This article is about the Italian legislator. For the similar name used as an alias by terrorist Ramzi Yousef for Philippine Airlines Flight 434, see Ramzi Yousef. Arnaldo Forlani, is an Italian politician who served as the 43rd Prime Minister of Italy from 18 October 1980 to 28 June 1981, he held the office of Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Defence. Forlani, a member of the right-wing of the Christian Democracy, was one of the most prominent Italian politicians from the 1970s to early 1990s. At age 93, Forlani is the oldest living former Italian Prime Minister. Arnaldo Forlani was born in Pesaro, from a middle-class family. In 1948, after the degree in law at the University of Urbino, Forlani began his political career, holding the position of provincial secretary of Christian Democracy for Pesaro. In 1954 he became a member of the central committee of Christian Democracy. In the 1958 general election Forlani was elected in the Chamber of Deputies for the first time, representing the constituency of Ancona.
In 1959 he became one of the most prominent member of the DC faction led by Amintore Fanfani. In 1962 he was appointed vice-secretary of the party. In December 1968 he was appointed Minister of Public Shares in the government led by Mariano Rumor. In November 1969 Forlani was elected Secretary of the Christian Democracy with 157 votes in favor and 13 blank votes. During his secretariat, Forlani tried to avoid the disintegration of the center-left political alliance, undermined by the inability to react to the economic and social difficulties of the period, he tried to strength the Organic Centre-left coalition with the Socialist Party, the Democratic Socialist Party and the Republican Party. In November 1969, the Parliament approved the divorce law with a different majority from the one which supported the government. Prime Minister Rumor resigned in February 1970, but tried to rebuild a centre-left government in March 1970. Despite the political success for the first regional elections of June 1970, the third Rumor government did not survive the political and social tensions that shocked the country after the general strike of July 1970.
After Rumor's resignation, Emilio Colombo was appointed new Prime Minister at the head of a centre-left coalition. In the 1971 presidential election, Forlani proposed Amintore Fanfani as DC candidate as President of the Republic, but his allies opposed this decision and Fanfani was not elected. Forlani's second candidate was Aldo Moro, but this nomination was rejected by the Parliament. At the end, the DC proposed Giovanni Leone, former Prime Minister and long-time President of the Chamber of Deputies, elected with the support of the neo-fascist Social Movement. After few months the republicans withdrew their support to Colombo's government and the new appointed Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti did not reach to gain the confidence vote from the Parliament. In the general election, which took place on 7 May 1972, the DC, led by Forlani, remained stable with around 38% of the votes, as it happened to the Communist Party which obtained the same 27% of 1968; the Socialist Party continued in its decline, reducing to less than 10%.
The most important growth was that of the post-fascist Italian Social Movement, which nearly doubled its votes from 4.5 to c. 9%, after that its leader Giorgio Almirante launched the formula of the "National Right", proposing his party as the sole group of the Italian right side. Incumbent Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti, supported by secretary Forlani, tried to continue his centrist strategy, but his attempt only lasted a year. Former Premier Mariano Rumor so returned at the head of the government with his traditional centre-left alliance between Christian Democrats, Democratic Socialist and Republicans. At the same time, during the 1973 National Congress, who now opposed an alliance with the PSI, was not confirmed Secretary of the party, his former mentor, Amintore Fanfani, became DC secretary once again. In March 1973 Prime Minister Rumor was abandoned by the Republicans, he continued with a new squad, but he couldn't withstand the shocks deriving by the divorce referendum of 1974, when Christian Democrats, along with the neo-fascist MSI, intensely campaigned for a yes vote to abolish the law and make divorce illegal again, but their proposal was rejected by 60% of votes.
After the referendum, former Premier Aldo Moro persuaded the Socialists to accept a minority government composed only by the Christian Democrats and the Republicans. Forlani was appointed Minister of Defence by Moro. However, new problem arose from the regional elections of 1975, which marked a great success of the left, which called for new national elections. In March 1976 Forlani run to the secretariat of the party, opposing Benigno Zaccagnini, incumbent secretary and member of the DC left-wing, who supported Moro's policy of accommodation with the Communists of Enrico Berlinguer, known as Historic Compromise. Forlani was supported by Andreotti, Flaminio Piccoli and Antonio Bisaglia, but he lost the congressional election and Zaccagnini remained Christian Democratic secretary; when the Republicans left Moro's cabinet in 1976, no p
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy known as The Daisy, was a centrist political party in Italy. The party was formed from the merger of three parties: the Italian People's Party, The Democrats and Italian Renewal; the party president and leader was Francesco Rutelli, former mayor of Rome and prime ministerial candidate during the 2001 general election for The Olive Tree coalition, within which The Daisy electoral list won 14.5% of the national vote. The Daisy became a single party in February 2002, it was set up by former left-leaning Christian Democrats, social-liberals, as well as other left-wing politicians from the former Italian Socialist Party and Federation of the Greens. On 14 October 2007 DL merged with the Democrats of the Left to form the Democratic Party; the idea of uniting the centrist components of The Olive Tree coalitions, which were divided in many parties, was discussed at least since 1996. In the 1996 general election there were two centrist lists within the Italian centre-left: the Populars for Prodi, including the Italian People's Party, Democratic Union, the Italian Republican Party and the South Tyrolean People's Party, that of Italian Renewal, including the Italian Socialists, which merged into the Italian Democratic Socialists in 1998, the Segni Pact.
In 1998 splinters from the centre-right coalition formed the Democratic Union for the Republic transformed into Union of Democrats for Europe, in order to support the D'Alema I Cabinet. In 1999 splinters of PPI, UD and other groups formed The Democrats. Between 1998 and 2000, in Northeast Italy, there were several precursors of such idea at the regional and local level, notably the Reformist Popular Centre in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, the Daisy Civic List in Trentino, the Autonomist Federation in Aosta Valley and Together for Veneto in Veneto; some of these experiments were intended to include both Christian-inspired parties and secular ones, such as SDI and PRI. However, on 12 October 2000, only PPI, Dem, UDEUR and RI agreed to join forces with a joint list called "The Daisy" for the 2001 general election; the Daisy, led by Francesco Rutelli, won 14.5% of the vote, only two points less than the Democrats of the Left. Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy was established as a single party during the founding congress of Parma in March 2002.
On that occasion the Italian People's Party, The Democrats and Italian Renewal merged to form the new party, while the UDEUR decided to remain separate. In the 2006 general election, The Daisy was member of the winning The Union coalition and won 39 out of 315 senators; the Olive Tree list, of which DL was a member since the 2004 European Parliament election, won 220 seats out of 630 in the Italian Chamber of Deputies. On 14 October 2007, DS and numerous minor parties merged to form the Democratic Party. Democracy Is Freedom was a pro-European centrist party, with a strong support among Catholics progressive ones; the party put together social conservatives with social progressives, economic liberals and social democrats. Many former members of the Italian People's Party, one of the ancestor parties of DL, were members or close supporters of the Italian Confederation of Workers' Trade Unions, the Catholic trade union. After the 2004 European elections the new party decided not to become a member of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party or of the European People's Party, but founded the European Democratic Party together with the Union for French Democracy.
In the European Parliament, the EDP and ELDR Europarties formed the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe group. In 2005, DL participated in the foundation of the Alliance of Democrats, a worldwide network of centrist parties, along with the New Democrat Coalition of the United States Democratic Party, the EDP member parties and the Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats. Leading members of the party included: Former Christian Democrats: Gerardo Bianco, Rosy Bindi, Enzo Carra, Pierluigi Castagnetti, Luigi Cocilovo, Sergio D'Antoni, Ciriaco De Mita, Giuseppe Fioroni, Dario Franceschini, Enrico Letta, Renzo Lusetti, Nicola Mancino, Franco Marini, Sergio Mattarella, Lapo Pistelli, Vittorio Prodi, Rosa Russo Jervolino, Patrizia Toia Former Socialists: Laura Fincato, Giuseppe La Ganga, Linda Lanzillotta, Enrico Manca, Pierluigi Mantini, Tiziano Treu Former Social Democrats: Franco Bruno, Sandro Gozi, Andrea Papini, Italo Tanoni Former Liberals: Cinzia Dato, Natale D'Amico, Lamberto Dini, Valerio Zanone Former Republicans: Enzo Bianco, Antonio Maccanico, Roberto Manzione Former Radicals: Francesco Rutelli, Roberto Giachetti Former Greens: Paolo Gentiloni, Ermete Realacci, Francesco Rutelli, Gianni Vernetti Former Communists: Willer Bordon, Massimo Cacciari, Maurizio Fistarol, Antonio Polito DL was composed of four factions, the first three of them supporting Francesco Rutelli's leadership: Rutelliani.
Rutelli's own group, composed of Paolo Gentiloni, Roberto Giachetti, Renzo Lusetti, Ermete Realacci, Gianni Vernetti, Luigi Lusi, Rino Piscitello, Maurizio Fistarol and Riccardo Villari. This group was supportive of the idea of forming a'Democratic Party' with DS, but they wanted to model it on the United States Democratic Party and for this reason they supported the foundation of the European Democratic Party. Many Rutelliani, including Francesco Rutelli himself left the Democratic Party in order to found the Alliance for Italy on 11 November 2009. Popolari; this group represented the core of the former Italian People's Party (a leftist Christi
Christian Democracy (Italy)
Christian Democracy was a Christian democratic political party in Italy. The DC was founded in 1943 as the ideal successor of the Italian People's Party, which had the same symbol, a crossed shield. A Catholic-inspired, catch-all party comprising both right- and left-leaning political factions, the DC played a dominant role in the politics of Italy for fifty years, from its inception in 1944 until its final demise in 1994 amid the Tangentopoli scandals; the party was nicknamed the White Whale, due to party's huge organization and to its official color. From 1946 until 1994 the DC was the largest party in Parliament, governing in successive coalitions, it supported governments based on liberal-conservative political positions, before moving to centre-left coalitions. The party was succeeded by a string of smaller parties, including the Italian People's Party, the Christian Democratic Centre, the United Christian Democrats, the still active Union of the Centre. Former Christian Democrats are spread among other parties, including the centre-right Forza Italia and the centre-left Democratic Party.
The DC was a founding member of the European People's Party in 1976. The party was founded as the revival of the Italian People's Party, a political party created in 1919 by Luigi Sturzo, a Catholic priest; the PPI won over 20% of the votes in the 1919 and 1921 general elections, but was declared illegal by the Fascist dictatorship in 1925 despite the presence of some Popolari in Benito Mussolini's first government. As World War II was ending, the Christian Democrats started organizing post-Fascist Italy in coalition with all the other mainstream parties, including the Italian Communist Party, the Italian Socialist Party, the Italian Liberal Party, the Italian Republican Party, the Action Party and the Labour Democratic Party. In December 1945 Christian Democrat Alcide De Gasperi was appointed Prime Minister of Italy. In the 1946 general election the DC won 35.2% of the vote. In May 1947 De Gasperi broke decisively with his Communist and Socialist coalition partners under pressure from U. S. President Harry Truman.
This opened the way for a centrist coalition that included the Italian Workers' Socialist Party, a centrist break-away from the PSI, as well as its usual allies, the PLI and the PRI. In the 1948 general election the DC went on to win a decisive victory, with the support of the Catholic Church and the United States, obtained 48.5% of the vote, its best result ever. Despite his party's absolute majority in the Italian Parliament, De Gasperi continued to govern at the head of the centrist coalition, successively abandoned by the Liberals, who hoped for more right-wing policies, in 1950 and the Democratic Socialists, who hoped for more leftist policies, in 1951. Under De Gasperi, major land reforms were carried out in the poorer rural regions in the early postwar years, with farms appropriated from the large landowners and parcelled out to the peasants. In addition, during its years in office, Christian Democrats passed a number of laws safeguarding employees from exploitation, established a national health service, initiated low-cost housing in Italy’s major cities.
De Gasperi would die a year later. No Christian Democrat would match his longevity in office and, despite the fact that DC's share of vote was always between 38 and 43% from 1953 to 1979, the party was more and more fractious; as a result, Prime Ministers changed more frequently. From 1954 the DC was led by progressive Christian Democrats, such as Amintore Fanfani, Aldo Moro and Benigno Zaccagnini, supported by the influential left-wing factions. In the 1950s the party formed centrist or moderately centre-left coalitions, a short-lived government led by Fernando Tambroni relying on parliamentary support from the Italian Social Movement, the post-fascist party. In 1963 the party, under Prime Minister Aldo Moro, formed a coalition with the PSI, which returned to ministerial roles after 16 years, the PSDI and the PRI. Similar "Organic Centre-left" governments became usual through the 1970s. From 1976 to 1979 the DC governed with the external support of the PCI, through the Historic Compromise. Moro, the party main leader and who had inspired the Compromise, was abducted and murdered by the Red Brigades.
The event was a shock for the party. When Moro was abducted, the government, at the time led by Giulio Andreotti took a hardline position stating that the "State must not bend" on terrorist demands; this was a different position from the one kept in similar cases before. It was however supported by all the mainstream parties, including the PCI, with the two notable exceptions of the PSI and the Radicals. In the trial for Mafia allegations against Andreotti, it was said that he took the chance of getting rid of a dangerous political competitor by sabotaging all of the rescue options and leaving the captors with no option but killing him. During his captivity Moro wrote a series of letters, at times critical of Andreotti; the memorial written by Moro during his imprisonment was subject to several plots, including the assassination of journalist Mino Pecorelli and general Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa. At the beginning of the 1980s the DC had lost part of its support over Italian voters. In 1981 Giovanni Spadolini of the PRI was the first non-Christian Democrat to lead a government since 1944, at the head of a coalition comprising the DC, the PSI, the PSDI, the PRI and the PLI, the so
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro was an Italian politician and magistrate, the ninth President of the Italian Republic from 1992 to 1999, subsequently a senator for life. A member of Christian Democracy, he belonged to the centre-left Democratic party. Scalfaro was born in Novara, Province of Novara, on 9 September 1918, son of Guglielmo, Barone Scalfaro and wife Rosalia Ussino, he was raised in a religious atmosphere. He became a member of the association Azione Cattolica at the age of 12 and kept its badge on his lapel until his death. Scalfaro studied law at Milan's Università Cattolica and graduated on 30 July 1941. On 21 October 1942, he entered the magistrature. In 1945, after the end of World War II, he became a public prosecuting attorney, to date he is the last Italian attorney to have obtained a death sentence: in July of that year, along with two others, he was public prosecutor in the trial against former Novara prefect Enrico Vezzalini and servicemen Arturo Missiato, Domenico Ricci, Salvatore Santoro, Giovanni Zeno and Raffaele Infante, accused of "collaborating with the German invaders".
After a three-day-long debate, all six were condemned to death. The sentence was carried out on 23 September 1945. On, he obtained one more death sentence, but the accused was pardoned before the execution could take place. In 1946 he was elected to the Constituent Assembly and in 1948 he became a deputy representing the district of Turin, he was re-elected ten times in a row until 1992. Within the Democrazia Cristiana party he was associated with its right wing. On 25 May 1992, he was elected as President of the Italian Republic, after a two-week stalemate of unsuccessful attempts to reach agreement; the killing of anti-Mafia magistrate Giovanni Falcone prompted his election. His mandate ended in May 1999, he automatically became a lifetime member of the Senate. On 7 April 1994 Scalfaro co-officiated at the Papal Concert to Commemorate the Shoah at the Sala Nervi in Vatican City, along with Pope John Paul II, Chief Rabbi of Rome Elio Toaff. In recent times, Scalfaro was the chairman of the committee that advocated the abrogation, in the referendum of 25 and 26 June 2006, on the constitutional reform, passed in parliament the previous year by the former center-right majority.
Along with all the center-left, Scalfaro considered it to be dangerous for national unity and for other reasons. The opponents of the reform won a landslide victory in the referendum. Scalfaro was the oldest surviving former Italian president and the second oldest member of the Senate, after Rita Levi-Montalcini, he took the temporary presidency of the newly elected assembly which followed the 2006 general election, as Levi Montalcini refused the role because of her age. This made him one of the three politicians in Italian history to have presided over the three highest-ranked offices in the Italian Republic: President of the Republic, President of the Senate, President of the Chamber of Deputies. A staunch Catholic, in the past a rather conservative and anti-communist politician, Scalfaro distrusted many members of the DC who changed support to Forza Italia, was on bad terms with Silvio Berlusconi, he supported the center-left coalition, which included Democratic Party of the Left, which won the 1996 and 2006 elections.
Despite his age, he actively campaigned, for the "No" side, in the June 2006 referendum on a constitutional reform. This reform had been proposed by Berlusconi's House of Freedom coalition during its control of the government. During the Second World War, in 1944, Scalfaro lost his 20-year-old wife Maria Inzitari, by whom he had a daughter, Marianna, he never married again. After the 2008 parliamentary election, he was again asked to preside as pro tempore Speaker of the Senate after Rita Levi-Montalcini again refused the post, but this time he declined to serve; as President of the Italian Republic, Scalfaro was Head of several Italian Orders from 28 May 1992 to 15 May 1999: the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, the Military Order of Italy, the Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity, the Order of Merit for Labour and the Order of Vittorio Veneto. He was awarded the Gold Medal of Merit for School and Art on 31 July 1973, he received several foreign honours: Knight of Magistral Grace of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta Bailiff Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant Malta: Honorary Companion of Honour with Collar of the National Order of Merit Slovakia: Grand Cross of the Order of the White Double Cross Croatia: Knight Grand Cross of the Grand Order of King Tomislav Estonia: Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana Latvia: Knight of the Order of the Three Stars, First Class Lithuania: Grand Cross of the Order of Vytautas the Great Poland: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the White Eagle Encyclopædia Britannica, Oscar Luigi Scalfaro - full access article La biografia del presidente Oscar Luigi Scalfaro at Find a Grave
Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of Italy's population, live in Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe. Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the largest metropolitan area in Italy; the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, related to German Barte. During the early Middle Ages "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards, a kingdom ruled by the Germanic Lombards who had controlled most of Italy since their invasion of Byzantine Italy in 568; as such "Lombardy" and "Italy" were interchangeable. The Kingdom was divided between Longobardia Major in the north and Langobardia Minor in the south, which were until the 8th century separated by the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and the Papacy.
During the late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term shifted to mean Northern Italy.. The term was used until around 965 in the form Λογγοβαρδία as the name for the territory covering modern Apulia which the Byzantines had recovered from the Lombard rump Duchy of Benevento. With a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the fourth-largest region of Italy, it is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont. Three distinct natural zones can be easily distinguished in Lombardy: mountains and plains—the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa; the orography of Lombardy is characterised by the presence of three distinct belts: a northern mountainous belt constituted by the Alpine relief, a central piedmont area of pebbly soils of alluvial origin, the Lombard section of the Padan plain in the southernmost part of the region. The most important mountainous area is an Alpine zone including the Lepontine and Rhaetian Alps, the Bergamo Alps, the Ortler Alps and the Adamello massif.
The plains of Lombardy, formed by alluvial deposits, can be divided into the Alta—an upper, permeable ground zone in the north and a lower zone—and the Bassa—dotted by the so-called line of fontanili, spring waters rising from impermeable ground. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the small subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River; the mighty Po river marks the southern border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, which rises in the Bedretto valley and joins the Po near Pavia; the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands. From west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. South of the Alps lie the hills characterised by a succession of low heights of morainic origin, formed during the last Ice Age and small fertile plateaux, with typical heaths and conifer woods.
A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the Apennines range. In the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains; the most commons trees are elm, sycamore, poplar and hornbeam. In the area of the foothills lakes, grow olive trees and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, acacias. Numerous species of endemic flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers and the cottony bellflowers; the highlands are characterised by the typical vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone. Lombardy counts many protected areas: the most important are the Stelvio National Park, with alpine wildlife: red deer, roe deer, chamois, foxes and golden eagles. L
Chamber of Deputies (Italy)
The Chamber of Deputies is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy. The two houses together form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately. Pursuant to article 56 of the Italian Constitution, the Chamber of Deputies has 630 seats, of which 618 are elected from Italian constituencies, 12 from Italian citizens living abroad. Deputies are meet at Palazzo Montecitorio; the Chamber and the parliamentary system of the Italian Republic and under the previous Kingdom of Italy is a continuation of the traditions and procedures of the Parliament and Chamber of Deputies as established under King Charles Albert, during the Revolutions of 1848, his son Victor Emmanuel II of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont which led in the "Italian unification Risorgimento movement" of the 1850s and 1860s, under the leadership of then-Prime Minister Count Camillo Benso of Cavour. The seat of the Chamber of Deputies is the Palazzo Montecitorio, where it has met since 1871, shortly after the capital of the Kingdom of Italy was moved to Rome at the successful conclusion of the Italian unification Risorgimento movement.
The seat of the Chamber of Deputies of the Kingdom of Italy had been at the Palazzo Carignano in Turin and the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. Under the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, the Chamber of Deputies was abolished and replaced by the figurehead Chamber of Fasci and Corporations from 1939 to 1943; the Chamber is composed of all members meeting in session at the Montecitorio. The assembly has the right to attend meetings of the Government and its ministers. If required, the Government is obligated to attend the session. Conversely, the Government has the right to be heard every time; the term of office of the House is five years, but can be extended in two cases: The "prorogatio", as provided by art. 61.2 of the Constitution, states that representatives whose term has expired shall continue to exercise their functions until the first meeting of the new Chamber. An extension of the term, provided for by art. 60.2, can be enacted only in case of war. The electoral system is a parallel voting system, with 37% of seats allocated using first-past-the-post voting and 63% using proportional representation, allocated with the largest remainder method, with one round of voting.
The 630 deputies are elected in: 232 by plurality. For Italian residents, each house members are elected by single ballots, including the constituency candidate and his/her supporting party lists. In each single-member constituency the deputy/senator is elected on a plurality basis, while the seats in multi-member constituencies will be allocated nationally. In order to be calculated in single-member constituency results, parties need to obtain at least 1% of the national vote. In order to receive seats in multi-member constituencies, parties need to obtain at least 3% of the national vote. Elects from multi-member constituencies will come from closed lists; the single voting paper, containing both first-past-the-post candidates and the party lists, shows the names of the candidates to single-member constituencies and, in close conjunction with them, the symbols of the linked lists for the proportional part, each one with a list of the relative candidates. The voter can cast their vote in three different ways: Drawing a sign on the symbol of a list: in this case the vote extends to the candidate in the single-member constituency, supported by that list.
Drawing a sign on the name of the candidate of the single-member constituency and another one on the symbol of one list that supports them: the result is the same as that described above. Drawing a sign only on the name of the candidate for the FPTP constituency, without indicating any list: in this case, the vote is valid for the candidate in the single-member constituency and automatically extended to the list that supports them. Article 61 of the Italian Constitution maintains that elections for the Chamber of Deputies must take place within 70 days of the dissolution of the house, that representatives must convene within 20 days of those elections; the President of the Chamber of Deputies performs the role of speaker of the house and is elected during the first session after the election. During this time the prerogatives of speaker are assumed by the vice president of Chamber of Deputies of the previous legislature, elected first. If two were elected the oldest deputy serves as president of Chamber of Deputies.
The President of Chamber of Deputies has the role of President during the Parliament joint sessions, when the upper and lower houses have to vote together. This a list of Presidents of the Italian Chamber of Deputies: Chamber of Deputies — 4 March 1848 to 17 March 1861 Chamber of Deputies — 17 March 1861 to 23 March 1939 Chamber of Fasci and Corporations — 23 March 1939 to 2 August 1943 Consulta Nazionale — 25 September 1945 to 2 June 1946 Constituent Assembly of Italy
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection