Edwina Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma
Edwina Cynthia Annette Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma, was an English heiress, relief worker and the last Vicereine of India as wife of Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma. She was born in 1900, the elder daughter of Wilfred William Ashley 1st Baron Mount Temple, a Conservative Member of Parliament. Edwina Ashley was patrilineally descended from the Earls of Shaftesbury, ranked as baronets since 1622 and ennobled as barons in 1661, she was a great-granddaughter of the reformist 7th Earl of Shaftesbury through his younger son, The Hon. Evelyn Melbourne Ashley and his wife, Sybella Farquhar, a granddaughter of the 6th Duke of Beaufort. From this cadet branch, the Ashley-Cooper peers would inherit the estates of Broadlands and Classiebawn Castle. Ashley's mother was Amalia Mary Maud Cassel, daughter of the international magnate Sir Ernest Joseph Cassel and private financier to the future King Edward VII. Cassel was one of the most powerful men in Europe, he lost his beloved wife.
He lost his only child, Amalia. He was to leave the bulk of his vast fortune to Edwina, his elder granddaughter. After Ashley's father's remarriage in 1914 to Molly Forbes-Sempill, she was sent away to boarding schools, first to the Links in Eastbourne to Alde House in Suffolk, at neither of, she a willing pupil, her grandfather, Sir Ernest, solved the domestic dilemma by inviting her to live with him and to act as hostess at his London residence, Brook House. His other mansions, Moulton Paddocks and Branksome Dene, would become part of her Cassel inheritance. By the time Lord Louis Mountbatten first met Edwina in 1920, she was a leading member of London society, her maternal grandfather died in 1921, leaving her £2 million, his palatial London townhouse, Brook House, at a time when her future husband's naval salary was £610 per annum. She would inherit the country seat of Broadlands, from her father, Wilfred William Ashley, 1st Baron Mount Temple, she and Mountbatten married on 18 July 1922 at St. Margaret's Church.
The wedding attracted crowds of more than 8,000 people, was attended by many members of the royal family, including Queen Mary, Queen Alexandra, the Prince of Wales, dubbed "wedding of the year". The reception was held in Brook House after which the couple rode a Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost to the bride's family's country house. Edwina was known to be wildly promiscuous throughout the marriage, doing little to hide such indiscretions from her husband, he became aware of her numerous lovers, accepted them and developed friendships with some of them – making them "part of the family". Towards the end of Edwina's life, her daughter Pamela Mountbatten wrote a memoir of her mother in which she describes her mother as "a man eater" and her mother's many lovers as a succession of "uncles" throughout her childhood. Louis Mountbatten gained a long-time French mistress and the couple settled into a type of "ménage à quatre". Edwina's affair with Prime Minister Nehru of India both during and after their post WWII service has been documented.
In addition to their lifetime of heterosexual excesses, both Louis and Edwina were described as being bisexual, providing an unending source of gossip among the wealthy, titled society set of their day. The Mountbattens had two daughters and Pamela. In her memoir daughter Pamela describes Edwina as a detached seen mother who preferred travelling the world with her current lover to mothering her children. At the outbreak of the Second World War, Lady Mountbatten acquired a new purpose in life and devoted her considerable intelligence and energy to the service of others. In 1941, Mountbatten's visited the United States, where she thanked efforts to raise funds for the British Red Cross and St John Ambulance Brigade. In 1942, she was appointed Superintendent-in-Chief of the St John Ambulance Brigade serving extensively with Brigade. In 1945, she assisted in the repatriation of prisoners of war in the South East Asia, she was awarded a CBE in 1943 and made a Dame Commander of the Royal Victorian Order in 1946.
She received the American Red Cross Medal. She is remembered for her service as the last Vicereine of India during the final months of the British Raj and the first months of the post-Partition period, between February 1947 and June 1948. Louis Mountbatten was endowed as the last Viceroy of India in 1947 and granted plenipotentiary power to oversee the transition to an independent India. Lady Mountbatten's time in India was in part marked by scandal, as she developed an infatuation for the leader of the Indian National Congress, Jawaharlal Nehru, whom she had met a year in Singapore. Till now it was unclear whether the romance was consummated, their fondness for one another was evident and caused widespread speculation.. But in 2012 Edwina's Daughter Lady Pamela Hicks accepted that there was a romance between her mother and Jawaharlal Nehru; the relationship was blamed for contributing to the alienation of Muslim leaders, who feared that through Edwina, Nehru was biasing the Viceroy in favour of Hindus and the Indian National Congress.
Lady Mountbatten, in all accounts of the violent disruption that followed the Partition of Indi
Dorset is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast. The ceremonial county comprises the unitary authority areas of Bournemouth and Poole and Dorset. Covering an area of 2,653 square kilometres, Dorset borders Devon to the west, Somerset to the north-west, Wiltshire to the north-east, Hampshire to the east; the county town is Dorchester, in the south. After the reorganisation of local government in 1974 the county's border was extended eastward to incorporate the Hampshire towns of Bournemouth and Christchurch. Around half of the population lives in the South East Dorset conurbation, while the rest of the county is rural with a low population density; the county has a long history of human settlement stretching back to the Neolithic era. The Romans conquered Dorset's indigenous Celtic tribe, during the early Middle Ages, the Saxons settled the area and made Dorset a shire in the 7th century; the first recorded Viking raid on the British Isles occurred in Dorset during the eighth century, the Black Death entered England at Melcombe Regis in 1348.
Dorset has seen much civil unrest: in the English Civil War, an uprising of vigilantes was crushed by Oliver Cromwell's forces in a pitched battle near Shaftesbury. During the Second World War, Dorset was involved in the preparations for the invasion of Normandy, the large harbours of Portland and Poole were two of the main embarkation points; the former was the sailing venue in the 2012 Summer Olympics, both have clubs or hire venues for sailing, Cornish pilot gig rowing, sea kayaking and powerboating. Dorset has a varied landscape featuring broad elevated chalk downs, steep limestone ridges and low-lying clay valleys. Over half the county is designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Three-quarters of its coastline is part of the Jurassic Coast Natural World Heritage Site due to its geological and palaeontologic significance, it features notable landforms such as Lulworth Cove, the Isle of Portland, Chesil Beach and Durdle Door. Agriculture was traditionally the major industry of Dorset but is now in decline and tourism has become important to the economy.
There are no motorways in Dorset but a network of A roads cross the county and two railway main lines connect to London. Dorset has ports at Poole and Portland, an international airport; the county has a variety of museums and festivals, is host to the Great Dorset Steam Fair, one of the biggest events of its kind in Europe. It is the birthplace of Thomas Hardy, who used the county as the principal setting of his novels, William Barnes, whose poetry celebrates the ancient Dorset dialect. Dorset derives its name from the county town of Dorchester; the Romans established the settlement in the 1st century and named it Durnovaria, a Latinised version of a Common Brittonic word meaning "place with fist-sized pebbles". The Saxons named the town Dornwaraceaster and Dornsæte came into use as the name for the inhabitants of the area from "Dorn"—a reduced form of Dornwaraceaster—and the Old English word "sæte" meaning people, it is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in AD 845 and in the 10th century the county's archaic name, "Dorseteschyre", was first recorded.
The first human visitors to Dorset were Mesolithic hunters, from around 8000 BC. The first permanent Neolithic settlers appeared around 3000 BC and were responsible for the creation of the Dorset Cursus, a 10.5-kilometre monument for ritual or ceremonial purposes. From 2800 BC onwards Bronze Age farmers cleared Dorset's woodlands for agricultural use and Dorset's high chalk hills provided a location for numerous round barrows. During the Iron Age, the British tribe known as the Durotriges established a series of hill forts across the county—most notably Maiden Castle, one of the largest in Europe; the Romans arrived in Dorset during their conquest of Britain in AD 43. Maiden Castle was captured by a Roman legion under the command of Vespasian, the Roman settlement of Durnovaria was established nearby. Bokerley Dyke, a large defensive ditch built by the county's post-Roman inhabitants near the border with modern-day Hampshire, delayed the advance of the Saxons into Dorset for 150 years. However, by the end of the 7th century Dorset had fallen under Saxon control and been incorporated into the Kingdom of Wessex.
The Saxons established a diocese at Sherborne and Dorset was made a shire—an administrative district of Wessex and predecessor to the English county system—with borders that have changed little since. In 789 the first recorded Viking attack on the British Isles took place in Dorset on the Portland coast, they continued to raid into the county for the next two centuries. After the Norman Conquest in 1066, feudal rule was established in Dorset and the bulk of the land was divided between the Crown and ecclesiastical institutions; the Normans consolidated their control over the area by constructing castles at Corfe and Dorchester in the early part of the 12th century. Over the next 200 years Dorset's population grew and additional land was enclosed for farming to provide the extra food required; the wool trade, the quarrying of Purbeck Marble and the busy ports of Weymouth, Melcombe Regis, Lyme Regis and Bridport brought prosperity to the county. However, Dorset was devastated by the bubonic plague in 1348 which arrived in Melcombe Regis on a ship from Gascony.
The disease, more known as the Black Death, created an epidemic that spread a
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, KG, PC, was an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, a committed general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years' War in 1599. In 1601, he was executed for treason. Essex was born on 10 November 1565 at Netherwood near Bromyard, in Herefordshire, the son of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex, Lettice Knollys, his maternal great-grandmother Mary Boleyn was a sister of Anne Boleyn, the mother of Queen Elizabeth I, making him a first-cousin-twice-removed of the Queen. He was brought up on his father's estates at Chartley Castle, at Lamphey, Pembrokeshire, in Wales, his father died in 1576, the new Earl of Essex became a ward of Lord Burghley. In 1577, he was admitted as a fellow-commoner at Cambridge. On 21 September 1578, Essex's mother married Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Elizabeth I's long-standing favourite and Robert Devereux's godfather. Essex performed military service under his stepfather in the Netherlands, before making an impact at court and winning the Queen's favour.
In 1590, he married Frances Walsingham, daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham and widow of Sir Philip Sidney, by whom he was to have several children, three of whom survived into adulthood. Sidney, Leicester's nephew, had died in 1586 at the Battle of Zutphen in which Essex had distinguished himself. In October 1591, Essex's mistress, Elizabeth Southwell, gave birth to a son who survived into adulthood. Essex first came to court in 1584, by 1587 had become a favourite of the Queen, who relished his lively mind and eloquence, as well as his skills as a showman and in courtly love. In June 1587 he replaced the Earl of Leicester as Master of the Horse. After Leicester's death in 1588, the Queen transferred the late Earl's royal monopoly on sweet wines to Essex, providing him with revenue from taxes. In 1593, he was made a member of her Privy Council. Essex underestimated the Queen and his behaviour towards her lacked due respect and showed disdain for the influence of her principal secretary, Robert Cecil.
On one occasion during a heated Privy Council debate on the problems in Ireland, the Queen cuffed an insolent Essex round the ear, prompting him to half draw his sword on her. In 1589, he took part in Francis Drake's English Armada, which sailed to Spain in an unsuccessful attempt to press home the English advantage following the defeat of the Spanish Armada, although the Queen had ordered him not to take part. In 1591, he was given command of a force sent to the assistance of King Henry IV of France. In 1596, he distinguished himself by the capture of Cádiz. During the Islands Voyage expedition to the Azores in 1597, with Walter Raleigh as his second-in-command, he defied the Queen's orders, pursuing the Spanish treasure fleet without first defeating the Spanish battle fleet. So when the 3rd Spanish Armada first appeared off the English coast in October 1597, the English fleet was far out to sea, with the coast undefended, panic ensued; this further damaged the relationship between the Queen and Essex though he was given full command of the English fleet when he reached England a few days later.
A storm dispersed the Spanish fleet - a number of ships were captured by the English and though there were a few landings, the Spanish withdrew. Essex's greatest failure was as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, a post which he talked himself into in 1599; the Nine Years' War was in its middle stages, no English commander had been successful. More military force was required to defeat the Irish chieftains, led by Hugh O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone and supplied from Spain and Scotland. Essex led the largest expeditionary force sent to Ireland—16,000 troops—with orders to put an end to the rebellion, he departed London to the cheers of the Queen's subjects, it was expected the rebellion would be crushed but the limits of Crown resources and of the Irish campaigning season dictated otherwise. Essex had declared to the Privy Council. Instead, he led his army into southern Ireland, where he fought a series of inconclusive engagements, wasted his funds, dispersed his army into garrisons, while the Irish won two important battles in other parts of the country.
Rather than face O'Neill in battle, Essex entered a truce that some considered humiliating to the Crown and to the detriment of English authority. The Queen herself told Essex that if she had wished to abandon Ireland it would scarcely have been necessary to send him there. In all of his campaigns Essex secured the loyalty of his officers by conferring knighthoods, an honour the Queen herself dispensed sparingly, by the end of his time in Ireland more than half the knights in England owed their rank to him; the rebels were said to have joked that, "he never drew sword but to make knights." But his practice of conferring knighthoods could in time enable Essex to challenge the powerful factions at Cecil's command. He was the second Chancellor of Trinity College, serving from 1598 to 1601. Relying on his general warrant to return to England, given under the great seal, Essex sailed from Ireland on 24 September 1599, reached London four days later; the Queen had expressly forbidden his return and was surprised when he presented himself in her bedchamber one morning at Nonsuch Palace, before she was properly wigged or gowned.
On that day, the Privy Council met three times, it seemed his disobedience might go unpunished, although the Queen did confine him to his rooms with the co
Broadlands is an English country house, located in the civil parish of Romsey Extra, near the town of Romsey in the Test Valley district of Hampshire, England. The formal gardens and historic landscape of Broadlands are Grade II* listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens; the house itself is Grade I listed. The original manor and area known as Broadlands has belonged to Romsey Abbey since before the time of the 11th century English Norman Conquest. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Broadlands was sold to Sir Francis Fleming in 1547, his granddaughter married Edward St. Barbe, the manor remained the property of the St. Barbe family for the next 117 years. Sir John St Barbe, 1st Baronet made many improvements to the manor but died without progeny having bequeathed it to his cousin Humphrey Sydenham of Combe, Dulverton. In the chancel of Ashington Church, Somerset, is a monument of grey and white marble, inscribed: Here lies Sir John St. Barbe, Bart. Possessed of those amiable qualities, which birth, travel, greatness of spirit, goodness of heart, produce.
Interred in the same vault lies his second wife Alice Fiennes, aunt to the present Lord Say and Sele. His first was daughter of Colonel Norton, he died at his seat of Broadlands in Hampshire Sept. 7, 1723, leaving for his only heir and executor Humphrey Sydenham, esq. of Combe in Somersetshire, who ordered this marble to his memory. When Sydenham was ruined by the 18th-century South Sea Bubble, he proceeded to sell Broadlands to Henry Temple, 1st Viscount Palmerston, in 1736, it was the latter who began the deformalisation of the gardens between the river and the house and produced the "gentle descent to the river". In 1767, a major architectural "transformation" was begun by Capability Brown, the celebrated architect and landscape designer, completed by architect Henry Holland, which led to making Broadlands the Palladian-style mansion seen today. Henry Temple, 2nd Viscount Palmerston had requested that Brown go there and seize upon the "capabilities" of the earlier Tudor and Jacobean manor house.
Between 1767 and 1780, William Kent's earlier "deformalising work" was completed, as well as further landscaping, planting and riverside work. Broadlands was the country estate of the 19th-century prime minister Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston. Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip spent their honeymoon at Broadlands in November 1947. In 1981, the newly-married Prince and Princess of Wales spent the first three days of their honeymoon at Broadlands, travelling to the estate by train from London Waterloo. Broadlands is the home of the Countess Mountbatten of Burma; the house is open to the public for guided tours on weekday afternoons in summer. On 1 August 2004, Irish vocal pop band Westlife held a concert at Broadlands as part of their Turnaround Tour promoting their album Turnaround. Grade I listed buildings in Hampshire List of gardens in England List of historic houses in England Turner, Roger. Capability Brown and the Eighteenth Century English Landscape. Second edition. Phillimore.
Pp. 108–110. ISBN 978-1-86077-114-9. Official website
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.
The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the Government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch. However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011, terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence.
By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan, John Major, Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May. In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers.
By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Exceptions include Peter Mandelson, appointed Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform in October 2008 before his peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened
Stowe House is a grade I listed country house in Stowe, England. It is the home of Stowe School, an independent school and is owned by the Stowe House Preservation Trust who have to date spent more than £25m on the restoration of the house. Stowe House is open to the public; the gardens, a significant example of the English garden style, along with part of the Park, passed into the ownership of The National Trust in 1989 and are open to the public. The parkland surrounding the gardens is open 365 days a year. National Trust members have free access to the gardens but there is a charge for all visitors to the house which goes towards the costs of restoring the building; the gardens and most of the parkland are listed grade I separately from the House. Sir George Gifford MP and Knight born 1495 to after 27 December 1557 owned Stowe Rectory, he willed it to his son Thomas Gifford born about 1542-after 16 February 1593. His will was dated 20 November 1556 and proved 19 January 1557/58 and again on 21 November 1562.
The Temple family fortune was based on sheep farming, they were first recorded as such at Witney in Oxfordshire. From 1546 they had been renting a sheep farm in Burton Dassett in Warwickshire; the Stowe estate was leased from Thomas Gifford in 1571 by Peter Temple, his son John Temple bought the manor and estate of Stowe in 1589 and it became the home of the Temple family. In the late 17th century, the house was rebuilt by Sir Richard Temple, 3rd Baronet, on the present site; this house is now the core of the mansion known today. The old medieval stronghold was located near Stowe Parish Church, about 100 yards to the south-east of the current house. Having been redesigned subsequently over the years, the whole front is now 916 feet in length and can be seen as you approach from the direction of Buckingham. A long, straight driveway ran from Buckingham all the way to the front of the house, passing through a 60-foot Corinthian arch on the brow of the hill on the way; the driveway approach to the house is still in use today, although it no longer runs through the arch.
British and foreign aristocrats and royalty stayed at the house throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1725 The 3rd Earl of Carlisle and his wife stayed for a fortnight; the 1730s and 1740s saw visits by Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk, The 1st Earl of Bath. In 1750, The 1st Earl of Bristol attended a reception at the house. In 1754 Count Stanisław August Poniatowski visited the gardens; the 1760s saw two visits by Leopold III, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, as part of his tours of English gardens in preparation for the creation of the Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm. 1768 saw the visit of King Christian VII of Denmark. In July 1770 there was a house party lasting several days whose guests included Princess Amelia, The Hon. Horace Walpole, Lady Mary Coke and The 2nd Earl of Bessborough; the Prince Regent came in 1805 and 1808. King Louis XVIII came in January 1808 for several days, his party including: the Comte d'Artois, Louis's brother and successor as King of France. 1810 saw the visit of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden.
Tsar Alexander I of Russia visited in 1810 and in 1814 Grand Duke Michael of Russia visited. 1816 saw a visit by Hermann Graf Pückler. The Graf, a famous travel writer from Upper Lusatia, was elevated in the Prussian peerage as Hermann, Fürst von Pückler-Muskau. In 1818 Grand Duke Nicholas visited; the same year saw the first of many visits by The Duke of Clarence. Following King William IV's death, his widow Queen Adelaide stayed in 1840; that year saw visits by The Duke of Cambridge and his son Prince George. In 1843 there were several visits by German royalty, with the British-born King Ernest Augustus of Hanover and his wife, Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, staying at the house; that year, both Crown Prince Johann of Saxony and Crown Prince Wilhelm of Prussia would stay at Stowe. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert stayed at the house for several days in 1845. Due to financial problems, the family let the estate to the Comte de Paris from 1889 to 1894; the Comte died that year in the house. Famous non-royal visitors included: Alexander Pope, a frequent visitor from 1724 onwards, who, in 1726, visited in the company of Dean Jonathan Swift and John Gay.
In April 1786 John Adams visited Stowe and other notable houses in the area, after visiting them he wrote in his diary "Stowe and Blenheim, are superb. Wotton is both great and elegant, though neglected". However, in his diary he was damning a
Viscount Cobham is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain, created in 1718. Owing to its special remainder, the title has passed through several families. Since 1889, it has been held by members of the Lyttelton family. From 1750 to 1784, the barony and viscountcy of Cobham were subsidiary titles of the earldom of Temple of Stowe, subsidiary titles of the Marquessate of Buckingham from 1784 to 1822 and of the Dukedom of Buckingham and Chandos from 1822 to 1889. Since the latter year the Cobham titles have been merged with the titles of Baron Lyttelton and Baron Westcote; the viscountcy of Cobham was created in 1718 for Field Marshal Sir Richard Temple, 1st Baron Cobham, 4th Baronet of Stowe. He was the eldest son of 3rd Baronet. During his lifetime, the Field Marshal received three titles in the Peerage of Great Britain: In 1714 he was made Baron Cobham, of Cobham in the County of Kent, with remainder to heirs male of his body. In 1718 he was made Baron Cobham, of Cobham in the County of Kent, Viscount Cobham, with remainder, failing heirs male of his own, to his sister Lady Hester and the heirs male of her body and failing which to his third sister Lady Christian, wife of Sir Thomas Lyttelton, 4th Baronet, of Frankley.
Field Marshal Lord Cobham died childless in 1749, at which time the Cobham barony of 1714 became extinct. His other titles passed to different heirs: The Temple Baronetcy of 1611 passed to his cousin, Sir William Temple, 5th Baronet; the barony and viscountcy of 1718 passed, according to the special remainder, to Lord Cobham's sister Hester, the widow of Richard Grenville, her children. The Temple family descended from Peter Temple of Burton Dassett, his younger son Anthony Temple founded the Irish branch of the family from whom the Viscounts Palmerston descended. Peter Temple's eldest son, John Temple, acquired the Stowe estate in Buckinghamshire; the latter's son Thomas Temple represented Andover in Parliament. In 1611 he was created a Baronet, of Stowe in the County of Buckingham, in the Baronetage of England, his son, the second Baronet, represented Buckingham in both the Short Parliament and the Long Parliament. He was succeeded by the third Baronet, he sat in Parliament for Buckingham. His son succeeded as fourth Baronet in 1697 and received the Cobham titles in 1714 and 1718, respectively.
At his death in 1749, the Temple Baronetcy of 1611 passed to his cousin William Temple, the fifth Baronet, a great-grandson of Sir John Temple, second son of the first Baronet. It became dormant in 1786 on the death of the seventh Baronet; the Field Marshal's barony and viscountcy of 1718 passed, according to the special remainder, to his sister Hester, the widow of Richard Grenville, her children. In 1751 she was further created Countess Temple in the Peerage of Great Britain, with remainder to the heirs male of her body. Lady Temple's younger son was Prime Minister George Grenville. At her death, she was succeeded by the second Earl, he inherited the Temple estates, including Stowe House, assumed the additional surname of Temple. He was involved in politics and held office as First Lord of the Admiralty and as Lord Privy Seal. On his death the titles passed to the third Earl, the son of George Grenville, he served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland between 1782 and 1783 and 1787 and 1789. In 1784 he was created Marquess of Buckingham in the Peerage of Great Britain.
Lord Buckingham married daughter of Robert Nugent, 1st Earl Nugent. Mary was in 1800 created Baroness Nugent in her own right in the Peerage of Ireland, with remainder to her second son George. In 1788 Lord Buckingham succeeded his father-in-law as second Earl Nugent according to a special remainder in the letters patent, he assumed by Royal licence the additional surname of Nugent at the same time. He was succeeded by the second Marquess, he served as Joint Paymaster of the Forces from 1806 to 1807. He married Lady Anne Eliza Brydges, the only child of James Brydges, 3rd Duke of Chandos, assumed by Royal licence the additional surnames of Brydges-Chandos in 1799. In 1822 Lord Buckingham was created Earl Temple of Stowe, in the County of Buckingham, Marquess of Chandos and Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, all in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the earldom was created with remainder, failing male issue of his own, to the heirs male of the body of his deceased great-grandmother Hester Grenville, 1st Countess Temple, in default thereof to his granddaughter Lady Anne Eliza Mary Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, daughter of his son Richard, Earl Temple, who succeeded as second Duke.
He was a Tory politician and served as Lord Privy Seal from 1841 to 1842. On his death the titles passed to the third Duke, he was a prominent politician and served as Lord President of the Council and as Secretary of State for the Colonies. In 1868 the Duke established his right to the Scottish lordship of Kinloss before the Committee for Privileges of the House of Lords. However, on his death in 1889 without male issue, the dukedom and its subsidiary titles became extinct; the lordship of Kinloss passed to his daughter Mary. The earldom of Temple of Stowe passed to his sister's son William Temple-Gore-Langton because the title had been created with a special remainder to her heirs male. Another member of the Grenville family was Prime Minister William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, he was the younger son of George Grenville and the younger brother of the first Marquess of Buckingham. As the barony and viscountcy of C