Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend
Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, was an English Whig statesman. He served for a decade as Secretary of State for the Northern Department, 1714–1717, 1721–1730, he directed British foreign policy in close collaboration with his brother-in-law, prime minister Robert Walpole. He was known as Turnip Townshend because of his strong interest in farming turnips and his role in the British Agricultural Revolution. Townshend was the eldest son of Sir Horatio Townshend, 3rd Baronet, created Baron Townshend in 1661 and Viscount Townshend in 1682; the old Norfolk family of Townshend, to which he belonged, is descended from Sir Roger Townshend of Raynham, who acted as legal advisor to the Paston family, was made a justice of the common pleas in 1484. His descendant, another Sir Roger Townshend Townshend. Born at Raynham Hall, Townshend succeeded to the peerages in December 1687, was educated at Eton College and King's College, Cambridge, he had Tory sympathies when he took his seat in the House of Lords, but his views changed, he began to take an active part in politics as a Whig.
For a few years after the accession of Queen Anne he remained without office, but in November 1708 he was appointed Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard, having in the previous year been summoned to the Privy Council. He was ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to the States-General from 1709 to 1711, taking part during these years in the negotiations which preceded the conclusion of the Treaty of Utrecht, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in April 1706. After his recall to England he was busily occupied in attacking the proceedings of the new Tory ministry. Townshend won the favour of George I, in September 1714, the new king selected him as Secretary of State for the Northern Department; the policy of Townshend and his colleagues, after they had crushed the Jacobite rising of 1715, both at home and abroad, was one of peace. The secretary disliked the interference of Britain in the war between Sweden and Denmark, he promoted the conclusion of defensive alliances between Britain and the emperor and Britain and France.
In spite of these successes the influence of the Whigs was undermined by the intrigues of Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, by the discontent of the Hanoverian favourites. In October 1716, Townshend's colleague, James Stanhope afterwards 1st Earl Stanhope, accompanied the king on his visit to Hanover, while there he was seduced from his allegiance to his fellow ministers by Sunderland, George being led to believe that Townshend and his brother-in-law, Sir Robert Walpole, were caballing with the Prince of Wales, their intention being that the prince should supplant his father on the throne. In December 1716 the secretary was dismissed and was made Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, but he only retained this post until the following April. Early in 1720 a partial reconciliation took place between the parties of Stanhope and Townshend, in June of this year the latter became Lord President of the Council, a post which he held until February 1721, after the death of Stanhope and the forced retirement of Sunderland, a result of the South Sea Bubble, he was again appointed secretary of state for the northern department, with Walpole as First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer.
The two remained in power during the remainder of the reign of George I the chief domestic events of the time being the impeachment of Bishop Atterbury, the pardon and partial restoration of Lord Bolingbroke, the troubles in Ireland caused by the patent permitting Wood to coin halfpence. Townshend secured the dismissal of his rival, Lord Carteret, afterwards Earl Granville, but soon differences arose between himself and Walpole, he had some difficulty in steering a course through the troubled sea of European politics. Although disliking him, George II retained him in office, but the predominance in the ministry passed but from him to Walpole. Townshend could not brook this. So long, to use Walpole's witty remark, as the firm was Townshend and Walpole all went well with it, but when the positions were reversed jealousies arose between the partners. Serious differences of opinion concerning the policy to be adopted towards Austria and in foreign politics led to a final rupture in 1730. Failing, owing to Walpole's interference, in his efforts to procure the dismissal of a colleague and his replacement by a personal friend, Townshend retired on 15 May 1730.
His departure removed the final obstacle to the conclusion of an Anglo-Austrian Alliance which would become the centrepiece of British foreign policy until 1756. According to historians Linda Frey and Marsha Frey: Townshend was undoubtedly capable and hard-working, but in achieving his goals he sometimes appeared blunt, stubborn and overbearing. In contrast to many of his contemporaries whose venality was legendary he was scrupulously honest, he was generous to foe. He was a passionate man who loved and hated and changed his mind once an opinion had been formed.... Historians have underrated Townshend's accomplishments in part because his rival Walpole outmanoeuvred and outlasted him, his remaining years were passed at Raynham. He died at Raynham on 21 June 1738, he promoted adoption of the Norfolk four-course system, involving rotation of turnips, barley and wheat crops. He was an enthusiastic advocate of growing turnips as a field crop, for livestock feed; as a result of his promotion of turnip-growing and his agricultural experiments at Raynham, he became known as "Turnip Townshend".
(Alexander Pope mentions "Townshend's turnips" in Imitations of Horace
Henry Sydney, 1st Earl of Romney
Henry Sydney, 1st Earl of Romney was an English politician and army officer. Dismissed as a mere flunkey and court favourite, he was an expert Statesman, with an adroitness for manipulating men, he was one of the Immortal Seven, in fact the author of the invitation that group extended to their future King. Born in Paris, a son of Robert Sidney, 2nd Earl of Leicester, of Penshurst Place in Kent and his wife, born Lady Dorothy Percy, a daughter of Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland and sister of Algernon Percy, 10th Earl of Northumberland, Sydney was a brother of Philip Sidney, 3rd Earl of Leicester, born in 1619. Henry's sister was Dorothy Countess of Sunderland. Sydney entered Parliament in 1679, he was employed by Sunderland to negotiate with William of Orange in 1688, was one of the signatories to, the actual author of, the cipher sent to the Prince calling for the Glorious Revolution. In the upshot, when King James II & VII was deposed under legislation intended to bar him from the succession, the new King created Sydney Baron Milton and Viscount Sydney in 1689.
He was present at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, was to become employed by King William as envoy to the Hague and served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland for the period between 1692 and 1693 and was created Earl of Romney in 1694, but began to lose favour at the court under Queen Anne. Henry Sidney served as Master-General of the Ordnance from 1693 to 1702. Additionally, he was a Colonel of the First Regiment of Foot Guards, he employed the Sidney family emblem, the pheon or broad arrow, on prison uniforms and other government property. In 1694, Sydney succeeded the Earl of Dorset as Chief Ranger of Greenwich Park in London, he built a diversion of the main road from Woolwich to Deptford so that it ran between the Queen's House and Greenwich Palace, its present course. Part of the road is called Romney Road after him, he died unmarried, in London, "a proud but drunken man", aged 63. The University of Nottingham Library contains a catalogue of the papers of Hans William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland, which outlines much of Sidney's correspondence.
There further have survived 98 letters between Sidney and George Legge, 1st Baron Dartmouth, which include papers written by Dartmouth during his confinement at the Tower
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime Provinces, one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres, including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands; as of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is Canada's second-most-densely populated province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre. "Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin and is the recognized English-language name for the province. In both French and Scottish Gaelic, the province is directly translated as "New Scotland". In general and Slavic languages use a direct translation of "New Scotland", while most other languages use direct transliterations of the Latin / English name; the province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to Sir William Alexander in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula.
Nova Scotia is Canada's smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island. The province's mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean. Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia mainland, is part of the province, as is Sable Island, a small island notorious for its shipwrecks 175 km from the province's southern coast. Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations; these formations are rich on the Bay of Fundy's shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundy's shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous-age fossils. Wasson's Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic- and Jurassic-age fossils; the province contains 5,400 lakes. Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental climate rather than maritime.
The winter and summer temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental—still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west; the Nova Scotian climate is in many ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe, only wetter and snowier. This is true in spite of Nova Scotia's being some fifteen parallels south. Areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, winter lows a little colder. Described on the provincial vehicle licence plate as Canada's Ocean Playground, Nova Scotia is surrounded by four major bodies of water: the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the north, the Bay of Fundy to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southwest, Atlantic Ocean to the east; the province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki. The Mi'kmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia.
The British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French. Present-day New Brunswick still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. After the capture of Port Royal in 1710, Francis Nicholson announced it would be renamed Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne. In 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population was forcibly removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians. In 1763, most of Acadia became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province's establishment in 1784, after the arrival of United Empire Loyalists. In 1867, Nova Scotia became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation; the warfare on Nova Scotian soil during the 17th and 18th centuries influenced the history of Nova Scotia. The Mi'kmaq had lived in Nova Scotia for centuries.
The French arrived in 1604, Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the next 150 years. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as the English and Scottish and French fought for possession of the area; these encounters happened at Port Royal, Saint John, Cap de Sable and Baleine. The Acadian Civil War took place from 1640 to 1645. Beginning with King William's War in 1688, six wars took place in Nova Scotia before the British defeated the French and made peace with the Mi'kmaq: King William's War, Queen Anne's War, Father Rale's War, King George's War, Father Le Loutre’s War The Seven Years' War called the French and Indian War The battles during these wars took place Port Royal, Saint John, Chignecto, Dartmouth and Grand-Pré. Despite the British conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained occupied
Earl Sydney, of Scadbury in the County of Kent, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1874 for 3rd Viscount Sydney; the titles of Baron Sydney and Viscount Sydney, were created in the Peerage of Great Britain, for the politician Thomas Townshend, known as Lord Sydney. Townshend was succeeded by his son, John Thomas Townshend, 2nd Viscount Sydney. On his death, the titles passed to his son, the Liberal politician John Robert Townshend, 3rd Viscount Sydney, elevated to the title of earl in 1874. Earl Sydney notably served as Lord Chamberlain of the Household and as Lord Steward of the Household. On his death in 1890, however, in the absence of an heir, all his titles became extinct. Earl of Leicester Marquess Townshend Frognal House Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Portraits at the National Gallery Emily Caroline, Countess Sydney at the National Gallery Correspondence at the National Archives Townshends of Scadbury and Frognal - family landholding and Frognal House
John Townshend, 2nd Viscount Sydney
John Thomas Townshend, 2nd Viscount Sydney of St Leonards was a British peer and Member of Parliament. He was the eldest son of Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney of St Leonards and Elizabeth Powys and was educated at Eton School and Clare College, Cambridge, he went on the Grand Tour in 1785. In 1786 he was elected as the Hon. John Townsend the Member of Parliament for Newport, Isle of Wight, sitting from 1786 to 1790, he sat for Whitchurch from 1790 to 1800. He inherited his peerage on the death of his father in 1800, he was Under-Secretary of State for Home affairs from 1784 to 1789, a Lord of the Admiralty from 1789 to 1793, a Lord of the Treasury from 1793 to 1800, a Lord of the Bedchamber from 1800 to 1810. He was Ranger of Hyde Park and Ranger of St. James's Park from 1807 to his death, his death in 1831 was viewed by the family "as a great release from hopeless suffering". He had married twice. On 13 April 1790 he married Hon. Sophia Southwell, daughter of Edward Southwell, 20th Baron de Clifford.
They had one child. He married a second time, to Caroline Elizabeth Letitia Clements, daughter of Robert Clements, 1st Earl of Leitrim, on 27 May 1802, they had two children: Mary Elizabeth Sydney, married 1) George James Cholmondeley 2) Charles Marsham, 2nd Earl of Romney John Robert Townshend, 1st Earl Sydney
The Lord Steward or Lord Steward of the Household, in England, is an important official of the Royal Household. He is always a peer; until 1924, he was always a member of the Government. Until 1782, the office carried Cabinet rank; the Lord Steward receives his appointment from the Sovereign in person and bears a white staff as the emblem and warrant of his authority. He is the first dignitary of the court. In the House of Lords Precedence Act 1539, an Act of Parliament for placing of the lords, he is described as the grand master or lord steward of the king's most honourable household, he presided at the Board of Green Cloth, until the Board of Green Cloth disappeared in the reform of local government licensing in 2004, brought about by the Licensing Act 2003. In his department are the Treasurer of the Household and Comptroller of the Household, who rank next to him; these officials were peers or the sons of peers and Privy Councillors. They sat at the Board of Green Cloth, carry white staves, belong to the ministry.
The offices are now held by Government whips in the House of Commons. The duties which in theory belong to the Lord Steward and Comptroller of the Household are in practice performed by the Master of the Household, a permanent officer and resides in the palace. However, by the Coroners Act 1988, the Lord Steward still appoints the Coroner of the Queen's Household; the Master of the Household is a white-staff officer and was a member of the Board of Green Cloth but not of the ministry, among other things he presided at the daily dinners of the suite in waiting on the sovereign. He is not named in the Black Book of Edward IV or in the Statutes of Henry VIII and is entered as master of the household and clerk of the green cloth in the Household Book of Queen Elizabeth, but he has superseded the lord steward of the household, as the lord steward of the household at one time superseded the Lord High Steward of England. In the Lord Steward's department were the officials of the Board of Green Cloth, the Coroner, Paymaster of the Household, the officers of the Royal Almonry.
Other offices in the department were those of the Cofferer of the Household, the Treasurer of the Chamber, the Paymaster of Pensions, but these, with six clerks of the Board of Green Cloth, were abolished in 1782. The Lord Steward had three courts besides the Board of Green Cloth under him—the Lord Steward's Court, superseded in 1541 by the Marshalsea Court, the Palace Court; the Lord Steward or his deputies administered the oaths to the members of the House of Commons. In certain cases the lords with white staves are the proper persons to bear communications between the Sovereign and the Houses of Parliament. Sir Thomas Rempston 1399–1401 Thomas Percy, 1st Earl of Worcester 1401–1402 William Heron, Lord Say 1402–1404 Sir Thomas Erpingham 1404 Sir John Stanley 1405–1412 Sir Thomas Erpingham 1413–1417 Sir Walter Hungerford 1413–1421 Robert Babthorp 1421–1424 Sir Walter Hungerford 1424–1426 Sir John Tiptoft 1426–1432 Robert Babthorp 1432–1433 William de la Pole, 1st Marquess of Suffolk 1433–1446 Ralph Boteler, 1st Baron Sudeley 1447–1457 John Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp 1457–1461 William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent 1461–1463 John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester 1463–1467 Henry Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex 1467–1470 Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby 1471–?1485 The Lord FitzWalter 1485–aft.
1486 The Lord Willoughby de Broke 1488–1502 The Earl of Shrewsbury 1502–1538 The Earl of Sussex 1538–1540? The Duke of Suffolk 1541–1544 The Lord St John 1544–1551 The Duke of Northumberland 1551–1553 The Earl of Arundel 1553–1568 The Earl of Pembroke 1568–1570 no Lord Steward appointed 1570–1588 The Earl of Leicester 1587–1588 no Lord Steward appointed 1588–1603 The Earl of Nottingham 1603–1618 The Duke of Richmond 1618–1623 The Marquess of Hamilton 1623–1625 The Earl of Pembroke 1625–1630 none 1630–1640 The Earl of Arundel and Surrey 1640–1644 The Duke of Richmond 1644–1655 none 1655–1660 The Duke of Ormonde 1660–1688 The Duke of Devonshire 1689–1707 The Duke of Devonshire 1707–1710 The Duke of Buckingham and Normanby 1710–1711 The Earl Poulett 1711–1714 The Duke of Devonshire 1714–1716 The Duke of Kent 1716–1718 The Duke of Argyll 1718–1725 The Duke of Dorset 1725–1730 The Earl of Chesterfield 1730–1733 The Duke of Devonshire 1733–1737 The Duke of Dorset 1737–1744 The Duke of Devonshire 1744–1749 The Duke of Marlborough 1749–1755 The Duke of Rutland 1755–1761 The Earl Talbot 1761–1782 The Earl of Carlisle 1782–1783 The Duke of Rutland 1783 The Earl of Dartmouth 1783 The Duke of Chandos 1783–1789 The Duke of Dorset 1789–1799 The Earl of Leicester 1799–1802 The Earl of Dartmouth 1802–1804 The Earl of Aylesford 1804–1812 The Marquess of Cholmondeley 1812–1821 The Marquess Conyngham 1821–1830 The Duke of Buckingham and Chandos 1830 The Marquess Wellesley 1830–1833 The Duke of Argyll 1833–1834 The Earl of Wilton 1835 The Duke of Argyll 1835–1839 The Earl of Erroll 1839–1841 The Earl of Liverpool 1841–1846 The Earl Fortescue 1846–1850 The Marquess of Westminster 1850–1852 The Duke of Montrose 1852–1853 The Duke of Norfolk 1853–1854 The Earl Spencer 1854–1857 The Earl of St Germans 1857–1858 The Marquess of Exeter 1858–1859 The Earl of St Germans 1859–1866 The Earl of Bessborough 1866 The Duke of Marlborough 1866–1867 The Earl of Tankerville 1867–1868 The Earl of Bessborough 1868–1874 The Earl Beauchamp 1874–1880 The Earl Sydney 1880–1885 The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe 1885–1886 The Earl Sydney 1886 The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe 1886–1892 The Marquess of Breadalbane 1892–1895 The Earl of Pembroke 1895–1905 The Earl of Liverpool 1905–1907 The Earl Beauchamp 1907–1910 The Earl