive urbanisation, the colonial administration began various development programmes aimed at making the territory into a "model colony". One result saw the development of a new middle-class of Europeanised African "évolués" in the cities. By the 1950s the Congo had a wage labour force twice as large as that in any other African colony. In 1960, as the result of a widespread and radical pro-independence movement, the Congo achieved independence, becoming the Republic of Congo-Léopoldville under Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and President Joseph Kasa-Vubu.
Poor relations between political factions within the Congo, the continued involvement of Belgium in Congolese affairs, the intervention by major parties during the Cold War led to a five-year-long period of war and political instability, known as the Congo Crisis, from 1960 to 1965. This ended with the seizure of power by Joseph-Désiré Mobutu in November 1965; until the part of the 19th century, few Europeans had ventured into the Congo basin. The rainforest and accompanying malaria and other tropical diseases, such as sleeping sickness, made it a difficult environment for European exploration and exploitation. In 1876, King Leopold II of Belgium organized the International African Association with the cooperation of the leading African explorers and the support of several European governments for the promotion of African exploration and colonization. After Henry Morton Stanley had explored the region in a journey that ended in 1878, Leopold courted the explorer and hired him to help his interests in the region.
Leopold II had been keen to acquire a colony for Belgium before he ascended to the throne in 1865. The Belgian civil government showed little interest in its monarch's dreams of empire-building. Ambitious and stubborn, Leopold decided to pursue the matter on his own account. European rivalry in Central Africa led to diplomatic tensions, in particular with regard to the unclaimed Congo River basin. In November 1884 Otto von Bismarck convened a 14-nation conference to find a peaceful resolution to the Congo crisis. Though the Berlin Conference did not formally approve the territorial claims of the European powers in Central Africa, it did agree on a set of rules to ensure a conflict-free partitioning of the region; the rules recognised the Congo basin as a free-trade zone. But Leopold II emerged triumphant from the Berlin Conference and his single-shareholder "philanthropic" organization received a large share of territory to be organized as the Congo Free State; the Congo Free State operated as a corporate state controlled by Leopold II through a non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine.
The state included the entire area of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo and existed from 1885 to 1908, when the government of Belgium reluctantly annexed the area. Under Leopold II's administration, the Congo Free State became a humanitarian disaster; the lack of accurate records makes it difficult to quantify the number of deaths caused by the ruthless exploitation and the lack of immunity to new diseases introduced by contact with European colonists – like the 1889–90 flu pandemic, which caused millions of deaths on the European continent, including Prince Baudouin of Belgium, who succumbed to the deadly virus in 1891. William Rubinstein wrote: "More it appears certain that the population figures given by Hochschild are inaccurate. There is, of course, no way of ascertaining the population of the Congo before the twentieth century, estimates like 20 million are purely guesses. Most of the interior of the Congo was unexplored if not inaccessible." Leopold's Force Publique, a private army that terrorized natives to work as forced labour for resource extraction, disrupted their societies and killed and abused natives indiscrimina
Roller derby is a contact sport played by two teams of five members roller skating counter-clockwise around a track. Roller derby is played by 1,250 amateur leagues worldwide inside the United States. Game play consists of a series of short match-ups; the jammer scores points by lapping members of the opposing team. The teams attempt to hinder the opposing jammer while assisting their own jammer—in effect, playing both offense and defense simultaneously. While the sport has its origins in the banked-track roller-skating marathons of the 1930s, Leo Seltzer and Damon Runyon are credited with evolving the sport to its competitive form. Professional roller derby became popular. In the ensuing decades, however, it predominantly became a form of sports entertainment, where theatrical elements overshadowed athleticism. Gratuitous showmanship ended with the sport's grassroots revival in the first decade of the 21st century. Although roller derby retains some sports entertainment qualities such as player pseudonyms and colorful uniforms, it has abandoned scripted bouts with predetermined winners.
Modern roller derby is an international sport played by amateurs. Most teams are all-female teams, but there is a growing number of male and junior roller derby teams, it was under consideration as a roller sport for the 2020 Summer Olympics. FIRS, recognized by the International Olympic Committee as the official international governing body of roller sports, released its first set of Roller Derby Rules for the World Roller Games that took place September 2017 in Nanjing, China. Most modern leagues share a strong "do-it-yourself" ethic that combines athleticism with the styles of punk and camp; as of 2018, the Women's Flat Track Derby Association had 423 full member leagues and 46 apprentice leagues. Contemporary roller derby has a basic set of rules, with variations reflecting the interests of a governing body's member leagues; the summary below is based on the rules of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association. In March 2010, Derby News Network claimed that more than 98% of roller derby competitions were conducted under WFTDA rules.
For example, members of the United Kingdom Roller Derby Association are required to play by WFTDA rules, while members of the former Canadian Women's Roller Derby Association were encouraged to join the WFTDA. Roller derby is played in two periods of 30 minutes. Two teams of up to 15 players each field up to five members for episodes called "jams." Jams last two minutes. Each team designates a scoring player. One blocker can be designated as a "pivot"—a blocker, allowed to become a jammer in the course of play; the next jam may involve different players of the 15 roster players, different selections for jammer and pivot. During each jam, players skate counterclockwise on a circuit track. Points are scored only by a team's jammer. After breaking through the pack and skating one lap to begin another "trip" through the pack, the jammer scores one point for passing any opposing blocker; the rules describe an "earned" pass. The jammer's first earned pass scores a point for passing that blocker and a point for each opponent blocker not on the track.
If the jammer passes the entire pack, it is a four-point scoring trip called a "grand slam."Each team's blockers use body contact, changing positions, other tactics to help their jammer score while hindering the opposing team's jammer. Play begins by blockers lining up on the track anywhere between the "jammer line" and the "pivot line" 30 feet in front; the jammers start behind the jammer line. Jams begin on a single short whistle blast, upon which both jammers and blockers may begin engaging immediately; the pack is the largest single group of blockers containing members of both teams skating in proximity, arranged such that each player is within 10 feet of the next. Blockers must maintain the pack, but can skate within 20 feet behind and ahead of it, an area known as the "engagement zone."The first jammer to break through the pack earns the status of "lead jammer." A designated referee blows the whistle twice, skates near, points at, the lead jammer. Once earned, lead jammer status cannot be transferred to other skaters, but certain actions can cause it to be lost.
The lead jammer can stop the jam at any time by placing both hands on their hips. If the jam is not stopped early, it ends after two minutes. If time remains in the period, teams have 30 seconds to get on the track and line up for the next jam. If the period expires, it does not halt a jam, underway. A skater may block an opponent to force them out of bounds; the blocker must be upright, skating counterclockwise, in bounds, within the engagement zone. Blocking with hands, elbows and feet is prohibited, as is contact above the shoulders or below mid-thigh, blocking from behind. Referees penalize rules violations. A player receiving a penalty is removed from play to sit in a penalty box for 30 seconds of jam time. If the jam ends during this interval, the player remains in the penalty box during the subsequent jam until the interval ends; the penalized player's team plays short-handed, as in ice hockey. However, the "power jam", derived from hockey's "power play", does not cover any short-handed situation but only the case where the jammer is penal
Dave Robbins (basketball)
David Robbins is a retired American basketball coach. Robbins is best known for coaching at NCAA Division II power Virginia Union University, where he won 713 games and three NCAA Division II Men's Basketball Tournament titles. Robbins announced his retirement on April 15, 2008, he is a member of the National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame, inducted in 2012. Robbins grew up in Gastonia, North Carolina and played football and ran track at Ashley High School, he was recruited to play basketball at Catawba College, but played football and ran track. Robbins coached at Thomas Jefferson High School in Richmond, Virginia where he led his 1975 team to the AAA State Championship prior to moving to Virginia Union University in 1978. Robbins began coaching the Virginia Union Panthers in 1978, becoming the first white head coach in the history of the Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, a conference consisting of Historically black colleges and universities, his hiring was controversial as many saw the hiring of a white coach as taking away opportunities from African-American candidates.
During his 30-year career, Robbins led his teams to a record of 713-194 and three NCAA Division II National Championships in 1980, 1992 and 2005. His teams garnered 21 NCAA tournament appearances. During his time at VUU, Robbins produced four Division II players of the year, eight Consensus first team All-Americans, five NBA players: Ben Wallace, Charles Oakley, Terry Davis, AJ English, Jamie Waller. Robbins retired on April 15, 2008, turning the program over to long-time assistant Willard Coker. Robbins is a member of the Catawba College, Virginia Union University, CIAA, Thomas Jefferson High School, Gaston County Halls of Fame. In 2010, Robbins was inducted into the Virginia Sports Hall of Museum. In 2012, Robbins was elected to the National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame. Most Robbins was inducted into the Small College Basketball Hall of Fame in 2017. List of college men's basketball coaches with 600 wins
Richmond Strikers is a sports club based in Henrico County, near Richmond, Virginia. The Strikers' team colors are orange and black; the Strikers are a multi-sport club and offer soccer, field hockey and rugby. The Strikers have over 6,000 members from travel soccer, adult league and all other sports; the Strikers are the host of the Jefferson Cup, one of the largest youth soccer tournaments in the United States. The Strikers were formed in 1975 as Three Chopt Soccer Association. In 1986, they adopted the Strikers name. In 2006, the Strikers merged with Virginia Capital Area Soccer League, making the Strikers one of the largest clubs in Virginia. In 2010, they announced a working relationship with Arsenal. In 2015, the Strikers announced the addition of field hockey. In 2017, the club added boys rugby. Notable players who have played for the Strikers include: Official website
Livingstone College is a private black Christian college in Salisbury, North Carolina. It is affiliated with the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. Livingstone College is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award the Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Fine Arts, Bachelor of Social Work degrees. Livingstone College along with Hood Theological Seminary began as Zion Wesley Institute in Concord, North Carolina in 1879. After fundraising by Dr. Joseph C. Price and Bishop J. W. Hood, the school was closed in Concord and re-opened in 1882 a few miles north in Salisbury. Zion Wesley Institute was founded by the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church; the institute changed its name to Livingstone College in 1887 to honor African missionary David Livingstone. That same year, the school granted its first degree; the first group of students to graduate included eight men and two women, the first black women to earn bachelor's degrees in North Carolina.
Beginning with 40 acres on a Salisbury farm called Delta Grove, Livingstone College now consists of 272 acres. The Livingstone College Historic District is a national historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982; the district encompasses 16 contributing buildings, 1 contributing structure, 1 contributing object on the Livingstone College campus and adjacent residential sections in Salisbury. Notable buildings include the Price house, Harris house, Aggrey house, Ballard Hall, Dodge Hall, Carnegie Library, Goler Hall, Hood Building, Price Memorial Building; the College offers a number of opportunities for students to participate in religious, cultural and athletic activities. Additionally, outstanding artists and lecturers are brought to campus to perform each year. Included in the Division of Student Services are Residence Life, Health Services, Student Activities/Smith Anderson Clark Student Center, Campus Ministry, the Counseling Center. On the campus is an athletic marker erected in 1956 to commemorate the first African-American intercollegiate football game, in 1892.
Livingstone is a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, Division II, the Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Its intercollegiate sports programs include basketball, cross-country, softball, tennis and track and field; the nickname for the school's teams is the Blue Bears. The Livingstone College football team has had a long history since playing in the first Black college football game in 1892 against Johnson C. Smith University; the rivalry between the two schools continues to this day as the Commemorative Classic. The Blue Bears maintain a rivalry with their cross town rival Catawba College Indians; the early October game between the two schools is called the Mayors' Cup. Official website Official athletics website
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa
Virginia Union University
Virginia Union University is a black university located in Richmond, United States. It took its present name in 1899 upon the merger of two older schools, Richmond Theological Institute and Wayland Seminary, each founded after the end of American Civil War by the American Baptist Home Mission Society. In 1932, Hartshorn Memorial College, a women's college, merged with VUU. VUU's 84-acre campus is located at 1500 North Lombardy Street in Richmond's North Side; the university was founded in 1865 to give the newly emancipated freedmen an opportunity for education of the mind in an ethical, religious environment. A black university, Virginia Union University embraces the uniqueness and contributions of the African Diaspora, celebrating the value of cultural and intellectual diversity. However, enrollment is open to all students without regard to racial background; the university provides comprehensive undergraduate liberal arts programs and graduate education for Christian ministries. To this end, a guiding principle of the university's educational program is a strong focus upon moral values and ethics, students are encouraged to engage in activities that promote self-actualization.
The American Baptist Home Mission Society founded the school in 1865 shortly after Union troops took control of Richmond, Virginia, at the end of the American Civil War. 4 million former African American slaves, or freedmen, were to become citizens. Many had been deprived of formal education and prevented from becoming literate by Southern state laws. Southern states were in economic upheaval after the war. Members of the ABHMS proposed a National Theological Institute to educate freedmen wishing to enter the Baptist ministry. Soon the proposed mission was expanded to offer courses and programs at college, high school, preparatory levels, to both men and women; this effort was the beginning of Virginia Union University. Separate branches of the National Theological Institute were set up in Washington, D. C. and Richmond, with classes beginning in 1867. In Washington, the school became known as Wayland Seminary, named in commemoration of Dr. Francis Wayland, former president of Brown University and a leader in the anti-slavery struggle.
The first and only president was Dr. George Mellen Prentiss King, who administered Wayland for thirty years. Famous students there included Dr. Adam Clayton Powell, Sr.. In Richmond, the efforts were more difficult. Beginning in 1867, Colver Institute, a VUU predecessor school, was housed in a building long known as Lumpkin's Jail, a former "slave jail" owned by Mary Ann Lumpkin, the African-American widow of the deceased white owner. In 1899, the Richmond Theological Institute joined with Wayland Seminary of Washington to form Virginia Union University at Richmond. In 1932, the women's college Hartshorn Memorial College, established in Richmond in 1883, became a part of Virginia Union University. Storer College, a black Baptist college in West Virginia, merged its endowment with Virginia Union in 1964; the current president is Hakim Lucas, appointed in August 2017. Lucas is in litigation involving his former employment at Bethune-Cookman University surrounding the financing and construction of a dorm.
The university is divided into four main schools: Evelyn Reid Syphax School of Education and Interdisciplinary Studies School of Arts and Sciences Samuel DeWitt Proctor School of Theology Sydney Lewis School of Business Virginia Union University's Theological training program is called "The Samuel DeWitt Proctor School of Theology at Virginia Union University". The school of theology has produced preachers such as Dean John W. Kinney, Dr. Miles Jones, Dr. A. B. James, Dr. James Henry Harris; the school is a member of the Washington Theological Consortium. Nine of the National Pan-Hellenic Council organizations are at Virginia Union University; these organizations are: Virginia Union competes in the NCAA Division II in the Eastern Division of the Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The school has varsity teams in men's basketball, cross country, golf and track and field, in women's basketball, cross country and track and field and volleyball. Virginia Union plays basketball and volleyball in the Barco-Stevens Hall, built as the Belgian Building for the 1939 New York World's Fair.
The building, which has stone reliefs depicting the Belgian Congo, was one of thirteen facilities designated as "unique" by NCAA News in 2005. The building was awarded to the university in 1941 and moved to its present location in 1943; the basketball team began using the facility in early 1947. Virginia Union University Virginia Union University athletics Virginia Union University at Curlie Bells For Peace - The Belgian Pavilion