Viscount Gormanston is a title in the Peerage of Ireland created in 1478 and held by the head of the Preston family, which hailed from Lancashire. The holder is Premier Viscount of Ireland, as well as the bearer of the oldest vicomital title in the British Isles; the Preston family descends from Sir Robert Preston. Sometime between 1365 and 1370 he was created Baron Gormanston by writ to the Parliament of Ireland, his son and heir, the second Baron, played a prominent part in public affairs being arrested for treason in 1418. His great-grandson, the fourth Baron, served as Lord Deputy of Ireland: in 1478 he was created Viscount Gormanston in the Peerage of Ireland, his great-great-great-great-grandson, the seventh Viscount, was a supporter of King James II and was outlawed after the Glorious Revolution. Jenico Preston helped to suppress the Irish Rebellion of 1798. In 1800 he had the outlawry reversed and was summoned to the Irish House of Lords as the twelfth Viscount Gormanston, he was the great-grandson of Anthony Preston, the de jure ninth Viscount Gormanston, the nephew of the seventh Viscount.
The twelfth Viscount was succeeded by the thirteenth Viscount. In 1868 he was created Baron Gormanston, in County Meath, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, which gave the Viscounts an automatic seat in the House of Lords, his son, the fourteenth Viscount, notably served as Governor of British Guiana and as Governor of Tasmania. As of 2018 the titles are held by the latter's great-grandson, the seventeenth Viscount who succeeded to the titles in 1940 at the age of seven months after his father was killed in action during the Battle of France in the Second World War. Another member of the Preston family was 1st Viscount Tara, he was the second son of the fourth Viscount Gormanston. John Preston, 1st Baron Tara, was a descendant of a younger brother of the first Viscount Tara; the unusual first name Jenico derives from the Gascon-born soldier Sir Jenico d'Artois, a prominent military commander who became a substantial landowner in Ireland. His daughter Jane married the 3rd Baron Gormanston, was mother of Sir Robert Preston, created a viscount.
The family seat was Gormanston Castle, near County Meath. Robert Preston, 1st Baron Gormanston Christopher Preston, 2nd Baron Gormanston Christopher Preston, 3rd Baron Gormanston Robert Preston, 4th Baron Gormanston Robert Preston, 1st Viscount Gormanston William Preston, 2nd Viscount Gormanston. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Tiernan, Sonja, ‘“A Zealous Catholic and a Notorious Trouble-Maker” The Gormanston Papers in the National Library of Ireland’ in Ríocht na Mídhe: Meath Archæological and Historical Society. Vol. XX, 2009, pp. 171–88. Catalogue for Gormanston Estate Papers at National Library of Ireland, qv. www.nli.ie Burke's Peerage & Baronetage
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Viscount Valentia is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It has been created twice; the first creation came in 1621 for Henry Power. A year his kinsman Sir Francis Annesley, 1st Baronet, was given a "reversionary grant" of the viscountcy, which stated that on Power's death Annesley would be created Viscount Valentia. Annesley, a member of an influential Anglo-Irish family which descended from Newport Pagnell in the County of Buckinghamshire, was a favourite of James I, who granted him land in Ireland, notably the fort of Mountnorris in County Armagh, he was knighted in 1616, created a baronet, of Newport Pagnell in the County of Buckingham, in the Baronetage of Ireland in 1620 and Baron Mountnorris, of Mountnorris in the County of Armagh, in 1628. In 1642, on the death of Power, he became Viscount Valentia according to the reversionary grant given in 1622. Valentia's fourth son Hon. Francis Annesley was the father of William, 1st Viscount Glerawly, from whom the Earls Annesley descend. Valentia's eldest son and successor, the second Viscount, was created Baron Annesley, of Newport Pagnel in the County of Buckingham, Earl of Anglesey, in Wales, in the Peerage of England, in 1661.
Anglesey's younger son Altham Annesley was created Baron Altham in the Peerage of Ireland on 14 February 1681. On the death of the fifth Earl of Anglesey in 1737 the line of the eldest son of the first Earl failed, he was succeeded by his kinsman Richard Annesley, who became the sixth Earl and seventh Viscount Valentia. However, after his assumption of the Earldom an extraordinary legal battle developed. A Mr James Annesley claimed the earldom and its subsidiary titles as the son of Arthur Annesley, fourth Baron Altham, he alleged that in 1728 he had been removed to an obscure school and that his death had subsequently been announced by his uncle, the sixth Earl of Anglesey. James was to have been sold to an American planter as a slave by his uncle, he subsequently escaped to Jamaica and in September 1740 he made his way back to England. On 11 November 1743 he took action against his uncle, to eject him as Baron Altham and to retain his property. Richard's defence was that James was not the legitimate son of Mary, second wife of the fourth Baron Altham, but the illegitimate son of a Joan Landy.
The verdict was in James' favour, with his uncle being convicted of claiming he was dead and selling him into slavery so that he could take up the title and estates. James' estates were returned to him but he never took up his titles and his uncle continued to be recognised as Earl. In 1761, on the death of the sixth Earl, the story took a new twist, his son and heir, assumed the titles as the "seventh Earl of Anglesey". However, Arthur's legitimacy was disputed and on 22 April 1771 the British House of Lords decided that his claim to the English titles of Baron Annesley and Earl of Anglesey were invalid and that they had become extinct upon his father's death. However, his claims to the Baronetcy of Newport-Pagnell, the Baronies of Mountnorris and Altham and the Viscountcy of Valentia were twice confirmed by the Irish House of Lords. In 1793 he was compensated. On the death of his son, the 2nd Earl, the earldom and barony of Altham became extinct, while he was succeeded in the baronetcy, barony of Mountnorris and viscountcy of Valentia by his distant relatives, Arthur Annesley, who became the 10th Viscount Valentia.
He was fifth in descent from the Honourable Francis Annesley, fourth son of the 1st Viscount. The 11th Viscount, was created Baron Annesley of Bletchington, in the County of Oxford, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom on 7 May 1917. However, this title became extinct on the death of his son, the 12th Viscount, in 1949; the Irish titles were inherited by his distant relative Reverend William Monckton Annesley, who became the 13th Viscount Valentia. He was a descendant of Hon. Francis Annesley, fourth son of the first Viscount, he was succeeded by his cousin Francis Dighton Annesley, who established his claim to the titles in 1959 and became the 14th Viscount Valentia. He was the son of uncle of the 13th Viscount. On the 14th Viscount's death in 1983 the titles passed to Richard John Dighton Annesley, he was a Captain in the British Army farmed in Zimbabwe and returned to Britain in the early 1980s. As 2014 the title are held by his son, the 16th Viscount, who succeeded in 2005. Lord Valentia is the Premier Baronet of Ireland.
The present Viscount has not proven his succession to the baronetcy and is therefore not on the Official Roll of the Baronetage, with the baronetcy considered dormant since 2005, as of 31 December 2013. Henry Power, 1st Viscount Valentia Francis Annesley, 1st Viscount Valentia Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, 2nd Viscount Valentia Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, 2nd Viscount Valentia James Annesley, 2nd Earl of Anglesey, 3rd Viscount Valentia James Annesley, 3rd Earl of Anglesey, 4th Viscount Valentia John Annesley, 4th Earl of Anglesey, 5th Viscount Valentia Arthur Annesley, 5th Earl of Anglesey, 6th Viscount Valentia Richard Annesley, 6th Earl of Anglesey, 7th Viscount Valentia Arthur Annesley, 8th Viscount Valentia Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Mountnorris, 8th Viscount Valentia George Annesley, 2nd Earl of Mountnorris, 9th Viscount Valentia Arthur Annesley, 10th Viscount Valentia Arthur Annesley, 11th Viscount Valentia Caryl Arthur Annesley, 12th Viscount Valentia William Monckton Annesley, 13th Viscount Valentia Francis Dighton Annesl
Viscount Boyne, in the province of Leinster, is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1717 for the Scottish military commander Gustavus Hamilton, 1st Baron Hamilton of Stackallan, he had been created Baron Hamilton of Stackallan, in the County of Meath in 1715 in the Peerage of Ireland. Hamilton was the youngest son of Sir Frederick Hamilton, youngest son of Claud Hamilton, 1st Lord Paisley, third son of James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran, his grandson, the second Viscount, represented Newport in the House of Commons. His first cousin, the fourth Viscount, sat as a member of the Irish House of Commons for Navan, his great-grandson, the seventh Viscount, assumed in 1850 the additional surname of Russell. In 1866, he was created Baron Brancepeth, of Brancepeth in the County of Durham, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Prior to the passing of the House of Lords Act 1999, the Viscounts Boyne sat in the House of Lords in right of this title; as of 2010 the titles are held by the seventh Viscount's great-great-great-grandson, the eleventh Viscount, who succeeded his father in 1995.
The family seat is near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. Gustavus Hamilton, 1st Viscount Boyne Hon. Frederick Hamilton Gustavus Hamilton, 2nd Viscount Boyne Frederick Hamilton, 3rd Viscount Boyne Richard Hamilton, 4th Viscount Boyne Gustavus Hamilton, 5th Viscount Boyne Gustavus Hamilton, 6th Viscount Boyne Gustavus Frederick Hamilton-Russell, 7th Viscount Boyne Gustavus Russell Hamilton-Russell, 8th Viscount Boyne Gustavus William Hamilton-Russell, 9th Viscount Boyne Gustavus Michael George Hamilton-Russell, 10th Viscount Boyne Gustavus Michael Stucley Hamilton-Russell, 11th Viscount Boyne The heir apparent is the present holder's eldest twin son the Hon. Gustavus Archie Edward Hamilton-Russell Duke of Hamilton Duke of Abercorn Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Gustavus Frederick Hamilton-Russell, 7th Viscount Boyne Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Gustavus Russell Hamilton-Russell, 8th Viscount Boyne Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Gustavus William Hamilton-Russell, 9th Viscount Boyne Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Gustavus Michael Stucley Hamilton-Russell, 11th Viscount Boyne Gustavus Hamilton-Russell, 11th Viscount Boyne
Viscount Charlemont is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1665 for 5th Baron Charlemont; the Caulfeild family descends from Sir Toby Caulfeild of Oxfordshire, England. He was a noted soldier and represented Armagh in the Irish House of Commons. In 1620 he was created Lord Caulfeild, Baron of Charlemont, in the Peerage of Ireland, with remainder to his nephew Sir William Caulfeild, who succeeded him as second Baron; the latter's son, the third Baron, was shot in 1642 on the orders of Sir Phelim O'Neill, the leader of the Irish Rebellion of 1641. His younger brother, the fifth Baron, had O'Neill apprehended and executed for the murder of his elder brother. In 1665 he was created Viscount Charlemont in the Peerage of Ireland, his son, the second Viscount, was an opponent of King James II and attainted, but was restored by King William III. His son, the third Viscount, represented Charlemont in the Irish Parliament, he was succeeded by the fourth Viscount. In 1763 he was created Earl of Charlemont in the Peerage of Ireland.
His eldest son, the second Earl, sat in the House of Lords as an Irish Representative Peer from 1806 to 1863. In 1837 he was created Baron Charlemont, of Charlemont in the County of Armagh, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, with remainder to his younger brother the Hon. Henry Caulfield and the heirs male of his body. Lord Charlemont served as Lord Lieutenant of County Tyrone from 1839 to 1863, he was succeeded by the third Earl. He sat as a Liberal Member of Parliament for Armagh from 1847 to 1867 and served as Lord Lieutenant of County Armagh from 1849 to 1864 and of County Tyrone between 1864 and 1892. On his death the earldom and barony of 1837 became extinct, while he was succeeded in the other titles by his kinsman, the seventh Viscount, he was the great-great-grandson of Reverend the Hon. Charles Caulfeild, fifth son of the second Viscount, his nephew, the eighth Viscount, was a Member of the Senate of Northern Ireland from 1925 to 1937 and served as Minister of Education and Leader of the Senate from 1926 to 1937.
He sat in the House of Lords as an Irish Representative Peer from 1918 to 1949. On his death this line of the family failed, he was succeeded by the ninth Viscount. He was the grandson of James Caulfield, second son of the Reverend Hans Caulfeild, grandson of the Hon. Charles Caulfeild, fifth son of the second Viscount. On the death of his younger brother, the twelfth Viscount, in 1979, this line failed, the titles passed to his kinsman, the thirteenth Viscount, he was the eldest son of the Reverend Wilberforce Caulfeild, fourth son of the aforesaid Reverend Hans Caulfeild. He was succeeded by the fourteenth Viscount; as of 2014 the titles are held by the latter's son, the fifteenth Viscount, who succeeded in 2001. He lives in Canada. Other members of the family include Thomas, son of the second Baron, MP for Charlemont, he was the father of William, MP for Tulsk and father of Thomas, St George, all of whom were MPs for Tulsk: St George was a successful lawyer who ended his career as Lord Chief Justice of Ireland.
John, son of the first Viscount, was MP for Charlemont, Francis, son of the third Viscount, was MP for Armagh and Charlemont. The family seats were Roxborough Castle, near Moy, County Tyrone and Charlemont Fort, near Charlemont, County Armagh. Toby Caulfeild, 1st Baron Caulfeild William Caulfeild, 2nd Baron Caulfeild Toby Caulfeild, 3rd Baron Caulfeild Robert Caulfeild, 4th Baron Caulfeild William Caulfeild, 5th Baron Caulfield William Caulfeild, 1st Viscount Charlemont William Caulfeild, 2nd Viscount Charlemont James Caulfeild, 3rd Viscount Charlemont James Caulfeild, 4th Viscount Charlemont James Caulfeild, 1st Earl of Charlemont, 4th Viscount Charlemont Francis William Caulfeild, 2nd Earl of Charlemont, 5th Viscount Charlemont James Molyneux Caulfeild, 3rd Earl of Charlemont, 6th Viscount Charlemont James Alfred Caulfeild, 7th Viscount Charlemont James Edward Caulfeild, 8th Viscount Charlemont Charles Edward St George Caulfeild, 9th Viscount Charlemont Robert Toby St George Caulfeild, 10th Viscount Charlemont Charles St George Caulfeild, 11th Viscount Charlemont Richard St George Caulfeild, 12th Viscount Charlemont Charles Wilberforce Caulfeild, 13th Viscount Charlemont John Day Caulfeild, 14th Viscount Charlemont John Dodd Caulfeild, 15th Viscount Charlemont The heir apparent is the present holder's son Hon. Shane Andrew Caulfeild.
Castlecaulfield Castle Caulfield Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands; the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government, based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover; the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, to become the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800; the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used in 1474; the use of the word "Great" before "Britain" originates in the French language, which uses Bretagne for both Britain and Brittany. French therefore distinguishes between the two by calling Britain la Grande Bretagne, a distinction, transferred into English; the Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", as such "Great Britain" was the official name of the state, as well as being used in titles such as "Parliament of Great Britain".
Both the Acts and the Treaty describe the country as "One Kingdom" and a "United Kingdom", which has led some much publications into the error of treating the "United Kingdom" as a name before it came into being in 1801. The websites of the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, others, including the Historical Association, refer to the state created on 1 May 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain; the term United Kingdom was sometimes used during the 18th century to describe the state, but was not its name. The kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a personal union in 1603, when James VI of Scotland became king of England under the name of James I; this Union of the Crowns under the House of Stuart meant that the whole of the island of Great Britain was now ruled by a single monarch, who by virtue of holding the English crown ruled over the Kingdom of Ireland. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws.
Various smaller islands were in the king's domain, including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This disposition changed when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800; the Union of 1707 provided for a Protestant-only succession to the throne in accordance with the English Act of Settlement of 1701. The Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a descendant of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and not be a Catholic. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland; as with the former Parliament of England and the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain was formally constituted of three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Crown.
The right of the English peerage to sit in the House of Lords remained unchanged, while the disproportionately large Scottish peerage was permitted to send only 16 representative peers, elected from amongst their number for the life of each parliament. The members of the former English House of Commons continued as members of the British House of Commons, but as a reflection of the relative tax bases of the two countries the number of Scottish representatives was reduced to 45. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a separate parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws and system of courts, As its own established Presbyterian Church, control over its own schools; the social structure was hierarchical, the same elite remain in control after 1707. Scotland continued to have its own excellent universities, with the strong intellectual community in Edinburgh, The Scottish Enlightenment had a major impact on British and European thinking.
As a result of Poynings' Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, after 1707 to the Parliament of Great Britain. The Westminster parliament's Declaratory Act 1719 (also called the Dependency of Ireland
Viscount Ashbrook is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1751 for 2nd Baron Castle Durrow; the title of Baron Castle Durrow, in the County of Kilkenny, had been created in the Peerage of Ireland in 1733 for his father William Flower. He was a Colonel in the Army and represented County Kilkenny and Portarlington in the Irish House of Commons; as of 2014, the titles are held by the first Viscount's descendant, the eleventh Viscount, who succeeded his father in 1995. The family seat is Arley Hall, near Cheshire; the family previously owned Castle Durrow, near Durrow, County Laois and Beaumont Lodge, near Old Windsor, Berkshire. William Flower, 1st Baron Castle Durrow Henry Flower, 2nd Baron Castle Durrow Henry Flower, 1st Viscount Ashbrook William Flower, 2nd Viscount Ashbrook William Flower, 3rd Viscount Ashbrook Henry Jeffrey Flower, 4th Viscount Ashbrook Henry Jeffrey Flower, 5th Viscount Ashbrook Henry Jeffrey Flower, 6th Viscount Ashbrook William Spencer Flower, 7th Viscount Ashbrook Robert Thomas Flower, 8th Viscount Ashbrook Llowarch Robert Flower, 9th Viscount Ashbrook Desmond Llowarch Edward Flower, 10th Viscount Ashbrook Michael Llowarch Warburton Flower, 11th Viscount Ashbrook The heir apparent is the present holder's son Hon. Rowland Francis Warburton Flower.
The heir apparent's heir apparent is his son Benjamin Warburton Flower. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Godson, Julie Ann, "The Water Gypsy. How a Thames fishergirl became a viscountess". A biography of Betty Ridge who married William Flower, 2nd Viscount Ashbrook, history of the Ridge and Flower families Arley Hall History of Castle Durrow Michael Flower, 11th Viscount Ashbrook