Douglas Martin Hogg, 3rd Viscount Hailsham, is a British politician and barrister. A member of the Conservative Party he served in the Cabinet as Minister of Agriculture and Food from 1995 to 1997, was a Member of Parliament from 1979 to 2010; the Daily Telegraph in 2009 exposed Hogg for claiming upwards of £2,000 of taxpayers' money so-called for the purposes of "cleaning the moat" of his country estate, Kettlethorpe Hall. As a result of the negative publicity, Hogg did not seek re-election at the 2010 general election. Aside from his hereditary peerage, he was made a life peer in the 2015 Dissolution Honours allowing him a seat in the House of Lords; as a member of the House of Lords he is styled Viscount Hailsham by parliamentary custom, the family title to which he succeeded in 2001. Douglas Hogg, elder son of Lord Hailsham of St Marylebone and former Lord Chancellor, inherited the viscountcy on 12 October 2001 upon the death of his father who had disclaimed that title for life in 1963, but who accepted a life peerage in 1970.
He was educated at Eton College and Christ Church, where he graduated with a degree in History in 1966. In 1965, he served as the President of the Oxford Union, he was called to the Bar in 1968. He became a Queen's Counsel in 1990, a year after his younger sister, Dame Mary Hogg, a barrister appointed Justice of the Family Division; the Hon. Douglas Hogg was elected as a Member of Parliament at the 1979 general election for the Lincolnshire seat of Grantham, following the retirement of the sitting Conservative MP Joseph Godber; the Grantham seat was abolished at the 1997 general election. In Parliament, Hogg served as a member of the Agriculture and Food Select Committee from 1979, until his appointment as Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Chief Secretary to the Treasury, Leon Brittan in 1982. Hogg became a junior member of the Government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher following the 1983 general election, when he served as a Whip for a year, he rejoined HM Government in 1986 when he was appointed as a Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the Home Office, was promoted in 1989 to Minister of State at the Department of Trade and Industry.
Hogg was moved in 1990 under the leadership of Prime Minister John Major to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, becoming a member of the Privy Council in 1992. He joined Major's Cabinet as the Minister of Agriculture and Food in 1995, serving in that capacity during the BSE crisis for which he received much criticism and remaining in post until the election of Tony Blair's Labour Government in 1997. On 3 March 1997, a disgruntled farmer from Anglesey, Louis Hayward, drove six hours from his farm to Kettlethorpe Hall in order to dump three tonnes of pig manure outside Hogg's house. Following the 1997 general election, Hogg was appointed a member of the Home Affairs Select Committee for a year and was a backbencher Member of Parliament until 2010; the House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to a seat in the House of Lords, so when his father died in 2001, he was not required to resign from the House of Commons and remained an MP until retiring in 2010. In the report of his enquiry concerning collusion in Northern Ireland between loyalist paramilitaries and the security forces, under "Other Matters concerning Collusion", a section of Sir John Stevens' report reads: "2.17 My Enquiry team investigated an allegation that senior Royal Ulster Constabulary officers briefed the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department, the Rt Hon Douglas Hogg QC MP, that ‘some solicitors were unduly sympathetic to the cause of the IRA’.
Mr Hogg repeated this view during a debate on the Prevention of Terrorism legislation in the House of Commons. Within a few weeks Patrick Finucane was murdered. Mr Hogg’s comments about solicitors’ support for terrorism made on 17 January 1989 aroused controversy. To the extent that they were based on information passed by the RUC, they were not justifiable and the Enquiry concludes that the Minister was compromised." Hogg claimed near maximum Additional Costs Allowance in the 2005 UK Parliaments. In 2009, during the row over MPs' expenses, The Daily Telegraph alleged that Hogg had submitted and was paid a claim form including more than £2,000 for the moat around his country estate, Kettlethorpe Hall, to be cleared; the taxpayer helped meet the cost of a full-time housekeeper. Other allegations included expenses for his piano to be tuned, he generously spent or somewhat overspent on his farm and home office: Hogg agreed a deal with the expenses office to have one twelfth of the second homes allowance paid into his bank account every month.
In his defence, Hogg resolutely claimed he had not claimed for moat cleaning, that the items were a list of all expenses incurred during house works, most of which were not paid for by the taxpayer. Hogg responded to the newspaper's claims by saying he had agreed the claims with the Fees Office, therefore hoped and believed that they would comply wit
The hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom. As of 2019 there are 814 hereditary peers; the numbers of peers – of England, Ireland, Great Britain, the UK – whose titles are the highest they hold are: dukes, 24. Not all hereditary titles are titles of the peerage. For instance and baronetesses may pass on their titles, but they are not peers. Conversely, the holder of a non-hereditary title may belong to the peerage, as with life peers. Peerages may be created by means of letters patent, but the granting of new hereditary peerages has dwindled. From 1963 to 1999, all peers were entitled to sit in the House of Lords, but since the House of Lords Act 1999 was passed, only 92 are permitted to do so, unless they are life peers. Peers are called to the House of Lords with a writ of summons; the hereditary peerage, as it now exists, combines several different English institutions with analogous ones from Scotland and Ireland. English Earls are an Anglo-Saxon institution. Around 1014, England was divided into shires or counties to defend against the Danes.
When the Normans conquered England, they continued to appoint earls, but not for all counties. Earldoms began with a perquisite of a share of the legal fees in the county. Like most feudal offices, earldoms were inherited, but the kings asked earls to resign or exchange earldoms. There were few Earls in England, they were men of great wealth in the shire from which they held title, or an adjacent one, but it depended on circumstances: during the civil war between Stephen and the Empress Matilda, nine Earls were created in three years. William the Conqueror and Henry II did not make Dukes, but when Edward III of England declared himself King of France, he made his sons Dukes, to distinguish them from other noblemen, much as Royal Dukes are now distinguished from other Dukes. Kings created Marquesses and Viscounts to make finer gradations of honour: a rank something more than an Earl and something less than an Earl, respectively; when Henry III or Edward I wanted money or advice from his subjects, he would order great churchmen and other great men to come to his Great Council.
The English Order of Barons evolved from those men who were individually ordered to attend Parliament, but held no other title. This order, called a writ, was not hereditary, or a privilege. Which men were ordered to Council varied from Council to Council. Under Henry VI of England, in the 15th century, just before the Wars of the Roses, attendance at Parliament became more valuable; the first claim of hereditary right to a writ comes from this reign. The five orders began to be called Peers. Holders of older peerages began to receive greater honour than Peers of the same rank just created. If a man held a peerage, his son would succeed to it. If he had a single daughter, his son-in-law would inherit the family lands, the same Peerage. Customs changed with time. In the 13th century, the husband of the eldest daughter inherited the Earldom automatically. After Henry II became the Lord of Ireland, he and his successors began to imitate the English system as it was in their time. Irish Earls were first created in the 13th century, Irish Parliaments began in the same century.
A writ does not create a peerage in Ireland. After James II left England, he was King of Ireland alone for a time; the Irish peers were in a peculiar political position: because they were subjects of the King of England, but peers in a different kingdom, they could sit in the English House of Commons, many did. In the 18th century, Irish peerages became rewards for English politicians, limited only by the concern that they might go to Dublin and i
House of Lords Act 1999
The House of Lords Act 1999 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, given Royal Assent on 11 November 1999. The Act reformed the House of one of the chambers of Parliament. For centuries, the House of Lords had included several hundred members. However, as part of a compromise, the Act did permit ninety-two hereditary peers to remain in the House on an interim basis. Another ten were created life peers to enable them to remain in the House; the Act decreased the membership of the House from 1,330 in October 1999 to 669 in March 2000. As another result of the Act, the majority of the Lords were now life peers, whose numbers had been increasing since the Life Peerages Act 1958; as of August 2017, there were 802 members of the House of Lords, of whom 26 were senior Church of England bishops, whose representation in the House is governed by the Bishoprics Act 1878. Prior to the 16th century, the Lords was the stronger of the two houses of Parliament. A process of gradual developments combined with such moments of crisis as the English Civil Wars transferred the political control of England, first from the Crown to the House of Lords and to the House of Commons.
The rising wealth of the Commons allowed it to wage two civil wars, dethrone two kings, reduce the power of the Lords. Prior to the House of Lords Act 1999, the power of the Lords had been diminished by the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 which stripped the Lords of the ability to block, or veto, adoption of most bills. Furthermore, the Commons has absolute power. After eighteen years of Conservative rule, the Labour party led by Tony Blair won a landslide victory at the 1997 general election, in the process inflicting the biggest defeat for the Conservatives since 1832; the Labour Party had for years endorsed abolition of the unelected House of Lords in its election platforms, though since 1992 this had changed to a policy of reforming the House instead. During the 20th century and Labour governments proposed many bills that were opposed by the House of Lords, dominated by Conservatives since the 1890s, leading to delay and, where proposed before elections, their dropping from the legislative agenda.
In the first year of the Blair government, the Lords passed back Government bills 38 times. The rejection considered the most contentious was of the European Elections Bill, against which the Lords voted five times. Blair stated that the Conservatives were using the hereditary peers to "frustrate" and "overturn the will of the democratically elected House of Commons". Here Blair found an opportunity to implement one of Labour's campaign promises. On 24 November 1998, in opening the second session of Parliament, the Queen delivered her annual Speech from the Throne. In it, she suggested; these remarks were followed by shouts of "Hear! Hear!" from supportive Labour Members of Parliament, by similar shouts of "Shame! Shame!" from Conservative peers. The House of Lords Bill was expected to face a tough fight in the House of Lords. Several Lords threatened to disrupt the Government's other bills if they continued with the plan to abolish the hereditaries' right to sit in the House of Lords; the Earl of Onslow, for instance, said, "I'm happy to force a division on each and every clause of the Scotland Bill.
Each division takes 20 minutes and there are more than 270 clauses." Lords had plenty of other means by. Lord Randall of St Budeaux put forward the idea of phasing out the hereditary peers by disqualifying their heirs. Baroness Jay of Paddington reminded the House that under the Salisbury Convention they could not block the bill. In order to convince some peers to vote for reform, Tony Blair announced that he would compromise by allowing a number of hereditary peers to remain in the House of Lords on an interim basis. On 2 December 1998, the Conservative Leader of the Opposition, William Hague, rose in the House of Commons to attack Blair's plans, he suggested that Blair's changes indicated his lack of principles, claiming that Blair wanted to turn the House of Lords into a "House of Cronies". Hague further suggested that the Conservative Party would never agree to such constitutional reforms that were "based on no comprehensive plan or principle." Hague's remarks backfired when Blair revealed that the Conservative Party in the House of Lords, rather than oppose his reforms, would support them, that he had done a secret deal with the Conservative leader in the House of Lords, Viscount Cranborne.
Hague removed Cranborne from office, but, in protest, several Conservative Lords who held front-bench positions resigned. On 19 January 1999, the Leader of the House of Commons, Margaret Beckett, introduced the House of Lords Bill into the House of Commons; the House of Commons passed the bill by a vote of 340 to 132 on 16 March. The next day it was presented to the House of Lords. One significant amendment made to the Bill was the so-called Weatherill Amendment, named for the Lord Weatherill, the former Speaker of the House of Commons; the Weatherill Amendment put into place the deal agreed to by the Prime Minister and Viscount Cranborne, allowed 92 hereditary peers to remain members of the House of Lords. Several controversies relating to the technicalities of the
Viscount Dillon, of Costello-Gallen in the County of Mayo, is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1622 for Lord President of Connaught; the Dillons were a Hiberno-Norman landlord family from the 13th century in a part of County Westmeath called'Dillon's Country'. His great-grandson, the seventh Viscount, was a supporter of the Catholic King James II of England and was outlawed after the Glorious Revolution, he founded'Dillon's Regiment' of the Irish Brigade in the French Army, supported by the Wild Geese and achieved success at Fontenoy in 1745. However, his son Henry, the eighth Viscount, managed to obtain a reversal of the outlawry in 1694 and served as Lord Lieutenant of County Roscommon, his younger brother, Lieutenant-General Arthur Dillon, was given the French title of Count Dillon in 1711 and was created "Viscount Dillon" and "Earl of Dillon" by James Francis Edward Stuart, the Jacobite claimant to the throne. His son Henry, the eleventh Viscount, was a Colonel in the French Army, but Dillon's Regiment was disbanded in 1793 due to the turmoils of the French Revolution.
His son Charles, the twelfth Viscount, notably represented Westbury in Parliament and conformed to Anglicanism in 1767. His son Henry Augustus, the thirteenth Viscount, sat as a Member of Parliament for Harwich and County Mayo, his great-grandson, the nineteenth Viscount, was a Brigadier in the Army. As of 2014 the title is held by the latter's great-grandson, the twenty-second Viscount, who succeeded his father in 1982. Theobald Dillon, 1st Viscount Dillon Lucas Dillon, 2nd Viscount Dillon Theobald Dillon, 3rd Viscount Dillon Thomas Dillon, 4th Viscount Dillon Thomas Dillon, 5th Viscount Dillon Lucas Dillon, 6th Viscount Dillon Theobald Dillon, 7th Viscount Dillon Henry Dillon, 8th Viscount Dillon Richard Dillon, 9th Viscount Dillon Charles Dillon, 10th Viscount Dillon Henry Dillon, 11th Viscount Dillon Charles Dillon, 12th Viscount Dillon Henry Augustus Dillon, 13th Viscount Dillon Charles Henry Dillon, 14th Viscount Dillon Theobald Dominick Geoffrey Dillon, 15th Viscount Dillon Arthur Edmund Denis Dillon, 16th Viscount Dillon Harold Arthur Dillon, 17th Viscount Dillon Arthur Henry Dillon, 18th Viscount Dillon Eric FitzGerald Dillon, 19th Viscount Dillon Michael Eric Dillon, 20th Viscount Dillon Charles Henry Robert Dillon, 21st Viscount Dillon Henry Benedict Charles Dillon, 22nd Viscount Dillon The heir presumptive is his first cousin, Thomas Arthur Lee Dillon Being of foreign origin, the Dillons needed to be "reconnus nobles en France" as "noblesse d'origine etrangere" and "maintenus nobles".
They were "maintenus nobles" in 1759. What's more, they were acknowledged as being of "extraction chevaleresque", having been noble since 1347, so allowed to the "Honneurs de la Cour" by the King of France in 1750, 1769, 1770, 1775, 1777, 1785 and 1788. Earl of Roscommon Baron Clonbrock Peerage of France Jacobite Peerage Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages
Douglas Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham
Douglas McGarel Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham, PC was a British lawyer and Conservative politician who twice served as Lord Chancellor, in addition to a number of other Cabinet positions. Mooted as a possible successor to Stanley Baldwin as prime minister for a time in the 1930s, he was considered to be one of the leading Conservative politicians of his generation, it was said by Lord Denning that he "looked like Mr. Pickwick and spoke like Demosthenes". Born in London, Hogg was the son of the merchant and philanthropist Quintin Hogg, the seventh son of Sir James Hogg, 1st Baronet, of Alice Anna Hogg, née Graham, he was educated at Cheam School and Eton College, before spending eight years working for the family firm of sugar merchants, spending time in the West Indies and British Guiana. During the Boer War he served with the 19th Yeomanry, was wounded in action. Returning from South Africa, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1902; as a junior, he built up a large practice in commercial law.
He was appointed King's Counsel in 1917, became a bencher of Lincoln's Inn and Attorney-General to the Prince of Wales in 1920. He devoted considerable time to the Royal Polytechnic institution, which his father had founded. A Conservative, Hogg began to be involved in politics at the bar, he was approached to be the Party's candidate for Marylebone, but stood down before the 1918 election in deference to the sitting member. He became involved in the Conservatives' legal attacks against the Liberals during the Marconi scandal. Hogg was appointed Attorney General by Bonar Law in October 1922. Though not an MP, Hogg was chosen for the position because Bonar Law found himself short of law officers after the Conservative-Liberal coalition collapsed as a result of the Carlton Club meeting, he was returned to the House of Commons unopposed for St Marylebone in the 1922 general election. Though he had been involved with Conservative politics before, his sudden rise caused some comment. Harold Macmillan records the following exchange between the Earl of Derby and Duke of Devonshire:'Ah,' said Lord Derby,'you are too pessimistic.
They have found a wonderful little man. One of those attorney fellows, you know, he will do all the work."What's his name?', said the Duke.'Pig,' said Lord Derby. Turning to me, the Duke replied,'Do you know Pig? I know James Pigg. I don't know any other Pig.' It turned out to be Sir Douglas Hogg! This was a Trollopian scene. Hogg received the customary knighthood was sworn in the Privy Council in December 1922. Serving as Attorney General until Labour assumed office after the 1923 election, Hogg was reappointed to the post, with a seat in the Cabinet, when the Conservatives were returned to power in 1924; as Attorney-General, Hogg guided the Trade Disputes Act of 1927 through the House of Commons after the general strike of 1926 which had ended with large-scale unemployment while those still employed were forced to accept longer hours, lower wages, district wage agreements. The Trade Disputes and Trade Union Act made mass picketing and all sympathetic strikes illegal and directed that union members had to contract into any political levy.
It forbade civil service unions from affiliating with the Trades Union Congress. On 29 March 1928, Hogg became Lord Chancellor in Stanley Baldwin's government, succeeding to the Viscount Cave, on 5 April was created Baron Hailsham, of Hailsham in the County of Sussex, his elevation to the peerage barred him from the premiership, would interfere with the political ambitions of his elder son, Quintin Hogg, said to have stood in Christ Church's Peckwater Quad to cry in frustration. He held the Great Seal until the government's defeat in 1929. In that year's Birthday Honours he was created Viscount Hailsham, of Hailsham in the County of Sussex. Between 1930 and 1931 Hailsham was the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords. During that period, he was spoken of as Baldwin's potential successor, he was passed over for the Lord Chancellorship in the National Government of August–October 1931, refused to join it as Lord Privy Seal. After the October 1931 elections he joined the second National Government as Secretary of State for War and Leader of the House of Lords.
In 1935, Hailsham returned to the Lord Chancellorship, first under Baldwin under Neville Chamberlain. During his second term, he was the last Lord High Steward to preside over the trial of a peer in the House of Lords. In 1938, ill-health led to his appointment as Lord President of the Council, a post with less onerous duties, but he had to retire from the government a few months four days before his son was first elected to the House of Commons, he died on 16 August 1950. The first Viscount Hailsham served as President of the MCC in 1933, he was an important contributor to the diplomacy involved following the Bodyline Series problems of 1932-33 during the English Cricket tour of Australia under the captaincy of Douglas Jardine Lord Hailsham married Elizabeth Marjoribanks, widow of the Hon Archibald Marjoribanks, daughter of James Trimble Brown of Tennessee, in 1905. They had two sons: Quintin McGarel Hogg, 2nd Viscount Hailsham Baron Hailsham of St Marylebone, barrister and Lord Chancellor who disclaimed the viscountcy and was given a life peerage.
Hon William Neil McGarel Hogg, diplomat. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Hailsham
Viscount Cobham is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain, created in 1718. Owing to its special remainder, the title has passed through several families. Since 1889, it has been held by members of the Lyttelton family. From 1750 to 1784, the barony and viscountcy of Cobham were subsidiary titles of the earldom of Temple of Stowe, subsidiary titles of the Marquessate of Buckingham from 1784 to 1822 and of the Dukedom of Buckingham and Chandos from 1822 to 1889. Since the latter year the Cobham titles have been merged with the titles of Baron Lyttelton and Baron Westcote; the viscountcy of Cobham was created in 1718 for Field Marshal Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baron Cobham, 4th Baronet of Stowe. He was the eldest son of 3rd Baronet. During his lifetime, the Field Marshal received three titles in the Peerage of Great Britain: In 1714 he was made Baron Cobham, of Cobham in the County of Kent, with remainder to heirs male of his body. In 1718 he was made Baron Cobham, of Cobham in the County of Kent, Viscount Cobham, with remainder, failing heirs male of his own, to his sister Lady Hester and the heirs male of her body and failing which to his third sister Lady Christian, wife of Sir Thomas Lyttelton, 4th Baronet, of Frankley.
Field Marshal Lord Cobham died childless in 1749, at which time the Cobham barony of 1714 became extinct. His other titles passed to different heirs: The Temple Baronetcy of 1611 passed to his cousin, Sir William Temple, 5th Baronet; the barony and viscountcy of 1718 passed, according to the special remainder, to Lord Cobham's sister Hester, the widow of Richard Grenville, her children. The Temple family descended from Peter Temple of Burton Dassett, his younger son Anthony Temple founded the Irish branch of the family from whom the Viscounts Palmerston descended. Peter Temple's eldest son, John Temple, acquired the Stowe estate in Buckinghamshire; the latter's son Thomas Temple represented Andover in Parliament. In 1611 he was created a Baronet, of Stowe in the County of Buckingham, in the Baronetage of England, his son, the second Baronet, represented Buckingham in both the Short Parliament and the Long Parliament. He was succeeded by the third Baronet, he sat in Parliament for Buckingham. His son succeeded as fourth Baronet in 1697 and received the Cobham titles in 1714 and 1718, respectively.
At his death in 1749, the Temple Baronetcy of 1611 passed to his cousin William Temple, the fifth Baronet, a great-grandson of Sir John Temple, second son of the first Baronet. It became dormant in 1786 on the death of the seventh Baronet; the Field Marshal's barony and viscountcy of 1718 passed, according to the special remainder, to his sister Hester, the widow of Richard Grenville, her children. In 1751 she was further created Countess Temple in the Peerage of Great Britain, with remainder to the heirs male of her body. Lady Temple's younger son was Prime Minister George Grenville. At her death, she was succeeded by the second Earl, he inherited the Temple estates, including Stowe House, assumed the additional surname of Temple. He was involved in politics and held office as First Lord of the Admiralty and as Lord Privy Seal. On his death the titles passed to the third Earl, the son of George Grenville, he served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland between 1782 and 1783 and 1787 and 1789. In 1784 he was created Marquess of Buckingham in the Peerage of Great Britain.
Lord Buckingham married daughter of Robert Nugent, 1st Earl Nugent. Mary was in 1800 created Baroness Nugent in her own right in the Peerage of Ireland, with remainder to her second son George. In 1788 Lord Buckingham succeeded his father-in-law as second Earl Nugent according to a special remainder in the letters patent, he assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Nugent at the same time. He was succeeded by the second Marquess, he served as Joint Paymaster of the Forces from 1806 to 1807. He married Lady Anne Eliza Brydges, the only child of James Brydges, 3rd Duke of Chandos, assumed by Royal licence the additional surnames of Brydges-Chandos in 1799. In 1822 Lord Buckingham was created Earl Temple of Stowe, in the County of Buckingham, Marquess of Chandos and Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, all in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the earldom was created with remainder, failing male issue of his own, to the heirs male of the body of his deceased great-grandmother Hester Grenville, 1st Countess Temple, in default thereof to his granddaughter Lady Anne Eliza Mary Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, daughter of his son Richard, Earl Temple, who succeeded as second Duke.
He was a Tory politician and served as Lord Privy Seal from 1841 to 1842. On his death the titles passed to the third Duke, he was a prominent politician and served as Lord President of the Council and as Secretary of State for the Colonies. In 1868 the Duke established his right to the Scottish lordship of Kinloss before the Committee for Privileges of the House of Lords. However, on his death in 1889 without male issue, the dukedom and its subsidiary titles became extinct; the lordship of Kinloss passed to his daughter Mary. The earldom of Temple of Stowe passed to his sister's son William Temple-Gore-Langton because the title had been created with a special remainder to her heirs male. Another member of the Grenville family was Prime Minister William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, he was the younger son of George Grenville and the younger brother of the first Marquess of Buckingham. As the barony and viscountcy of C
Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe, is a historic county in South East England corresponding in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. It is bounded to the west by Hampshire, north by Surrey, northeast by Kent, south by the English Channel, divided for many purposes into the ceremonial counties of West Sussex and East Sussex. Brighton and Hove, though part of East Sussex, was made a unitary authority in 1997, as such, is administered independently of the rest of East Sussex. Brighton and Hove was granted City status in 2000; until Chichester was Sussex's only city. Sussex has three main geographic sub-regions, each oriented east to west. In the southwest is the fertile and densely populated coastal plain. North of this are the rolling chalk hills of the South Downs, beyond, the well-wooded Sussex Weald; the name derives from the Kingdom of Sussex, founded, according to legend, by Ælle of Sussex in AD 477. Around 827, it was absorbed subsequently into the kingdom of England, it was the home of some of Europe's earliest recorded hominids, whose remains have been found at Boxgrove.
It is the site of the Battle of Hastings. In 1974, the Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex was replaced with one each for East and West Sussex, which became separate ceremonial counties. Sussex continues to be recognised as cultural region, it has had a single police force since 1968 and its name is in common use in the media. In 2007, Sussex Day was created to celebrate history. Based on the traditional emblem of Sussex, a blue shield with six gold martlets, the flag of Sussex was recognised by the Flag Institute in 2011. In 2013, Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government Eric Pickles formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Sussex; the name "Sussex" is derived from the Middle English Suth-sæxe, in turn derived from the Old English Suth-Seaxe which means of the South Saxons. The South Saxons were a Germanic tribe that settled in the region from the North German Plain during the 5th and 6th centuries; the earliest known usage of the term South Saxons is in a royal charter of 689 which names them and their king, Noðhelm, although the term may well have been in use for some time before that.
The monastic chronicler who wrote up the entry classifying the invasion seems to have got his dates wrong. The New Latin word Suthsexia was used for Sussex by Dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu in his 1645 map. Three United States counties, a former county/land division of Western Australia, are named after Sussex; the flag of Sussex consists of six gold martlets, or heraldic swallows, on a blue background, blazoned as Azure, six martlets or. Recognised by the Flag Institute on 20 May 2011, its design is based on the heraldic shield of Sussex; the first known recording of this emblem being used to represent the county was in 1611 when cartographer John Speed deployed it to represent the Kingdom of the South Saxons. However it seems that Speed was repeating an earlier association between the emblem and the county, rather than being the inventor of the association, it is now regarded that the county emblem originated and derived from the coat of arms of the 14th-century Knight of the Shire, Sir John de Radynden.
Sussex’s six martlets are today held to symbolise the traditional six sub-divisions of the county known as rapes. Sussex by the Sea is regarded as the unofficial anthem of Sussex. Adopted by the Royal Sussex Regiment and popularised in World War I, it is sung at celebrations across the county, including those at Lewes Bonfire, at sports matches, including those of Brighton and Hove Albion Football Club and Sussex County Cricket Club; the county day, called Sussex Day, is celebrated on 16 June, the same day as the feast day of St Richard of Chichester, Sussex's patron saint, whose shrine at Chichester Cathedral was an important place of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages. Sussex's motto, We wunt be druv, is a Sussex dialect expression meaning "we will not be pushed around" and reflects the traditionally independent nature of Sussex men and women; the round-headed rampion known as the "Pride of Sussex", was adopted as Sussex's county flower in 2002. The physical geography of Sussex relies on its lying on the southern part of the Wealden anticline, the major features of which are the high lands that cross the county in a west to east direction: the Weald itself and the South Downs.
Natural England has identified the following seven national character areas in Sussex:South Coast Plain South Downs Wealden Greensand Low Weald High Weald Pevensey Levels Romney MarshesAt 280m, Blackdown is the highest point in Sussex, or county top. Ditchling Beacon is the highest point in East Sussex. At 113 kilometres long, the River Medway is the longest river flowing through Sussex; the longest river in Sussex is the River Arun, 60 kilometres long. Sussex's largest lakes are man-made reservoirs; the largest is Bewl Water on the Kent border, while the largest wholly within Sussex is Ardingly Reservoir. The coastal resorts of Sussex and neighbouring Hampshire are the sunniest places in the United Kingdom; the coast has more sunshine than the inland areas: sea breezes, blowing off the sea, tend to clear any cloud from the coast. Most of Sussex lies in Hardiness zon