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VisiCalc was the first spreadsheet computer program for personal computers released for the Apple II by VisiCorp. It is considered the application that turned the microcomputer from a hobby for computer enthusiasts into a serious business tool, prompting IBM to introduce the IBM PC two years later. VisiCalc is considered the Apple II's killer app, it sold over 700,000 copies in six years, as many as 1 million copies over its history. Developed for the Apple II using a 6502 assembler running on the Multics time sharing system, VisiCalc was ported to numerous platforms, both 8-bit and some of the early 16-bit systems. In order to do this, the company developed porting platforms; the company took the same approach when the IBM PC was launched, producing a product, identical to the original 8-bit Apple II version. Sales were brisk, with about 300,000 copies sold. VisiCalc used the A1 notation in formulas; when Lotus 1-2-3 was launched in 1983, taking full advantage of the expanded memory and screen of the PC, VisiCalc sales ended overnight.

Sales declined so that the company was soon insolvent. Lotus Development purchased the company in 1985, ended sales of VisiCalc and the company's other products. VISICALC represented a new idea of a way to use a computer and a new way of thinking about the world. Where conventional programming was thought of as a sequence of steps, this new thing was no longer sequential in effect: When you made a change in one place, all other things changed and automatically. — Ted Nelson Dan Bricklin conceived VisiCalc while watching a presentation at Harvard Business School. The professor was creating a financial model on a blackboard, ruled with vertical and horizontal lines to create a table, he wrote formulas and data into the cells; when the professor found an error or wanted to change a parameter, he had to erase and rewrite several sequential entries in the table. Bricklin realized that he could replicate the process on a computer using an "electronic spreadsheet" to view results of underlying formulae.

Bob Frankston joined Bricklin, the pair formed the Software Arts company and developed the VisiCalc program for two months during the winter of 1978–79. Bricklin wrote that with the years of experience we had at the time we created VisiCalc, we were familiar with many row/column financial programs. In fact, Bob had worked since the 1960s at Interactive Data Corporation, a major timesharing utility, used for some of them and I was exposed to some at Harvard Business School in one of the classes. Bricklin was referring to the variety of report generators that were in use at that time, including Business Planning Language from International Timesharing Corporation and Foresight from Foresight Systems. However, these earlier timesharing programs were not interactive, they pre-dated personal computers. Frankston described VisiCalc as a "magic sheet of paper that can perform calculations and recalculations", which "allows the user to just solve the problem using familiar tools and concepts"; the Personal Software company began selling VisiCalc in mid-1979 for under $100, after a demonstration at the fourth West Coast Computer Faire and an official launch on June 4 at the National Computer Conference.

It required an Apple II with 32K of random-access memory, supported saving files to magnetic tape cassette or to Apple's Disk II floppy disk system. VisiCalc came with excellent documentation. Observers noticed its power. Ben Rosen speculated in July 1979 that "VisiCalc could someday become the software tail that wags the personal computer dog". For the first 12 months it was only available for the Apple II, it became that platform's killer app. Many bought $2000 Apples to run the $100 software—more than 25% of those sold in 1979 were for VisiCalc—even if they owned computers. Steve Wozniak said that small businesses, not the hobbyists he and Steve Jobs had expected, purchased 90% of Apple IIs. Apple's rival Tandy Corporation used VisiCalc on its own Apple IIs. Other software supported its Data Interchange Format to share data. One example was the Microsoft BASIC interpreter supplied with most microcomputers; this allowed skilled BASIC programmers to add features, such as trigonometric functions, that VisiCalc lacked.

Bricklin and Frankston intended to fit the program into 16k memory, but they realized that the program needed at least 32k. 32k was too small to support some features that the creators wanted to include, such as a split text/graphics screen. However, Apple began shipping all Apple IIs with 48k memory following a drop in RAM prices, which enabled the developers to include more features; the initial release supported tape cassette storage, but, dropped. At VisiCalc's release, Personal Software promised to port the program to other computers, starting with those that used the MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor, versions appeared for the Atari 800 and Commodore PET, both of which could be done because those computers used the same processor as the Apple II, large portions of code could be reused; the PET version, which contained two separate executables for 40 and 80-column models, was criticized for having a small amount of worksheet space due to the developers' inclusion of their own custom DOS, which used a large amount of memory.

Other ports followed for the Apple III, Zilog

Sa'd bin Sa'd Muhammad Shariyan Al Ka'bi

Sa’d bin Sa’d Muhammad Shariyan Al Ka’bi is a known Qatari financier and facilitator of financial services that support the Qatari branch of Al-Qaeda, as well as Al-Nusra Front for the People of the Levant, an al-Qaeda Syria based affiliate, listed by the United States as a terrorist group. According to the U. S. Department of the Treasury, Al Ka’abi was designated to the list because he has been involved in complex schemes to continue the flow of funds that aid violent terrorist activities networks in Syria and Sudan since at least 2012. In early 2014, al- Ka’abi arranged donation campaigns in Qatar, as requested of him by an ANF associate, he helped raise significant funds, by which the money raised was used for the purchase of arms and food for al-Nusra. He was involved in hostage exchange incidents with ANF, he was requested by the organization to act as an intermediary in collecting and facilitating a ransom payment in exchange for the release of a hostage held by ANF. Al-Ka’bi was involved in the Madad Ahl al-Sham campaign, which posed as a charity organization by which supporters of Al-Nusra Front could provide funding.

He has been linked to and worked with controversial individuals including Hamid Hamad Hamid al-'Ali, a Kuwaiti ANF fundraiser, in 2013 when he received funding from him to support ANF and Abd al-Latif al-Kawari, who he worked with on the Mahid Ahl Sham campaign. As of August 2015, he has been designated as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist and been placed on the United States Treasury sanctions list for designated financiers of terrorism for his illicit financial activities in an effort to target the funding networks of terrorist organizations, he has since been placed on numerous sanctions lists for the same reasons including those of the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Pakistan, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, others. These sanctions allow to US Department of Treasury to confiscate any of his assets under American jurisdiction, as well as forbid any commercial interaction between him and any United States citizens. Under the UN's Security Council's Al-Qaida Sanctions he is under similar restrictions with having his assets frozen and a travel ban and arms embargo placed on him


The name Mihalko, Михалко, originates from Hungary and Ukraine. The majority of the Mihalko families in the United States are located in the northeastern portion concentrated in the state of Pennsylvania. Name: Mihalko and Mihalkovich of Kurzem in Jász-Kun, Hungary Belarus and Ukraine. Ennobled by Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1790. Shield: Per pale azure and argent, in dexter, on a mount vert, a lion counter-rampant or and in sinister on a mount vert, a leopard rampant proper, on a chief of the first, a sun in splendour in dexter or and an increscent moon in sinister of the second. Crest: Out of a ducal coronet a demi lion or between a pair of wings per fesse, the dexter or and azure and the sinister gules and argent. Mantling: Dexter, or and azure. List of Ukrainian Surnames U. S. Census Bureau, 1990. 1990 Census Names Files at the Library of Congress Web Archives

Dow Travers

Dow Travers is a Caymanian alpine skier and rugby union player who competes in giant slalom and Rugby XVs and 7s. He represented the Cayman Islands in alpine skiing at the 2010 Winter Olympics, becoming the Cayman Islands' first Winter Olympian. Travers, the son of Anthony Travers, was born and raised in Grand Cayman, where he attended Faulkner's Academy, he went to boarding school at Harrow School in London, United Kingdom, Brown University which he represented for rugby and skiing. Travers has younger brothers and Dean. Dean is a competitive skier for the Cayman Islands. In skiing, Dow has competed in the Winter Olympics and the World Championships for the Cayman Islands. At the Vancouver Olympics Dow placed 69th in the Giant Slalom. At the Sochi Olympics Dow received a DNF result in the Slalom. Dow placed 65th in the Slalom event at the Val d'Isere World Championships. In rugby, Dow has played for the Cayman Islands national rugby union team and plays on their 7s team in the North America Caribbean Rugby Association region.

Dow was a member of the Cayman Islands 7s team at the Central American and Caribbean Games in July 2010. Playing for Brown he has been selected for the All Ivy Rugby Team his freshman, sophomore and senior years. In 2010 he was elected co-captain of the Brown Rugby Football Club. In 2011 he was selected for the New England All Stars team

Membrane mineralocorticoid receptor

Membrane mineralocorticoid receptors or membrane aldosterone receptors are a group of receptors which bind and are activated by mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone. Unlike the classical nuclear mineralocorticoid receptor, which mediates its effects via genomic mechanisms, mMRs are cell surface receptors which alter cell signaling via modulation of intracellular signaling cascades; the identities of the mMRs have yet to be elucidated, but are thought to include membrane-associated classical MRs as well as yet-to-be-characterized G protein-coupled receptors. Rapid effects of aldosterone were found not be reversed by the MR antagonist spironolactone, indicating additional receptors besides just the classical MR, it has been estimated that as much as 50% of the rapid actions of aldosterone are mediated by mMRs that are not the classical MR, based on findings of insensitivity to classical mR antagonists.mMRs, along with membrane glucocorticoid receptors, have been implicated in the rapid effects of mineralocorticoids in the early central stress response.

Aldosterone has been found to have rapid non-genomic effects in the central nervous system, the kidneys, the cardiovascular system, the colon. GPER known as GPR30, binds and is activated by aldosterone, may be considered an mMR, although it binds and is activated by estradiol and is described as a membrane estrogen receptor. Membrane steroid receptor

Double Fine Comics

Double Fine Comics is a webcomics collective supported by Double Fine Productions. Each comic varies in style and tone, but they all reflect the eclectic humor found in the Double-Fine produced game Psychonauts; the comics are published in Flash format on the company website under the heading'Comics'. The Double Fine comics are produced by six artists. Scott Campbell created, it follows the adventures of Two-Headed Baby, a strongman, a knight. Other characters, such as two astronauts named Captain and Thompson have been introduced as the comic has progressed. Many characters such as a mummy, a frogman and a naked ogre have been featured during a quest or some other type of adventure. At the top of most strips is a small completely unrelated drawing; these small drawings sometimes have a title, such as "Mysterious Happiness!". The strip celebrated its 400th comic in December 2006. In August 2011, Scott implied the end of the comic with the deflation of 2HB and the solemn acceptance of both Knight and Strongman.

The comic was resurrected in May 2012. In 2008, the first 300 comics were combined into a trade paperback called Double Fine Action Comics by Scott C; this volume includes a foreword by Tim Schafer. In 2013, 200 more comics were combined into another trade paperback called Double Fine Action Comics by Scott C; this volume contains a foreword by Erik Wolpaw. Razmig Mavlian produces two comics; the first, Epic Saga, is done in the style of an adventure game similar to King's Quest or The Secret of Monkey Island. The last two comics were countdown screens, similar to the screens of arcade games, which seem to indicate that the strip is cancelled or on hiatus. Mavlian's other comic, Happy Funnies, is a dialogue-free strip featuring smiling characters in absurd situations; this strip appears to be on hiatus as well. Epic Saga was the first comic to be made into a free flash video game by Klint Honeychurch. Epic Saga: Extreme Fighter is a simple low resolution fighting game, available to play for free on Double Fine's website.

Nathan Stapley draws a pseudo-biographical comic that juxtaposes comics about his hair or clothing with adventure stories involving him and such characters as Indiana Jones, Chewbacca from Star Wars, or O-Ren Ishii from the Kill Bill films. The comic appears to be on hiatus. My Comic About Me was the second comic to be made into a free flash video game by Klint Honeychurch. My Game About Me: Olympic Challenge is a mock sports game that includes such events as eating and sleeping along with traditional sports games like surfing, but with obstacles to avoid. Snapshots is a comic by Mark Hamer, he paints realistic pictures. Each feature a joke about the picture at the bottom of the photograph. In 2013, the comics were compiled into a book titled Snapshots; the book contains a foreword by an introduction by Scott Campbell. Tasha Harris created a fifth comic, added in January 2008; the comic is a semi-autobiographical serial about the life of the author, her boyfriend and two cats. Tasha's comic has been moved to her personal blog, "Tasha's Quest Log", as of September 2011, when she left Double Fine.

The comic continued to be updated until 2013. The current state of the comic is unknown. Tasha's Comic was the third comic to be made into a free flash video game by Klint Honeychurch. Tasha's Game is a platform puzzle game where Tasha has to rescue her family and co-workers from a mysterious entity, aided by her cat Snoopy who acts as a cursor allowing Tasha to place platforms in order to get to out of reach areas. Gabe Miller's comic, "Dirt Nap," started in October 2009, it covers the adventures of an unwilling zombie as he searches for his identity, as he and his zombie friends try to avoid being killed. The comic updates regularly