Llanwern is an electoral ward and community in the eastern urban-rural fringe of the City of Newport, South East Wales. Llanwern ward is bounded by the M4 and Langstone to the north, Ringland and the River Usk to the west, the River Severn to the south and the city boundary to the east; the ward includes Bishton, Goldcliff and Redwick, as well as the community of Llanwern, which contains Llanwern village and the western half of the site of Llanwern steelworks. The area is governed by the Newport City Council. Llanwern House was the home of Lord Rhondda of Llanwern, David Alfred Thomas, Minister of Food during the First World War. In 1887, a year before his election to Parliament, Thomas took the lease of the house, where he lived the life of a somewhat unconventional country squire, riding to hounds and breeding prize Hereford cattle, he bought the house in 1900 and acquired the neighbouring Pencoed estate shortly before his death, the purchase making Thomas the largest landowner in Monmouthshire after Lord Tredegar.
Despite his fortune Thomas was quite content to retain the mansion at Llanwern, a large square house on a hilltop overlooking the village. The house, dating to 1760, was old-fashioned in its appearance but that appearance concealed a delicate and beautiful interior reflecting Chinese influence, it was demolished in the 1950s, although the site, on a hill overlooking the parish church, is still visible and the parkland intact. Thomas is buried in the graveyard of the tiny church. A £115m renewal project called Glan Llyn, led by St. Modwen Properties PLC, is transforming the former steel-producing part of the Llanwern steelworks site. Started in 2004, the masterplan envisages 1.5m sq ft of employment-generating accommodation hosting 6,000 jobs, 4,000 new dwellings, community facilities and open space including three new lakes. Full completion is anticipated by 2026-8. Llanwern steelworks Llanwern A. F. C. Llanwern High School Llanwern Church, Monumental Inscriptions www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Llanwern and surrounding area www.llanwernvillage.org.uk: Information relating to Llanwern Village and Llanwern Community Council
Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and won a landslide victory in the following year's general election. Under Prime Ministers Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith, the Liberal Party passed the welfare reforms that created a basic British welfare state. Although Asquith was the party's leader, its dominant figure was David Lloyd George. Asquith was overwhelmed by the wartime role of coalition Prime Minister and Lloyd George replaced him as Prime Minister in late 1916, but Asquith remained as Liberal Party leader; the pair fought for years over control of the party.
Historian Martin Pugh in The Oxford Companion to British History argues: Lloyd George made a greater impact on British public life than any other 20th-century leader, thanks to his pre-war introduction of Britain's social welfare system. Furthermore, in foreign affairs, he played a leading role in winning the First World War, redrawing the map of Europe at the peace conference, partitioning Ireland; the government of Lloyd George was dominated by the Conservative Party, which deposed him in 1922. By the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rival; the party went into decline after 1918 and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections. Apart from notable by-election victories, its fortunes did not improve until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 general election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, but only 23 of the 650 seats it contested. At the 1987 general election, its share of the vote fell below 23% and the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989. It was formed by party members opposed to the merger who saw the Liberal Democrats diluting Liberal ideals. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes and social planner William Beveridge; the Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of increasing the power of Parliament. Although their motives in this were to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake; the great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple and successor Earl Grey. After decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832; the Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs' demise.
The admission of the middle classes to the franchise and to the House of Commons led to the development of a systematic middle class liberalism and the end of Whiggery, although for many years reforming aristocrats held senior positions in the party. In the years after Grey's retirement, the party was led first by Lord Melbourne, a traditional Whig, by Lord John Russell, the son of a Duke but a crusading radical, by Lord Palmerston, a renegade Irish Tory and a conservative, although capable of radical gestures; as early as 1839, Russell had adopted the name of "Liberals", but in reality his party was a loose coalition of Whigs in the House of Lords and Radicals in the Commons. The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act, they favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances and above all free trade.
For a century, free trade remained the one cause. In 1841, the Liberals lost office to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was short because the Conservatives split over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue; this allowed ministries led by Russell and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s. A leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments; the formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and the formation of Palmerston's second government. However, the Whig-Radical amalgam could not become a true modern political party while it was dominated by aristocrats and it was not until the departure of the "Two Terrible Old Men", Russell and Palmerston, that Gladstone could become the first leader of the modern Liberal Party; this was brought about by Palmerston's death in 1865 and Russell's retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government, Gladstone won a huge victory at the 1868 election and formed the first Liberal government.
Margaret Haig Thomas, Viscountess Rhondda
Margaret Haig Mackworth, 2nd Viscountess Rhondda was a Welsh peeress and active suffragette. She was significant in the history of women's suffrage in the United Kingdom. Margaret Haig Thomas was born on 12 June 1883 in London, her parents were industrialist and politician David Alfred Thomas, first Viscount Rhondda, Sybil Haig a suffragette. In her autobiography, Margaret wrote that her mother had'prayed passionately that her baby daughter might become feminist', and indeed she did become a passionate activist for women's rights. An only child, although born in London she was raised at Llanwern House, near Newport, until the age of 13 when she went away to boarding school, first to Notting Hill High School St Leonards School in St Andrews. In 1904, aged 19, she took up a place at Somerville College, where she studied history. Despite her tutors providing positive feedback on her academic progress, she returned to Llanwern to live with her family after two terms. Working for her father at the Consolidated Cambrian company headquarters in Cardiff Docks on a salary of £1,000, she spent three years as a debutante.
In the same year that she married local Newport landowner Sir Humphrey Mackworth, in 1908 at aged 25 she joined the Women's Social and Political Union, became secretary of its Newport branch. Between 1908 and 1914, she took the campaign for women's suffrage across South Wales to hostile and stormy meetings, she was involved in protest marches with the Pankhursts, jumping onto the running board of Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith's car in St Andrews. In June 1913 she attempted to destroy a Royal Mail post-box with a chemical bomb; the activities resulted in a trial at the Sessions House and after refusing to pay a £10 fine, she was sentenced to serve a one month period in jail there. She was released after only five days after going on a hunger strike; when Emmeline Pankhurst died in June 1928, it was Kitty Marshall, Rosamund Massey and Lady Rhondda who arranged her memorials. They raised money for her gravestone in Brompton Cemetery and a statue of her outside the House of Commons. Money was raised to buy the painting, made by fellow suffragette Georgina Brackenbury so that it could be given to the National Portrait Gallery.
It was unveiled by Stanley Baldwin in 1930. On the outbreak of World War I, she accepted the decision by the WSPU leadership to abandon its militant campaign for suffrage, she worked with her father, sent by David Lloyd George to the United States of America to arrange the supply of munitions for the British armed forces. Her father became aware of his daughter's depressive state, although Margaret brushed her father's concern aside, he became aware of tensions within her marriage. On 7th May 1915, she was returning from the United States on the RMS Lusitania with her father and his secretary Arnold Rhys-Evans, when it was torpedoed at 14:10 by German submarine U-20. Whilst her father and his secretary made it onto a lifeboat, having been blown overboard Margaret spent a long period clinging to a piece of board before being rescued by the Irish trawler "Bluebell", recalled in her 1933 autobiography This Was My World. By the time she was rescued and taken to Queenstown, Margaret had fallen unconscious from hypothermia.
After a period in hospital, she spent several months recuperating at her parents home. On 3 July 1918, after his hard work on his business interests and latterly his war works, her father died. While the Rhondda Barony died with him, the title of Viscount Rhondda passed to Margaret by special remainder, something Thomas had insisted on from King George V when he was offered the honour. After her father's death, Lady Rhondda subsequently tried to take his seat in the House of Lords, citing the Sex Disqualification Act 1919 which allowed women to exercise "any public office". After being accepted, the Committee of Privileges membership was altered and her request was rejected, she was supported for many years by Lord Astor, whose wife Nancy had been the first woman to take her seat in the House of Commons. Less than a month after Lady Rhondda's death in 1958, women entered the Lords for the first time thanks to the Life Peerages Act 1958, she succeeded her father as chair of the Sanatogen Company in February 1917.
In total, she was a director of 33 companies throughout her life, having inherited 28 directorships from her father. The majority of her business interests were in coal and shipping via Consolidated Cambrian Ltd. Passionate about increasing the number of women in the corporate world, Margaret was involved in creating and chairing the Efficiency Club, a networking organisation for British businesswomen. However, with the slump in coal prices during the late 1920s, the colliery's of Consolidated Cambrian fell into receivership, its assets sold to GKN. Aside from inheriting her father's publishing interests, in 1920 she had founded Time and Tide magazine, a left-wing feminist weekly magazine, but after the collapse of Consolidated Cambrian, her personal accounts show that her outgoings always exceeded her income. Lady Rhondda was elected as the Institute of Directors' first female president in 1926, in 2015, the annual Mackworth Lecture was launched by the IoD in her honour. In 1921 she set up the Six Point Group, an action group that focused on the equality between men and women and the rights of the child.
The group's manifesto of equal rights for women within the workplace, for mothers and children, sought the following: Satisfactory legislation on Chil
A suffragette was a member of militant women's organisations in the early 20th century who, under the banner "Votes for Women", fought for the right to vote in public elections, known as women's suffrage. The term refers in particular to members of the British Women's Social and Political Union, a women-only movement founded in 1903 by Emmeline Pankhurst, which engaged in direct action and civil disobedience. In 1906 a reporter writing in the Daily Mail coined the term suffragette for the WSPU, from suffragist, in an attempt to belittle the women advocating women's suffrage; the militants embraced the new name adopting it for use as the title of the newspaper published by the WSPU. Women had won the right to vote in several countries by the end of the 19th century; when by 1903 women in Britain had not been enfranchised, Pankhurst decided that women had to "do the work ourselves". The suffragettes heckled politicians, tried to storm parliament, were attacked and sexually assaulted during battles with the police, chained themselves to railings, smashed windows, set fire to postboxes and empty buildings, set bombs in order to damage churches and property, faced anger and ridicule in the media.
When imprisoned they went on hunger strike. The death of one suffragette, Emily Davison, when she ran in front of the king's horse at the 1913 Epsom Derby, made headlines around the world; the WSPU campaign had varying levels of support from within the suffragette movement. The suffragette campaign was suspended when World War I broke out in 1914. After the war, the Representation of the People Act 1918 gave the vote to women over the age of 30 who met certain property qualifications. Ten years women gained electoral equality with men when the Representation of the People Act 1928 gave all women the vote at age 21. Although the Isle of Man had enfranchised women who owned property to vote in parliamentary elections in 1881, New Zealand was the first self-governing country to grant all women the right to vote in 1893 when women over the age of 21 were permitted to vote in parliamentary elections. Women in South Australia achieved the same right and became the first to obtain the right to stand for parliament in 1895.
In the United States, white women over the age of 21 were allowed to vote in the western territories of Wyoming from 1869 and in Utah from 1870. In 1865 John Stuart Mill was elected to be a feminist on a platform that included votes for women, in 1869 he published his essay in favour of equality of the sexes The Subjection of Women. In 1865 a discussion group was formed to promote higher education for women, named the Kensington Society. Following discussions on the subject of women's suffrage, the society formed a committee to draft a petition and gather signatures, which Mill agreed to present to Parliament once they had gathered 100 signatures. In October 1866 amateur scientist, Lydia Becker, attended a meeting of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science held in Manchester and heard one of the organisors of the petition, Barbara Bodichon, read a paper entitled Reasons for the Enfranchisement of Women. Becker was inspired to help gather signatures around Manchester and to join the newly formed Manchester committee.
Mill presented the petition to Parliament in 1866 by which time the supporters had gathered 1499 signatures, including those of Florence Nightingale, Harriet Martineau, Josephine Butler and Mary Somerville. In March 1867, Becker wrote an article for the Contemporary Review, in which she said: It will not be denied that women have, ought to have, opinions of their own on subjects of public interest, on the events which arise as the world wends on its way, but if it be granted that women may, without offence, hold political opinions, on what ground can the right be withheld of giving the same expression or effect to their opinions as that enjoyed by their male neighbours? Two further petitions were presented to parliament in May 1867 and Mill proposed an amendment to the 1867 Reform Act to give women the same political rights as men but the amendment was treated with derision and defeated by 196 votes to 73; the first public meeting on the subject of women's suffrage in UK was held in Manchester's Free Trade Hall in 1868.
Amongst the audience was the 15-year-old Emmeline Goulden, to become an ardent campaigner for women's rights, married Dr. Pankhurst and adopted his surname as was customary, becoming known as Emmeline Pankhurst. During the summer of 1880, Lydia Becker visited the Isle of Man to address five public meetings on the subject of women's suffrage to audiences composed of women; these speeches instilled in the Manx women a determination to secure the franchise, on 31 January 1881, women on the island who owned property in their own right were given the vote. In Manchester the Women's Suffrage Committee had been formed in 1867 to work with the Independent Labour Party to secure votes for women, but although the local ILP were supportive, nationally the party were more interested in securing the franchise for working class men and refused to make women's suffrage a priority. In 1897 the Manchester Women's Suffrage committee had merged with the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies but Emmeline Pankhurst, a member of the original Manchester committee, her eldest daughter Christabel had become impatient with the ILP
D. A. Thomas
David Alfred Thomas, 1st Viscount Rhondda, PC was a Welsh industrialist and Liberal politician. He was UK Member of Parliament for Merthyr Tydfil from 1888 until the January 1910 general election MP for Cardiff until the December 1910 general election, when he left politics to concentrate on his business interests, he was made a member of the Privy Council in 1916. He held office, notably as "Food Controller" in Lloyd George's wartime coalition government; the son of coal owner Samuel Thomas of Ysguborwen, David Thomas was a second-generation industrialist. His energy and flair for innovation swiftly led him to build a commercial empire larger than his father's. Samuel, a man not noted for a cheerful temperament, is said to have remarked on the day of his son's birth, "Well, I see nothing for him but the workhouse."Although tradition cited D. A. Thomas' birthplace as being an old white-walled cottage in Aberdare, this is unlikely, given that the family home, was completed in 1855; this house was built as a suitable residence for a rising industrial entrepreneur, sets Samuel Thomas' gloomy remark in context.
Samuel Thomas was one of the pioneers of the Welsh Coal business. Samuel Thomas was a hard man the secret of his business success, his tastes were simple, he could never forget the hardships through which he had had to pass, as the above quotation indicates, he was unable to shake off the fear of failure. A Welsh Baptist, he managed his household according to the "Protestant work ethic"; this seems to have been its own reward, for Samuel attained civic office as High Constable of Merthyr the roughest town in Wales. D. A. Thomas' mother, Rachel, is described as a contrast to the sometimes miserly, always prudent Samuel, she gave young David the love that he needed, nurturing the more sensitive side that D. A. Thomas' daughter, was to cherish; the family home, seems to have been a typical Welsh home. At first, only the Welsh language was spoken there. After all, it was the language of both of David's parents. However, Mrs. Thomas, like many Welsh parents before and since, realising that the language of the business world was English, engaged an English nurse to get her children used to speaking English.
In 1859, the family moved from Calfaria Welsh Baptist Chapel to Carmel, the English Baptist Chapel opposite. English was becoming the language of the valleys, the language of respectability. Accordingly, the upwardly mobile Thomases were going to be Anglo-Welsh. D. A. Thomas' upbringing was Victorian, teaching him discipline, mediated through love; that discipline remained in business and in politics. Towards the end of Thomas' life, William Brace, the Trade Union leader commented that'Rhondda has the income of a Duke and the tastes of a Peasant.'Thomas was educated at Manila Hall, Bristol, before going up to Cambridge University Initially, Thomas was to have gone to Jesus College on a scholarship intended for the sons of Anglican Ministers. Since Samuel Thomas was neither an Anglican nor a minister, it would be interesting to know how D. A. Thomas obtained such a scholarship. An attack of Typhoid fever, contracted in Clermont-Ferrand meant that Thomas was unable to take up the scholarship; as it was, Thomas obtained a scholarship to Gonville and Caius College, where he studied mathematics, would have finished top of his year, if it had not been for his indifferent health.
So, Thomas was in the University Rowing and Boxing teams. Thomas left Cambridge in 1880, on the death of his father. In an age of religion, D. A. Thomas was that rarity, a man uninterested in religion; that said, Thomas does not appear to have been an atheist, but to have found the religious sectarianism that marked the life of Wales at that time distasteful. Although brought up a Baptist, he was received into the Anglican Church upon his marriage to Sybil Margaret Haig in 1882 and was baptised at St. Andrew's Church, near Barry; the wedding took place in a billiard-room at her parents' house. A daughter, was born in 1883, the only issue to the couple. Thomas' estrangement from organised religion is due to the religious controversies of the day, or the way in which his father managed to alienate himself altogether from organised religion. After moving to Carmel English Baptist Church, Samuel Thomas appears to have become embroiled in an argument with Rev. Thomas Price, the second minister; this appears to have been over no more than personalities, for Samuel had supported the man's predecessor, the move to Tabernacle English Congregational church ended when the minister was replaced.
Samuel Thomas took it upon himself to un-church his conduct worship at home. Such rancour cannot have endeared organised religion to the young David. Grigg describes Thomas' upbringing as'Strict Congregationalist, yet D. A. Thomas was not baptised as an infant, suggesting that Samuel Thomas never abandoned his Baptist views; as a schoolboy at Bristol D. A. Thomas attended Highbury Congregational Chapel, where his uncle, David Thomas, was minister. Although D. A. Thomas was involved in the Disestablishment controversy and was an advocate of Disestablishment, this appears to have sprung from the belief that the endowments of the church should be used for the general good He advocated the allocation of church endowments on a population basis, which alienated many of the North Wales MPs; the Rev. J. Vyrnwy Morgan, Thomas' earliest biographer writes that:'...religion was a subject concerning which he spoke less than he thought.'Despite attacks of rheumatic fever, which plagued him for much of his life, D. A. Thomas was n