Cookware and bakeware
Cookware and bakeware are types of food preparation containers, commonly found in a kitchen. Cookware comprises cooking vessels, such as saucepans and frying pans, bakeware comprises cooking vessels intended for use inside an oven. Some utensils are considered both cookware and bakeware, some choices of material also require special pre-preparation of the surface—known as seasoning—before they are used for food preparation. Both the cooking pot and lid handles can be made of the material but will mean that. In order to avoid this, handles can be made of non-heat-conducting materials, for example bakelite and it is best to avoid hollow handles because they are difficult to clean or to dry. A good cooking pot design has an edge which is what the lid lies on. The lid has an edge that avoids condensation fluid from dripping off when handling the lid or putting it down. The history of cooking vessels before the development of pottery is due to the limited archaeological evidence. The earliest pottery vessels, dating from 19, 600±400 BP, were discovered in Xianrendong Cave, Jiangxi, the pottery may have been used as cookware, manufactured by hunter-gatherers. Harvard University archaeologist Ofer Bar-Yosef reported that When you look at the pots and it is also possible to extrapolate likely developments based on methods used by latter peoples. Among the first of the believed to be used by stone age civilizations were improvements to basic roasting. Examples of similar techniques are still in use in many modern cuisines, of greater difficulty was finding a method to boil water. For people without access to heated water sources, such as hot springs. In many locations the shells of turtles or large mollusks provided a source for waterproof cooking vessels, according to Frank Hamilton Cushing, Native American cooking baskets used by the Zuni developed from mesh casings woven to stabilize gourd water vessels. He reported witnessing cooking basket use by Havasupai in 1881, roasting baskets covered with clay would be filled with wood coals and the product to be roasted. When the thus fired clay separated from the basket, it would become a usable clay roasting pan in itself and this indicates a steady progression from use of woven gourd casings to waterproof cooking baskets to pottery. Other than in other cultures, Native Americans used and still use the heat source inside the cookware. Cooking baskets are filled with hot stones and roasting pans with wood coals, Native Americans would form a basket from large leaves to boil water, according to historian and novelist Louis LAmour
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art, and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic, cultural, and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, wide, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. For the second part also the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is also a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of glass are silicate glasses based on the chemical compound silica, the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material. Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency, giving rise to their use as window panes. Glass can be coloured by adding metallic salts, and can also be painted and printed with vitreous enamels and these qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows. Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures, because glass can be formed or moulded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels, bowls, vases, bottles, jars and drinking glasses. In its most solid forms it has also used for paperweights, marbles. Some objects historically were so commonly made of glass that they are simply called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses. Porcelains and many polymer thermoplastics familiar from everyday use are glasses and these sorts of glasses can be made of quite different kinds of materials than silica, metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses are a lighter alternative than traditional glass, silica is a common fundamental constituent of glass. In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, fused quartz is a glass made from chemically-pure SiO2. It has excellent resistance to shock, being able to survive immersion in water while red hot. However, its high melting-temperature and viscosity make it difficult to work with, normally, other substances are added to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate, which lowers the transition temperature. The soda makes the glass water-soluble, which is undesirable, so lime, some magnesium oxide. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass, soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass. Most common glass contains other ingredients to change its properties, lead glass or flint glass is more brilliant because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion. Adding barium also increases the refractive index, iron can be incorporated into glass to absorb infrared energy, for example in heat absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium oxide can be used for glass that absorbs UV wavelengths
Franz Mayer & Co.
Franz Mayer & Co. is a famous German stained glass design and manufacturing company, based in Munich, Germany, that has been active throughout most of the world for over 150 years. Franz Mayer and Co. were stained glass artists to the Holy See and, consequently, the Mayer Co. is responsible for stained glass in at least ten of Irelands Cathedral churches. The work of Franz Mayer & Co. in Ireland is currently the subject of research at Trinity College Dublin. Patrick’s College, Maynooth, Cathedral of St Patrick and St Colman, Newry, Dominican Church, Dundalk, Loreto Convent, Omagh, Church of the Sacred Heart, Co. Fethlimidh, Kilmore, County Cavan, St. Canice Cathedral, Kilkenny, St. Matthews Church, Ballymahon, skibbereen, Templeague, St. Peter’s Phibsborough, Park Rd. Dún Laoghaire, Abingdon, St. John’s, Sligo. Marks Church of Ireland, Ligoniel Road, Belfast, St. Nicholas Church of Ireland, Adare, Co. John the Baptist, Charleston, SC Chapel of the Rock, Saint Malo Church, St Johns Church, Acaster Selby, near York, North Yorkshire, England Pershore Abbey, Pershore, Worcestershire, England - east single lancet in SE transept and east window in NE chapel. Holy Trinity Church, Nice, France, four fine examples
Hardman & Co.
John Hardman senior, of Handsworth, then in Staffordshire, England, was the head of a family business designing and manufacturing metalwork. He was described as the ‘opulent button maker and medallist’, when the building was consecrated in 1841 as Saint Chads Cathedral, it was the first Roman Catholic cathedral to be built in England since the Reformation. For the recently converted Catholic, Pugin, this was a commission of great importance, Pugin first had contact with the John Hardmans during the construction of St Chads Chapel, the forerunner to the cathedral scheme. John Hardman junior, left the business in 1838 and set up on his own to manufacture ecclesiastical metalwork. Pugin employed Hardmans to provide metalwork for St Chads Cathedral, from 1845, at the urging of Pugin, John Hardman entered the burgeoning industry of stained glass manufacture. He was joined by his nephew, John Hardman Powell who married Pugin’s daughter Anne in 1850, Powell became the chief designer from about 1849, prior to Pugin’s death in 1852. The company took part in the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, Hardman and Powell collaborated with A. W. Pugins son, E. W. Pugin, firstly in the design of the arrangements of John Talbot. The collaboration between the Hardman firm and the Pugins was to continue after E. W. Pugin’s death in 1875 with the later firm and this collaboration lasted for three generations and was a major influence on Catholic church architecture and decoration in particular and the Gothic Revival in general. Under the management of J. H. Powell the metalwork design department split from the glass department in 1883 and traded under the name Hardman, Powell. The business was closed in 2008, through the influence of A. W. Pugin, John Ruskin, and the Oxford Movement, it was considered during the mid 19th century that the only appropriate style in which a church should be built was Gothic. This fashion was combined with a general renewal within the church, the result was that many designers in different fields tried to imitate the Medieval style in their work. This was particularly the case in the glass industry. Pugin, who supplied the first designs for Hardmans, was absorbed in the Medieval and was a designer of the highest order. With his busy regime, he relied upon his talented son-in-law, Powell. The firm had many subcontractors and designers who are not well-known, for example, the Pippet family of Solihull, William John Wainwright and R. J. Powells stained glass recreates the elegance, the refinement, the brevity that is seen in some of the finest examples of glass, sculpture and he utilised the flowing, curving lines, the flourish of drapery, the calligraphic brushstrokes and pure colour. However, Powells work was not, like stained glass designers
Kosta Glasbruk Swedish pronunciation, is a Swedish glassworks founded by two foreign officers in Charles XIIs army, Anders Koskull and Georg Bogislaus Stael von Holstein, in 1742. The name is a portmanteau of the surnames, Ko + Sta. It is located in Kosta, Sweden, which was named for the company, the surrounding region has become known as the Kingdom of Crystal and is now a tourist site which attracts a million visitors annually. Early production consisted of glass, chandeliers and drinking glasses. From the 1840s, the factory was at the forefront of new trends and technical developments, producing pressed glass, having merged with Boda Glasbruk in Emmaboda Municipality, Kosta Glasbruk is still active today under the name of Kosta Boda
Pyrex is a brand introduced by Corning Inc. in 1908 for a line of clear, low-thermal-expansion borosilicate glass used for laboratory glassware and kitchenware. Pyrex sold in the United States is made of tempered soda-lime glass, Corning no longer manufactures or markets Pyrex-branded borosilicate glass kitchenware and bakeware in the US. Borosilicate glass was first made by German chemist and glass technologist Otto Schott, Schott AG sold the product under the name Duran. In 1908, Eugene Sullivan, director of research at Corning Glass Works, developed Nonex, Sullivan had learned about Schotts borosilicate glass as a doctoral student in Leipzig, Germany. Jesse Littleton of Corning discovered the potential of borosilicate glass by giving his wife a casserole dish made from a cut-down Nonex battery jar. Corning removed the lead from Nonex and developed it as a consumer product, Pyrex made its public debut in 1915 during World War I, positioned as an American-produced alternative to Duran. While some people have thought that it was made up from the Greek pyr, actually, we had a number of prior trade-marks ending in the letters ex. In 1958 an internal design department was started by John B. Ward and he redesigned the Pyrex ovenware and Flameware. Over the years, designers such as Penny Sparke, Betty Baugh, Smart Design, TEAMS Design, Corning divested its consumer products division in 1998, forming the company World Kitchen, LLC. Corning discontinued its production of Pyrex products, but still licensed the Pyrex brand name to other companies, including World Kitchen, france-based cookware maker Arc International acquired Newells European business in early 2006 and currently owns rights to the brand in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Older clear-glass Pyrex manufactured by Corning before 1998, Arc Internationals Pyrex products, and Pyrex laboratory glassware is made of borosilicate glass. According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, borosilicate Pyrex is composed of,4. 0% boron,54. 0% oxygen,2. 8% sodium,1. 1% aluminum,37. 7% silicon, and 0. 3% potassium. According to glass supplier Pulles and Hannique, borosilicate Pyrex is made of Corning 7740 glass and is equivalent in formulation to Schott Glass 8330 glass sold under the Duran brand name. Unlike borosilicate, it is not as heat-resistant, leading to the increase in breakage from heat stress. European Pyrex is still made from borosilicate, because of its low expansion characteristics, Pyrex borosilicate glass is often the material of choice for reflective optics in astronomy applications. In 1932, George Ellery Hale approached Corning with the challenge of fabricating the 200-inch telescope mirror for the California Institute of Technologys Palomar Observatory project, a previous effort to fabricate the optic from fused quartz had failed, the cast blank having voids. The mirror was cast by Corning during 1934–1936 out of borosilicate glass, after a year of cooling, during which it was almost lost to a flood, the blank was completed in 1935. The first blank now resides in the Corning Museum of Glass, new paper addresses causes of shattering glass cookware, margin of safety described as borderline
Based in Torrington in north Devon, England, Dartington Crystal manufactures crystal glassware using traditional Swedish glass blowing techniques. Many of their ranges continue to be made in their North Devon factory, the company was founded by the Dartington Hall Trust, a charity which then aimed to assist the economic regeneration of rural areas through business, education and the arts. In the early sixties the trust had become concerned that north Devon was becoming depopulated as a lack of job opportunities forced people to move elsewhere to find work. The glass-making factory was intended to be a solution this problem, to achieve this vision the trust recruited Eskil Vilhemson, a Swedish glass manufacturer, to be the companys Managing Director. A team of Scandinavian glass blowers came with him to Torrington, some of whom are still there to this day, a year later in 1969 more glass blowers followed, one Italian and a couple from Denmark. Demand outstripped production in the 1970s and the factory had to be expanded, by the 1980s the modern image of Dartington had attracted the attention of Wedgwood who took up a large stake in the business, allowing for further expansion. In 1987, Frank Thrower MBE died of cancer, but the business boomed in the late 1980s. In 1989 Dartington Hall Trust sold a controlling interest to the Rockware Group, whose investment in the business allowed a modern batch mixing plant and new retail shop to be built. The business underwent a management buyout in 1994 from BTR, who had acquired the Rockware Group. The business was acquired by US giftware giant Enesco in 2004. Dartington Crystal underwent another Management Buy Out in April 2006, safeguarding many skilled jobs in the area, Dartington Crystal bought Scottish-based Caithness Glass out of receivership in October 2006 and also owns Royal Brierley Crystal which is based in the West Midlands. Indeed, this has given Dartington a modern and contemporary image which has kept it ahead of others, todays most popular ranges include Wine Master, Florabundance as well as Sharon, Exmoor, and Dimple which are still made today. This replica can be seen in the Visitors Centre at the Torrington site, commissions include Holland & Holland, Rolls Royce Motor, P&O Cruises and Chivas Regal as well as many others. Dartington are one of just a few remaining large scale producers of crystal and glass in the UK, not all of their crystal is made in Devon while they design and source other glassware from European suppliers. In addition to Dartington crystal and glass products, the Company owns and markets the Caithness Glass and they also sell and distribute John Beswick ceramic character sculptures
Heaton, Butler and Bayne
Heaton, Butler and Bayne were an English firm who produced stained glass windows from 1862 to 1953. Clement Heaton founded his own stained glass firm in 1852, joined by James Butler in 1855, between 1859 and 1861 they worked alongside Clayton and Bell and were joined by Robert Turnill Bayne, who became their sole designer and a full partner in the firm in 1862. The firm was known as Heaton, Butler and Bayne from 1862 and his windows show strong design and colour, and are often recognisable by the inclusion of at least one figure with Baynes features and long beard. A change in direction came with their production of windows to the designs of Henry Holiday in 1868, during a long career, the firm produced stained glass for numerous churches throughout the Britain and the Empire, as well as the United States. Westminster Abbey includes a Heaton, Butler and Bayne window, installed in 1868, other windows by this firm are in Wimborne Minster 1857, Peterborough Cathedral 1864 and St Marys Parish Church, Hampton c1888. A documentary film, Stained Glass Masters, Heaton, Butler, the documentary was narrated by Edgar Award winning author Burl Barer. Adoration of the Magi in Tewkesbury Abbey, Gloucestershire, faith, Hope, and Charity in the church of St Mary the Virgin Staverton, Northamptonshire. “Memorial Window to C. H. Crompton-Roberts of Drybridge House, several windows in St. Saviours Episcopal Church in Bar Harbor, Maine. Several windows in St. Matthews Cathedral in Laramie, Wyoming, Stained glass - British glass, 1811-1918 Victorian Era Work of Heaton, Butler and Bayne on Flickr Stained glass masters Buckinghamshire Stained Glass