In most telecommunications organizations, a virtual channel is a method of remapping the program number as used in H.222 Program Association Tables and Program Mapping Tables to a channel number that can be entered via digits on a receiver's remote control. "virtual channels" are implemented in digital television, helping users to find a desired channel or easing the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting in general. The practice of assigning virtual channels is most common in those parts of the world where TV stations were coloquially named after the RF channel they were transmitting on, as it was common in North America during the analogue TV era. In other parts of the world, such as Europe, virtual channels are used or needed, as TV stations there identify themselves by name, not by RF channel or callsign. A "virtual channel" was first used for DigiCipher 2 in North America and later used and referred to as a logical channel number for private European Digital Video Broadcasting extensions used by the NDS Group and NorDig in other markets.
Pay television operators were the first to use either of these systems as a method of channel reassignment or rearrangement that suited their need to group multiple channels by their content or origin as well as to a lesser extent to localize advertising to a particular market. Free-to-air ATSC uses the DigiCipher 2 method to maintain the same television frequency channel allocation that the NTSC channel was using when both were simulcasting so the same number could bring up either service. Free-to-air DVB network operators such as DTV Services Ltd. and Freeview New Zealand Ltd. use the NorDig method and follow the same practice as pay TV operators. The exception is Freeview Australia Ltd. which use the NorDig method and follow the ATSC practice of using the same VHF radio frequency channel allocation that the PAL channel is simulcasting on from the metropolitan station's main transmission point with the major and minor format emulated by multiplying by ten. The DigiCipher 2 method uses a defined virtual channel table to set the channel's major and minor numbers that appear on-screen separated by a decimal point.
The major number for ATSC represents the original analog or non-simulcast channel frequency while the minor is a sequentially assigned number for the selected channel with zero reserved for the analog channel. The channel may be marked as hidden from the viewer; the DVB extensions use defined descriptors within the Bouquet Association Table for DVB-S or the Network Information Table for DVB-T. The NorDig version allows for marking a channel as hidden, while the NDS Group version omits the channel entry; the DVB system neither promotes nor mentions either system due to the simple fact that the defined H.222 Program number and Transport Stream ID can achieve the same purpose and hide a channel by omitting it from the Program Association table. All these methods share the same principle of not allowing any kind of viewer reordering as could be achieved under analog and generic digital systems; this locked-down ordering is one of the main criticisms of using either method. Because DTV can carry any number of streams referred to as multiplexing, program numbers can be used to group them into more than one channel which can be reassigned by virtual or logical channel numbers.
An example of the ATSC major and minor numbers used for a station in the United States or Canada would be to have its main programming airing on say channel 8 with analog on 8.0 and digital on 8.1 with other entertainment channels being below 8.99 on channels 8.2, 8.3, up and any additional informational data channels ranging from 8.100 to 8.999. The channels can be displayed using a hyphen or a space; the decimal point is more familiar to FM radio listeners who tune by frequency rather than channel, avoids confusion with ranges of values. Most stations in the United States follow the ATSC numbering guidelines; this operation lasted for one year beginning in November 2008, after which WNYZ-LP reverted to low-power analog. The assignment of virtual channels in the United States is defined within the stream via terrestrial or cable versions of a "Virtual Channel Table" as outlined by ATSC document "A/65", Annex B. Rules for assignment of major channel numbers are as follows: Existing analog stations were assigned a major channel number matching their existing analog number New digital stations assigned to a channel whose matching major channel number is not in use must use that number New digital stations assigned to a channel whose matching major channel number is in use must reciprocate, using the major channel number that matches the actual channel of the station in question.
These rules ensure that no overlapping will occur, although in the case of stations where large numbers of stations in adjacent markets are in close proximity to each other, it is possible that such overlap can happen. Additionally, stations may broadcast some of their subchannels under major channel in the 70–99 range, so long as multiple stations do not attempt to use the same major channel; these numbers are certa
The elm cultivar Ulmus'Escaillard' was first described by Dumont de Courset in 1811, listed, without description, as Ulmus escaillard, by the André Leroy nursery at Angers, France, in 1849. It was distributed by the Baudriller nursery of Angers and by Hesse's nursery, Germany, as U. campestris'Escaillardii', both nurseries using U. montana for wych elm cultivars. Herbarium specimens from a tree in The Hague obtained from the Hesse nursery label it variously U. glabra'Escaillardii' and Ulmus × hollandica'Escaillardi'. The latter was Christine Buisman's determination, identifiable as hers by its handwriting and red label.'Escaillard' was a small-leaved elm. No specimens are known to survive. Ulmus campestris var. escaillardii. "Herbarium specimen - L.1587070". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Sheet labelled Ulmus hollandica Escaillardi, Den Haag, 1931 "Herbarium specimen - WAG.1847160". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Sheet labelled Ulmus glabra Escaillardii, Den Haag
K. Bhta is a Greek artist, he was born in Melbourne, where he studied painting and art history before moving to Athens, where he studied graphic design. In 1992 he formed the electronic band Stereo Nova. In 1996, Stereo Nova disbanded and he began to pursue a solo career, he has composed music for documentaries and theatrical plays, received international attention for his contribution to the Opening Ceremony of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. A game feat. Popi Asteriadi / 1998 super stella spring 1999 angel baby 2001/music from the play the child e.p spring 2000 meta feat. Dimitra Galani / 2001 gia sena me agapi 2002 thita spring 2002 movement May 2003 transformations universal / July 2003 agria xloh 2004 LP koma9205 2005 DVD 2 2006 — The soundtrack for the play of the same name directed by Dimitris Papaioannou argos 2007 enosi 2009 Chryssalida 2012 K. Bhta on IMDb kbhta.gr
The Leonardo Permanent Multipurpose Module is a module of the International Space Station. It was flown into space aboard the Space Shuttle on STS-133 on 24 February 2011 and installed on 1 March. Leonardo is used for storage of spares and waste on the ISS, until stored in many different places within the space station; the Leonardo PMM was a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module before 2011, but was modified into its current configuration. It was one of two MPLM used for bringing cargo to and from the ISS with the Space Shuttle; the module was named for Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci. A European proposal suggested equipping the Donatello MPLM with enhanced micrometeoroid and orbital debris protection and cooling systems and leaving it attached to the ISS after the Space Shuttle fleet is retired. Costs for such MPLM modifications were estimated at $20M to $40M per unit; the MPLM would be called a Permanent Multipurpose Module, it would house spare parts and supplies, allowing longer times between resupply missions.
The proposal was rejected by NASA because it would require changes to existing plans and would entail additional costs. Internal discussions continued and managers considered the possibility of STS-133, which at that time was planned to be the last Shuttle flight, leaving its MPLM permanently attached; the United Launch Alliance published a proposal for a system that could allow additional ISS modules to be launched on an EELV after the retirement of the Shuttle. On August 5, 2009 it was announced that STS-133 would indeed leave one MPLM permanently attached to the station. In October 2009, it was confirmed that Leonardo would be the MPLM converted to a PMM, it was launched on February 24, 2011. The PMM was transferred to the station using the Shuttle robotic arm and mated to the nadir facing port of Unity. On May 27, 2015, at 13:08 UTC, the PMM was relocated from the nadir port of the Unity module to the forward-facing port of the Tranquility module; this was done in order to allow Unity's nadir port to serve as a berthing port for resupply craft, which in turn frees up Harmony's zenith port for future U.
S. Commercial Crew Development spacecraft. After returning to Earth on April 20, 2010 at the end of the STS-131 mission, the Leonardo MPLM was moved to the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida to undergo modifications. To convert the Leonardo MPLM into the PMM, NASA made the following modifications: removal of +Y grapple fixture, removal of ROFU components, replacement of CBM seal, installation of new forward end cone MMOD shields, feed through seal replacement, installation of visiting vehicle retro-reflectors. In addition, the Multi-layer insulation blankets from the never-flown Donatello MPLM were cannibalized for use on Leonardo; the blankets were removed and returned to Italy where they were reinforced with Nextel/Kevlar to provide better protection against micro-meteorites. The upgraded blankets were installed on about two-thirds of Leonardo's surface area; the Leonardo PMM mass is 21,817 pounds. The Leonardo MPLM known as MPLM-1, was one of three Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules which were operated by NASA to transfer supplies and equipment to and from the International Space Station.
Leonardo was used for eight of the twelve MPLM flights to the space station, with Raffaello being used for the other four. It was the first MPLM to be launched, making its first flight in March 2001, aboard Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-102. Following its last flight as an MPLM, on STS-131 in April 2010, it underwent conversion to become the Permanent Multipurpose Module, was launched aboard Discovery on STS-133 to become a permanent component of the station. Like the other Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules, it was constructed by the Italian Space Agency, who chose to name it after Leonardo da Vinci. Construction began in April 1996, the module was delivered to NASA at the Kennedy Space Center in August 1998 by an Airbus Beluga aircraft. List of human spaceflights List of International Space Station spacewalks List of Space Shuttle missions List of spacewalks 2000–2014 Thales Alenia Space's PMM page NASA's Space Shuttle page
The Rivière des Prairies generating station is a run of river hydroelectric power station on the Rivière des Prairies between the islands of Jesus and Montreal, Canada. Built in 1929, it is now operated by Hydro-Québec, it has a generating capacity of 48 MW. There is no lock allowing boats to bypass the dam. Statistics: Year built: 1929 Installed capacity: 48 MW Number of generators: 6 Hydraulic head: 7.32–7.93 m or 24–26 ft Hydraulic flow: ~ 1,000 m3/s Reservoir: n/a Île de la Visitation List of bridges in Montreal List of crossings of the Rivière des Prairies List of hydroelectric stations List of reservoirs and dams in Quebec Hydro-Québec website Hydro-Québec website
Charles W. Hoitt was an American lawyer and politician from Nashua, New Hampshire who served in both houses of the New Hampshire legislature, as President of the New Hampshire Senate and as the United States Attorney for the District of New Hampshire. Hoitt was born in Newmarket, New Hampshire on October 21, 1847In 1871 Hoitt graduated from Dartmouth College. Hoitt married Harriet Louisa Gilman daughter of Virgil C. Gilman. Hoitt was admitted to the New Hampshire Bar, practiced law in Nashua, New Hampshire. Hoitt served in the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1901. Hoitt served as a judge in the Municipal Court from 1889 to 1907. On February 11, 1907 Hoitt was appointed by Theodore Roosevelt to be the United States Attorney for the District of New Hampshire