Battle of Cannae
The Battle of Cannae was a major battle of the Second Punic War that took place on 2 August 216 BC in Apulia, in southeast Italy. The army of Carthage, under Hannibal and decisively defeated a larger army of the Roman Republic under the consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro, it is regarded both as one of the greatest tactical feats in military history and as one of the worst defeats in Roman history. Having recovered from their losses at Trebia and Lake Trasimene, the Romans decided to engage Hannibal at Cannae, with 86,000 Roman and allied troops, they massed their heavy infantry in a deeper formation than usual, while Hannibal used the double-envelopment tactic and surrounded his enemy, trapping the majority of the Roman army, who were slaughtered. The loss of life on the Roman side was one of the most lethal single day. Only about 15,000 Romans, most of whom were from the garrisons of the camps and had not taken part in the battle, escaped death. Following the defeat and several other Italian city-states defected from the Roman Republic to Carthage.
As news of this defeat reached Rome, the city was gripped in panic. Authorities resorted to extraordinary measures, which included consulting the Sibylline Oracles, dispatching a delegation led by Quintus Fabius Pictor to consult the Delphic oracle in Greece, burying four people alive as a sacrifice to their Gods. To raise two new legions, the authorities lowered the draft age and enlisted criminals and slaves. Despite the extreme loss of men and equipment, a second massive defeat that same year at Silva Litana, the Romans refused to surrender to Hannibal, his offer to ransom survivors was brusquely refused. With grim determination the Romans fought for 14 more years until they achieved victory at the Battle of Zama. Although for most of the following decades the battle was seen as a major Roman disaster, by modern times Cannae acquired a mythic quality, is used as an example of the perfect defeat of an enemy army, it was studied by German strategists prior to World War II, General Norman Schwartzkopf claimed to have drawn inspiration from Hannibal's success for his devastatingly effective land offensive in the First Gulf War.
Shortly after the start of the Second Punic War, Hannibal crossed into Italy by traversing the Pyrenees and the Alps during the summer and early autumn of 218 BC. He won major victories over the Romans at Trebia and at Lake Trasimene. After these losses, the Romans appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus as dictator to deal with the threat. Fabius used attrition warfare against Hannibal, cutting off his supply lines and avoiding pitched battles; these tactics proved unpopular with the Romans who, as they recovered from the shock of Hannibal's victories, began to question the wisdom of the Fabian strategy, which had given the Carthaginian army a chance to regroup. The majority of Romans were eager to see a quick conclusion to the war, it was feared that, if Hannibal continued plundering Italy unopposed, Rome's allies might defect to the Carthaginian side for self-preservation. Therefore, when Fabius came to the end of his term, the Senate did not renew his dictatorial powers and command was given to consuls Gnaeus Servilius Geminus and Marcus Atilius Regulus.
In 216 BC, when elections resumed, Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus were elected as consuls, placed in command of a newly raised army of unprecedented size and directed to engage Hannibal. Polybius wrote: The Senate determined to bring eight legions into the field, which had never been done at Rome before, each legion consisting of five thousand men besides allies.... Most of their wars are decided with their quota of allies, but on this occasion, so great was the alarm and terror of what would happen, they resolved to bring not only four but eight legions into the field. Rome employed four legions each year, each consisting of 4,000 foot soldiers and 200 cavalry. Perceiving the Carthaginian army as a real threat, for the first time the Senate introduced eight legions, each consisting of 5,000 foot soldiers and 300 cavalry, with allied troops numbering the same amount of foot soldiers but 900 cavalry per legion—more than triple the legion numbers. Eight legions—some 40,000 Roman soldiers and an estimated 2,400 cavalry—formed the core of this massive new army.
Livy quotes one source stating the Romans added only 10,000 men to their usual army. While no definitive number of Roman troops exists, all sources agree that the Carthaginians faced a larger foe. Consuls were each assigned two of the four legions to command employing all four legions at once to the same assignment. However, the Senate feared a real threat and not only deployed all four legions to the field but all eight, including allies. Ordinarily, each of the two consuls would command his own portion of the army, but since the two armies were combined into one, Roman law required them to alternate their command on a daily basis; the traditional account puts Varro in command on the day of the battle, much of the blame for the defeat has been laid on his shoulders. However, his low origins seem to be exaggerated in the sources, Varro may have been made a scapegoat by the aristocratic establishment, he lacked the powerful descendants that Paullus had, descendants who were willing and able to protect his reputation—most notably, Paullus was the grandfather of Scipio Aemilianus, the patron of Polybius.
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Viriathus was the most important leader of the Lusitanian people that resisted Roman expansion into the regions of western Hispania or western Iberia, where the Roman province of Lusitania would be established after the conquest. This Roman province spread over areas comprising most of Portugal, all of Extremadura and the province of Salamanca, its eastern frontier reached the proximities of Toletum, in central Hispania. Current Galicia was not included in the province, since it comprised most of the territory of another province, the aforementioned Gallaecia, but like the Vettonian people in the South, the Galaic tribes living there were related to them. Viriatus developed alliances with other Iberian groups far away from his usual theatres of war, inducing them to rebel against Rome, he led his army, supported by most of the Lusitanian and Vetton tribes as well as by other Celtiberian allies, to several victories over the Romans between 147 BC and 139 BC before being betrayed by them and murdered while sleeping.
Of him, Theodor Mommsen said, "It seemed as if, in that prosaic age, one of the Homeric heroes had reappeared." There are several possible etymologies for the name Viriatus. The name can be composed of two elements: Athus. Viri may come from: the Indo-European root *uiros, "man", relating to strength and virility; the Celtiberian elite called themselves uiros ueramos, meaning the'highest man' and the Latin equivalent would be summus vir. According to the historian Schulten, Viriatus had a Celtic name. Little is known about Viriatus; the only reference to the location of his native tribe was made by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus, who claims he was from the Lusitanian tribes of the ocean side. He belonged to the class of the occupation of the minority ruling elites, he was known to the Romans as the dux of the Lusitanian army, as the adsertor of Hispania, or as an imperator of the confederated Lusitanian and Celtiberian tribes. Livy described him as a shepherd who became a hunter a soldier, thus following the path of most young warriors, the iuventus, who devoted themselves to cattle raiding and war.
According to Appian, Viriatus was one of the few who escaped when Galba, the Roman governor, massacred the flos iuventutis, the flower of the young Lusitanian warriors, in 150 BC. Two years after the massacre, in 148 BC, Viriatus became the leader of a Lusitanian army. Viriatus was thought by some to have a obscure origin, although Diodorus Siculus says that Viriatus "approved himself to be a prince" and that he said he was "lord and owner of all", his family was unknown to the Romans. His personality and his physical and intellectual abilities as well as his skills as a warrior were described by several authors, he was a man of great physical strength in the prime of life, an excellent strategist, possessor of a brilliant mind. Some authors claim that the ancient authors described Viriatus with the precise features of a Celtic king, he was described as a man who followed the principles of honesty and fair dealing and was acknowledged for being exact and faithful to his word on the treaties and alliances he made.
Livy gives him the title of vir duxque magnus with the implied qualities that were nothing more than the ideals of the ancient virtues. A more modern current claims Viriatus belonged to an aristocratic Lusitanian clan who were owners of cattle. For Cassius Dio, he did not pursue power or wealth, but carried on the war for the sake of military glory, his aims could be compared to pure Roman aristocratic ideals of that time: to serve and gain military glory and honor. Viriatus did not fight like common soldiers; the Lusitanians honored Viriatus as their Benefactor, Savior Hellenistic honorifics used by kings like the Ptolemies. Some authors assert that he was from the Herminius Mons, in the heart of Lusitania, or the Beira Alta region. Most of his life and his war against the Romans are part of legend and Viriatus is considered the earliest Portuguese national hero, given the fact that he was the leader of the confederate tribes of Iberia who resisted Rome; the historian Appianus of Alexandria in his book about Iberia, commented that Viriatus "killed numerous Romans and showed great skill".
It has been argued that Silius Italicus, in his epic poem entitled Punica, mentions a former Viriatus who would have been a contemporary of Hannibal. He is referenced as primo Viriatus in aeuo, was a leader of the Gallaeci and of the Lusitanians; the historical Viriatus would be the one who received the title of regnator Hiberae magnanimus terrae, the "magnanimous ruler of the Iberian land". In the 3rd century BC, Rome started its conquest of the Iberian Peninsula; the Roman conquest of Iberia began during the Second Punic War, when the senate sent an army to Iberia to block Carthaginian reinforcements from helping Hannibal in the Italian Peninsula. This began Roman involvement in 250 years of subsequent fighting throughout Iberia, resulting in its eventual conquest in 19 BC with the end of the Ca
Os Lusíadas translated as The Lusiads, is a Portuguese epic poem written by Luís Vaz de Camões and first published in 1572. It is regarded as the most important work of Portuguese literature and is compared to Virgil's Aeneid; the work celebrates the discovery of a sea route to India by the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama. The ten cantos of the poem are in ottava rima and total 1,102 stanzas. Written in Homeric fashion, the poem focuses on a fantastical interpretation of the Portuguese voyages of discovery during the 15th and 16th centuries. Os Lusíadas is regarded as Portugal's national epic, much as Virgil's Aeneid was for the Ancient Romans, or Homer's Iliad and Odyssey for the Ancient Greeks, it was written when Camões was an exile in Macau and was first printed in 1572, three years after the author returned from the Indies. The poem consists of each with a different number of stanzas, it is written in the decasyllabic ottava rima, which has the rhyme scheme ABABABCC, contains a total of 8816 lines of verse.
The poem is made up of four sections: An introduction Invocation – a prayer to the Tágides, the nymphs of the Tagus. The narration concludes with an epilogue, starting in stanza 145 of canto X; the most important part of Os Lusíadas, the arrival in India, was placed at the point in the poem that divides the work according to the golden section at the beginning of Canto VII. The heroes of the epic are the sons of Lusus -- in other words, the Portuguese; the initial strophes of Jupiter's speech in the Concílio dos Deuses Olímpicos, which open the narrative part, highlight the laudatory orientation of the author. In these strophes, Camões speaks of Viriatus and Quintus Sertorius, the people of Lusus, a people predestined by the Fates to accomplish great deeds. Jupiter says that their history proves it because, having emerged victorious against the Moors and Castilians, this tiny nation has gone on to discover new worlds and impose its law in the concert of the nations. At the end of the poem, on the Island of Love, the fictional finale to the glorious tour of Portuguese history, Camões writes that the fear once expressed by Bacchus has been confirmed: that the Portuguese would become gods.
The extraordinary Portuguese discoveries and the "new kingdom that they exalted so much" in the East, the recent and extraordinary deeds of the "strong Castro", who had died some years before the poet's arrival to Indian lands, were the decisive factors in Camões' completion of the Portuguese epic. Camões dedicated his masterpiece to King Sebastian of Portugal; the vast majority of the narration in Os Lusíadas consists of grandiloquent speeches by various orators: the main narrator. The poet asks the Tágides to give him "a high and sublime sound,/ a grandiloquent and flowing style". In contrast to the style of lyric poetry, or "humble verse", he is thinking about this exciting tone of oratory. There are in the poem some speeches that are brief but notable, including Jupiter's and the Old Man of the Restelo's. There are descriptive passages, like the description of the palaces of Neptune and the Samorim of Calicute, the locus amoenus of the Island of Love, the dinner in the palace of Thetis, Gama's cloth.
Sometimes these descriptions are like a slide show, in which someone shows each of the things described there. Examples of dynamic descriptions include the "battle" of the Island of Mozambique, the battles of Ourique and Aljubarrota, the storm. Camões is a master in these descriptions, marked by the verbs of movement, the abundance of visual and acoustic sensations, expressive alliterations. There are many lyrical moments; those texts are narrative-descriptive. This is the case with the initial part of the episode of the Sad Inês, the final part of the episode of the Adamastor, the encounter on the Island of Love. All these cases resemble eclogues. On several occasions the poet assumes a tone of lamentation, as at the end of Canto I, in parts of the speech of the Old Man of the Restelo, the end of Canto V, the beginning and end of Canto VII, the final strophes of the poem. Many times, da Gama bursts into oration at challenging moments: in Mombasa, on the appearance of Adamastor, in the middle of the terror of the storm.
The poet's invocations to the Tágides and nymphs of Mondego and to Calliope, in typological terms, are orations. Each one of these types of speech shows stylistic peculiarities; the epic begins with the poet paying homage to Virgil and Homer. The first line mimics the opening line of the Aeneid, pays a hopeful tribute to the young King Sebastião; the story portrays the gods of Greece watching over the
Martín Sarmiento or Martiño Sarmiento Father Sarmiento, was a Spanish scholar and Benedictine monk, illustrious representative of the Enlightenment. He wrote on a wide variety of subjects, including Literature, Botany, History, Linguistics, etc; when he was four months old, he moved with his family to Pontevedra, where he spent his childhood and youth. On 3 May 1710, when he was 15, he moved to Madrid to join Benedictine order, he was named presbyter in 1720, Sarmiento lived in Asturias until 1725 like a professor in Cebrio and Oviedo. He left his mother in Pontevedra, he was definitively settled in Madrid, stay, interrupted between February 1726 and May 1727, when he moved to Toledo to catalog the books of the cathedral, to visit three times Galicia. When he was 35 years old, he became interested in language again, he thought. He was interested in languages in general Romanesque languages, but above all and Galician. Sarmiento thought that Galician should be taught in schools and priests should know it in order to confess people.
In 1745 he returned to Galicia. On this trip he writes the names of the places he is going through in a notebook, he liked to investigate the etymology of the Galician words. He wrote a book in Galician called Colloquium of twenty rustic galleys, thanks to which we know the Galician, spoken at that time, it contains 1,200 songs sung by a group of Galicians returning from Madrid. They tell us about the death of King Philip V was and he described the celebrations of the accession to the throne of Ferdinand VI. Sarmiento was not only interested in linguistics, he was interested in other disciplines such as botany and medicine, he had a big knowledge of the names of their health properties. He was quite concerned about the improvement of the technical and economic level of his country, specially in the Enlightenment ideas, his erudition in many disciplines made him be commissioned the iconographic program that would decorate the Royal Palace of Madrid. Sarmiento designed an ambitious allegory of the history of the Spanish monarchy for the palace, it was so complex that only a part of it was done.
He fought, with Feijoo, against superstition and ignorance, proposing to open libraries in the villages. He had one of the most important libraries in Spain at that time. Unlike his teacher Feijoo, Sarmiento understood that it was necessary to know and keep traditions and popular culture. In that he was a great precursor and he contributed to the investigation and recovery of the Galician culture. Sarmiento died at San Martin convent in Madrid, on December, 7th, 1772, aged 77, he posted two books in Feijoo´s memory Demostración crítico-apologética del Theatro Crítico Universal in 1732. He wrote other books but they were not published. Memorias para la historia de la poesía y poetas españoles, first edition, Madrid, 1775. Coplas gallegas y Glosario, in the Galician language. Notas al Privilegio de Ordoño y Reflexiones sobre Archiveros Disertación sobre el animal zebra, criado, conocido y cazado antiguamente en España Pensado Tomé, José Luis, Fray Martín Sarmiento, testigo de su siglo, Salamanca: Universidad de Salamanca, 1972
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
An anachronism is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement a juxtaposition of persons, objects, or customs from different periods of time. The most common type of anachronism is an object misplaced in time, but it may be a verbal expression, a technology, a philosophical idea, a musical style, a material, a plant or animal, a custom, or anything else associated with a particular period in time, placed outside its proper temporal domain. An anachronism may be either unintentional. Intentional anachronisms may be introduced into a literary or artistic work to help a contemporary audience engage more with a historical period. Anachronism can be used for purposes of rhetoric, comedy, or shock. Unintentional anachronisms may occur when a writer, artist, or performer is unaware of differences in technology, customs, attitudes, or fashions between different historical eras. A parachronism is anything that appears in a time period in which it is not found; this may be an object, idiomatic expression, philosophical idea, musical style, custom, or anything else so bound to a particular time period as to seem strange when encountered in a era.
They may be ideas that were once common but are now considered rare or inappropriate. They can take outdated fashion or idioms. Examples of parachronisms could include a suburban housewife in the United States around 1960 using a washboard for laundry. A parachronism is identified when a work based on a particular era's state of knowledge is read within the context of a era—with a different state of knowledge. Many scientific works that rely on theories that have been discredited have become anachronistic with the removal of those underpinnings, works of speculative fiction find their speculations outstripped by real-world technological developments or scientific discoveries. A prochronism is an impossible anachronism which occurs when an object or idea has not yet been invented when the situation takes place, therefore could not have existed at the time. A prochronism may be an object not yet developed, a verbal expression that had not yet been coined, a philosophy not yet formulated, a breed of animal not yet evolved, or use of a technology that had not yet been created.
The well-known stories of the One Thousand and One Nights contain a manifest anachronism: in the frame story, the tales are narrated to King Shahryār, presented as a member of the Persian Sassanid Dynasty, by his wife Scheherazade - yet many of the stories she tells relate to the historical Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, his Grand Vizier, Jafar al-Barmaki, his contemporary the famous poet Abu Nuwas, all of whom lived some 200 years after the fall of the Sassanids. The intentional use of older obsolete cultural artifacts may be regarded as anachronistic. For example, it could be considered anachronistic for a modern-day person to wear a top hat, write with a quill, or carry on a conversation in Latin; such choices may reflect an aesthetic preference. Some writings and works of art promoting a political, nationalist or revolutionary cause use anachronism to depict an institution or custom as being more ancient than it is. For example, the 19th-century Romanian painter Constantin Lecca depicts the peace agreement between Ioan Bogdan Voievod and Radu Voievod—two leaders in Romania's 16th-century history—with the flags of Moldavia and of Wallachia seen in the background.
These flags date only from the 1830s. Here anachronism promotes legitimacy for the unification of Moldavia and Wallachia into the Kingdom of Romania at the time the painting was made. Anachronism is used in works of imagination that rest on a historical basis. Anachronisms may be introduced in many ways: for example, in the disregard of the different modes of life and thought that characterize different periods, or in ignorance of the progress of the arts and sciences and other facts of history, they vary from glaring inconsistencies to scarcely perceptible misrepresentation. It is only since the close of the 18th century that this kind of deviation from historical reality has jarred on a general audience. Sir Walter Scott justified the use of anachronism in historical literature: "It is necessary, for exciting interest of any kind, that the subject assumed should be, as it were, translated into the manners as well as the language of the age we live in." However, as fashions move on, such attempts to use anachronisms to engage an audience may have quite the reverse effect, as the details in question are recognized as belonging neither to the historical era being represented, nor to the present, but to the intervening period in which the artwork was created.
"Nothing becomes obsolete like a period vision of an older period", writes Anthony Grafton. Ludwig van Beethoven! Come in and practice your piano now!' We are jerked from our suspension of disbelief by what was intended as a means of reinforcing it, plunged directly into the American bourgeois world of the filmmaker."Anachronism can be an aesthetic choice. Anachronisms abou
Carthage was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia. The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of a Punic empire dominating the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC; the legendary Queen Dido is regarded as the founder of the city, though her historicity has been questioned. According to accounts by Timaeus of Tauromenium, she purchased from a local tribe the amount of land that could be covered by an oxhide. Cutting the skin into strips, she laid out her claim and founded an empire that would become, through the Punic Wars, the only existential threat to Rome until the coming of the Vandals several centuries later; the ancient city was destroyed by the Roman Republic in the Third Punic War in 146 BC and re-developed as Roman Carthage, which became the major city of the Roman Empire in the province of Africa. The city was sacked and destroyed in the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in 698.
The site remained uninhabited, the regional power shifting to the Medina of Tunis in the medieval period, until the early 20th century, when it began to develop into a coastal suburb of Tunis, incorporated as Carthage municipality in 1919. The archaeological site was first surveyed by Danish consul Christian Tuxen Falbe. Excavations were performed in the second half of the 19th century by Charles Ernest Beulé and by Alfred Louis Delattre; the Carthage National Museum was founded in 1875 by Cardinal Charles Lavigerie. Excavations performed by French archaeologists in the 1920s first attracted an extraordinary amount of attention because of the evidence they produced for child sacrifice. There has been considerable disagreement among scholars concerning whether or not child sacrifice was practiced by ancient Carthage; the open-air Carthage Paleo-Christian Museum has exhibits excavated under the auspices of UNESCO from 1975 to 1984. The name Carthage /ˈkarθɪdʒ/ is the Early Modern anglicisation of French Carthage /kaʁ.taʒ/, from Latin Carthāgō and Karthāgō from the Punic qrt-ḥdšt "new city", implying it was a "new Tyre".
The Latin adjective pūnicus, meaning "Phoenician", is reflected in English in some borrowings from Latin—notably the Punic Wars and the Punic language. The Modern Standard Arabic form قرطاج is an adoption of French Carthage, replacing an older local toponym reported as Cartagenna that directly continued the Latin name. Carthage was built on a promontory with sea inlets to the south; the city's location made it master of the Mediterranean's maritime trade. All ships crossing the sea had to pass between Sicily and the coast of Tunisia, where Carthage was built, affording it great power and influence. Two large, artificial harbors were built within the city, one for harboring the city's massive navy of 220 warships and the other for mercantile trade. A walled tower overlooked both harbors; the city had 37 km in length, longer than the walls of comparable cities. Most of the walls were located on the shore, thus could be less impressive, as Carthaginian control of the sea made attack from that direction difficult.
The 4.0 to 4.8 km of wall on the isthmus to the west were massive and were never penetrated. The city had a huge necropolis or burial ground, religious area, market places, council house, a theater, was divided into four sized residential areas with the same layout. In the middle of the city stood a high citadel called the Byrsa. Carthage was one of the largest cities of the Hellenistic period and was among the largest cities in preindustrial history. Whereas by AD 14, Rome had at least 750,000 inhabitants and in the following century may have reached 1 million, the cities of Alexandria and Antioch numbered only a few hundred thousand or less. According to the not always reliable history of Herodian, Carthage rivaled Alexandria for second place in the Roman empire. On top of Byrsa hill, the location of the Roman Forum, a residential area from the last century of existence of the Punic city was excavated by the French archaeologist Serge Lancel; the neighborhood, with its houses and private spaces, is significant for what it reveals about daily life there over 2100 years ago.
The remains have been preserved under embankments, the substructures of the Roman forum, whose foundation piles dot the district. The housing blocks are separated by a grid of straight streets about 6 m wide, with a roadway consisting of clay. Construction of this type presupposes organization and political will, has inspired the name of the neighborhood, "Hannibal district", referring to the legendary Punic general or sufet at the beginning of the second century BCE; the habitat is typical stereotypical. The street was used as a storefront/shopfront. In some places, the ground is covered with mosaics called punica pavement, sometimes using a characteristic red mortar; the merchant harbor at Carthage was developed, after settlement of the nearby Punic town of Utica. The surrounding countryside was brought into the orbit of the Punic urban centers, first commercially politically. Direct management over cultivation of neighbouring lands by Punic owners followed. A 28-volume work on agriculture written in Punic by Mago, a retired army general, was trans