Tourism in England
Tourism plays a significant part in the economic life of England. England's long history and pervasive culture, spread worldwide through the English language and colonialism, make it a popular tourist destination. Bath: A spa town, famous for its Georgian architecture and crescents, Bath Abbey, the Roman baths, numerous Jane Austen connections such as the Pump Rooms. Brighton: Brighton is a seaside resort which includes two piers, West Pier and Brighton Pier, is home to the Royal Pavilion. Bristol: Brunel's Clifton Suspension Bridge is a famous landmark. Cambridge: Home of the world-renowned University of Cambridge. Canterbury: Renowned for its cathedral, the Mother Church of England, as well as other medieval buildings and Roman remains. Chester: Important Roman and medieval walled city with an amphitheatre and 11th-century Benedictine Abbey, now the Cathedral. Renowned for its covered medieval shop'rows', racecourse and Chester Zoo. Dover: A major port with access to the continent. Well known for its white cliffs, which include wartime tunnels, to a lesser extent for its castle.
Durham: A famous university city renowned for its cathedral and castle. Exeter: City, home to Exeter Cathedral and Rougemont Castle. Haworth: Home of the Brontë Sisters and popular with Japanese tourists, as Wuthering Heights has a cult following in Japan. Kingston upon Hull: The birthplace of William Wilberforce. Home to The Deep, the world's only submarium and the location of England's smallest window at the George Hotel; the poet Philip Larkin worked at the local university. Nearby is the Humber Bridge, the world's longest single-span suspension bridge for 16 years from its opening in July 1981 to 1998. Hull was UK City of Culture in 2017. Lincoln: A medieval city, home to Lincoln Cathedral and to Lincoln Castle, where a copy of the Magna Carta is kept. Liverpool: The 2008 European Capital of Culture, a major commercial port and World Heritage Site, home to two cathedrals, the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra and famous as the home of The Beatles. Liverpool has more listed buildings, registered historic parks and art galleries than any other city in the UK outside London.
The home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton. The first city in the world to be linked by passenger railway it is famous for The Grand National, its musical and literary heritage. Norwich: City renowned for its castle and cathedral; the latter has the second-tallest spire in the country. Nottingham: The city and Nottingham Castle are famed worldwide for their links with the legend of Robin Hood. Sherwood Forest is nearby. Oxford: Home of the University of Oxford. Plymouth: A naval dockyard with a listed heritage area, the Barbican, which includes the National Marine Aquarium and the Mayflower Steps. Home to Smeaton's Tower, a former lighthouse now used as a viewpoint. Portsmouth: A naval dockyard with famous ships on display, including the Mary Rose, HMS Victory. Home to Gunwharf Quays retail centre, with its iconic Spinnaker Tower. Salisbury: Home of Salisbury Cathedral, which has the tallest spire in the country. Nearby is the prehistoric site of Stonehenge, administered by English Heritage.
Shrewsbury: Medieval walled town situated within a loop of the River Severn. Famous for its many timber-framed buildings and stone bridges, as the birthplace of Charles Darwin. Stratford-upon-Avon: The birthplace of William Shakespeare, with numerous historic sites associated with Shakespeare, as well as contemporary theatres performing his works. York: Famous for York Minster cathedral; the location of the National Railway Museum and a wealth of preserved medieval streets and buildings, such as the Merchant Adventurers' Hall and the Shambles. Other places in England are of historical interest; the city of Manchester is the second most visited city by foreign tourists in England after London. Many foreign tourists visit the neighbouring countries and Wales – see tourism in Scotland and tourism in Wales. Domestic tourists, foreign tourists who have specific interests in art, history etc. visit the following: Birmingham: A major city, with an orchestra, major exhibition venues and art galleries.
Of historical interest for its significant role in the industrial revolution and the jewellery industry. Gloucester: A Roman city with a cathedral, famous for the tomb of Edward II, seventh Plantagenet king of England. Hadrian's Wall: The Roman wall built in Northumberland by order of the Emperor Hadrian. Hereford: A cathedral city, famous for the chained library in the cathedral, the Mappa Mundi Ironbridge: The cradle of the industrial revolution and the site of Iron bridge, the world's first major bridge to be made of cast iron. Manchester: A culturally pre-eminent city, once famous for its industry. Known for the Hallé orchestra and many museums, art galleries and its Victorian and Edwardian era architecture; the city was host of the 2002 Commonwealth Games and is home to two Premier League football clubs, Manchester City and Manchester United. Manchester is known for being the world's first industrialised city, is well noted for its shopping, music, social history and nightlife. Wi
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Visit Wales is the Welsh Government's tourism team within the Department for Heritage to promote Welsh tourism and assist the tourism industry. Visit Wales has taken over the functions of the former Wales Tourist Board, an Assembly Sponsored Public Body; the role of Visit Wales is to support the Welsh tourism industry, improve tourism in Wales and provide a strategic framework within which private enterprise can achieve sustainable growth and success, so improving the social and economic well being of Wales. The mission of Visit Wales is to "maximise tourism's contribution to the economic and cultural prosperity of Wales"; the baseline budget at the Wales Tourist Board for 2005/2006 was £22.6 million. Tourists spend over amounting to around £ 3 billion a year. In direct terms, tourism contributes, it is important to note. 100,000 people in Wales are employed in tourism, representing about 9% of the workforce. Over one million trips are taken to Wales annually by overseas tourists; the general United Kingdom accounts for 93% of tourism trips to Wales.
Seventy percent of tourists to Wales come from other parts of the United Kingdom for a holiday, 20% to visit friends or relatives and 7% for a business trip. Fifty percent of trips by UK tourists to Wales go to small towns/villages; the most popular origins of overseas visitors are Republic of Ireland, United States, Germany. The most popular activities undertaken by tourists in Wales are: walking, visiting historic attractions such as castles and visiting museums and galleries; the most popular attraction in Wales is the Museum of Welsh Life which attracts over 600,000 visitors annually. In serviced accommodation in Wales, there are over 80,000 bed spaces available. In 2015, the Welsh Government announced a 3-year plan, driven by Visit Wales, to promote Wales based on a series of annual themes: The Year of Adventure in 2016 The Year of Legends in 2017 The Year of the Sea in 2018It has been stated that these thematic years are: a long-term ambition to grow a stronger and more defined brand for tourism in Wales the opportunity to focus investment and innovation in tourism the need to drive an increase in visitor volume and value to Wales each year.
There are 74 tourist information centres around Wales, which act as the first port of call for visitors, offering local information and accommodation booking services, as well as many other services. This network of centres offers an essential service to the 13 million visitors that come to Wales every year, they are run by over 40 different managing authorities and Visit Wales co-ordinates the network to set and monitor standards of presentation and customer care. The Wales Tourist Board was established in 1969 as a result of the Development of Tourism Act 1969 and its role was enhanced following the Tourism Act 1992. An'Abolition Order' was passed by the National Assembly for Wales 23 November 2005 and full transfer of functions into the Welsh Assembly Government was made 1 April 2006. On that day, the Wales Tourist Board ceased to exist. Tourism in Wales VisitBritain VisitEngland VisitScotland Global website - www.visitwales.com - The official guide to places to stay and things to do in Wales.
Welsh Government - Tourism
Accessible tourism is the ongoing endeavour to ensure tourist destinations and services are accessible to all people, regardless of their physical limitations, disabilities or age. It encompasses publicly and owned tourist locations; the term has been defined by Darcy and Dickson as: Accessible tourism enables people with access requirements, including mobility, vision and cognitive dimensions of access, to function independently and with equity and dignity through the delivery of universally designed tourism products and environments. This definition is inclusive of all people including those travelling with children in prams, people with disabilities and seniors. Modern society is aware of the concept of integration of people with disabilities. Issues such as accessibility, design for all and universal design are featured in the international symposia of bodies such as the European Commission. Steps have been taken to promote guidelines and best practices, major resources are now dedicated to this field.
A greater understanding of the accessible tourism market has been promoted through research commissioned by the European Commission where a stakeholder analysis has provided an insight into the complexities of accessible tourism. The Australian Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre funded an Accessible Tourism Research Agenda that sought to outline a research base on which to develop the supply and coordination/regulation information required to develop the market segment; the research agenda has now seen three other funded projects contribute towards a research base on which the tourism industry and government marketing authorities can make more informed decisions. As of 2008, there were more than 50 million persons with disabilities in Europe, more than 600 million around the world; when expanded to include all beneficiaries of accessible tourism, as defined above, the number grows to some 130 million people affected in Europe alone. According to the World Report on Disability by World Health Organization and the World Bank in 2011, over 1 billion of people in the world had some disability, of whom nearly 200 million experienced severe difficulty in functioning.
In addition to the social benefits, the market represents an opportunity for new investment and new service requirements provided by key players in the tourism sector. According to ENAT, the European Network for Accessible Tourism, accessible tourism includes: Barrier-free destinations: infrastructure and facilities Transport: by air and sea, suitable for all users High quality services: delivered by trained staff Activities, attractions: allowing participation in tourism by everyone Marketing, booking systems, web sites & services: information accessible to all Specific problems found by travellers or tourists with disabilities include: Europe and the United States of America are home to the majority of the existing companies in this niche. However, companies worldwide are starting to appear as the result of a growing need driven by senior tourism, due to increasing life expectancy in developed countries; the United States requires ADA compliant ramp access to all businesses and public places.
Portugal, the United Kingdom, Germany and other northern European countries are prepared to receive tourists in wheelchairs, to provide disability equipment and wheelchair accessible transport. With the growth of the internet, online travel planning is becoming more common, leading to the rise of online accessibility maps. Starting in 2016, Lonely Planet started offering online resources by country. Accessible tourism at the Open Directory Project
Tourism in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom is the world's 6th biggest tourist destination, with over 40 million visiting in 2018. US$31.93 billion was spent in the UK by foreign tourists in 2017. VisitBritain data shows that the USA remains the most valuable inbound market, with American visitors spending £2.1 billion in 2010. The number of travellers originating from Europe is much larger than those travelling from North America: 21.5 million compared to 3.5 million American/Canadian visitors. The country's principal tourist destinations are in London, e.g. the Tower of London is one of the most visited attractions in the country. Domestic tourism remains the biggest component of tourist spending in the UK, with 2008 expenditures totalling £21,881 million, according to VisitBritain; the national statistical agency estimates that there were 126 million trips made in 2009. The busiest period for domestic travel in the UK is during bank holidays and the summer months, with August being the busiest. There is a longstanding history in the UK of travel to coastal resorts such as Blackpool and Swansea, with many families staying at accommodation called holiday camps.
This tradition has faded due to competition from overseas package holiday operators, rising operational costs, changing demand which forced many holiday camps to close in the 1980s and 1990s. For more information on tourism in the United Kingdom please see the articles for the constituent parts of the UK: Tourism in England Tourism in Northern Ireland Tourism in Scotland Tourism in Wales Visa policy of the United Kingdom Official tourist guide to Britain
Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport
The Department for Digital, Culture and Sport is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England, some aspects of the media throughout the whole UK, such as broadcasting and internet. It has responsibility for the tourism and creative industries; the department was responsible for the delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games and the building of a Digital Economy. DCMS originates from the Department of National Heritage, which itself was created on 11 April 1992 out of various other departments, soon after the Conservative election victory; the former Ministers for the Arts and for Sport had been located in other departments. DNH was renamed as the Department for Culture and Sport on 14 July 1997, under the Premiership of Tony Blair, it was renamed to Department for Digital, Culture and Sport on 3 July 2017, staying DCMS under the Premiership of Theresa May to reflect the department's increased activity in the Digital sector. DCMS was the co-ordinating department for the successful bid by London to host the 2012 Olympics and appointed and oversees the agencies delivering the Games' infrastructure and programme, principally the Olympic Delivery Authority and LOCOG.
The June 2007 Cabinet reshuffle led to Tessa Jowell MP taking on the role of Paymaster General and Minister for the Cabinet Office while remaining Minister for the Olympics. Ministerial responsibility for the Olympics was shared with Ms Jowell in the Cabinet Office, but the staff of the Government Olympic Executive remained based in DCMS. Following the 2010 general election, ministerial responsibility for the Olympics returned to the Secretary of State. Although Jeremy Hunt's full title was Secretary of State for Culture, Olympics and Sport, the Department's name remained unchanged. On 4 September 2012, Hunt was appointed Health Secretary in a cabinet reshuffle and replaced by Maria Miller. Maria Miller resigned due to controversy over her expenses, her replacement was announced that day as Sajid Javid. After the 2015 general election, John Whittingdale was appointed as Secretary of State, tasked with initiating the BBC Charter review process. DCMS received full responsibility for the digital economy policy jointly held with BIS, sponsorship of the Information Commissioner's Office from the Ministry of Justice.
Whittingdale was replaced by Karen Bradley after the referendum on the UK's membership of the EU in July 2016. The Office for Civil Society moved from the Cabinet Office to DCMS as part of the same reshuffle. In January 2018, Matthew Hancock, previous Minister of State for Digital, was appointed Secretary of State as part of the Cabinet Reshuffle. On 9 July 2018, Jeremy Wright became the Secretary of State for Digital and Sport as part of the Cabinet Reshuffle, it is responsible for government policy in the following areas: The arts Broadcasting, including the BBC Internet and international ICT policy Telecommunications and broadband Civil society Charities Creative industries Advertising Arts market Design Fashion Film Music industry Publishing Historic environment Architecture and design Cultural property and heritage Digital economy Entertainment licensing Gambling and racing Press freedom and regulation Libraries Museums and galleries National Lottery Tourism Sport Olympics legacy Other responsibilities of DCMS include listing of historic buildings, scheduling of ancient monuments, export licensing of cultural goods, management of the Government Art Collection.
The Secretary of State has responsibility for the maintenance of the land and buildings making up the historic Royal Estate under the Crown Lands Act 1851. These inherited functions, which were once centralised in the Office of Works, are now delivered as follows: The Royal Parks are maintained by an executive agency within DCMS, the Royal Parks Agency; the Secretary of State for Culture retains legal responsibility for these palaces, but from 1 April 2012 this funding was amalgamated with the Civil List into a single Sovereign Grant administered by HM Treasury. DCMS continues to make a separate small grant to the Royal Household for the maintenance of Marlborough HouseThe Department has responsibility for state ceremonial occasions and royal funerals. However, responsibility for the Civil List element of Head of State expenditure and income from the separate Crown Estate remains with the Chancellor of the Exchequer. DCMS works jointly with the Department for Business and Skills on design issues, including sponsorship of the Design Council, on relations with the computer games and publishing industries.
DCMS organises the annual Remembrance Day Ceremony at the Cenotaph and has responsibility for providing humanitarian assistance in the event of a disaster. In the Government's response to the 7 July 2005 London bombings the department coordinated humanitarian support to the relatives of victims and arranged the memorial events. DCMS has supported cyber initiatives such as the UK Cyber Security Forum to support innovation in the cyber industry; the main offices are at 100 Parliament Street, occupying part of the building known as Government Offices Great George Street. The DCMS Ministers are as follows: The Permanent Secretary is Sarah Healey; the DCMS has policy responsibility for three statutory corporations and two public broadcasting authorities. These bodies and their operation are independent of Government po
Isle of Man
The Isle of Man, sometimes referred to as Mann, is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann and is represented by a lieutenant governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom; the island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century AD, the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged. In 627, Edwin of Northumbria conquered the Isle of Man along with most of Mercia. In the 9th century, Norsemen established the Kingdom of the Isles. Magnus III, King of Norway, was King of Mann and the Isles between 1099 and 1103. In 1266, the island became part of Scotland after being ruled by Norway. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal lordship of the English Crown in 1399; the lordship revested into the British Crown in 1765, but the island never became part of the 18th-century Kingdom of Great Britain or its successors the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the present-day United Kingdom.
It retained its internal self-government. In 1881, the Isle of Man parliament, became the first national legislative body in the world to give women the right to vote in a general election, although this excluded married women. In 2016, the Isle of Man was awarded biosphere reserve status by UNESCO. Insurance and online gambling generate 17% of GNP each, followed by information and communications technology and banking with 9% each. Internationally, the Isle of Man is best known for the Isle of Man TT competition; the Manx name of the Isle of Man is Ellan Vannin: ellan is a Manx word meaning "island". The short form used in English, Mann, is derived from the Manx Mannin, though sometimes the name is written as Man; the earliest recorded Manx form of the name is Mana. The Old Irish form of the name is Mano. Old Welsh records named it as Manaw reflected in Manaw Gododdin, the name for an ancient district in north Britain along the lower Firth of Forth; the oldest known reference to the island calls it Mona, in Latin.
Latin references have Mevania or Mænavia, Eubonia or Eumonia by Irish writers. It is found in the Sagas of Icelanders as Mön; the name is cognate with the Welsh name of the island of Anglesey, Ynys Môn derived from a Celtic word for'mountain', from a Proto-Celtic *moniyos. The name was at least secondarily associated with that of Manannán mac Lir in Irish mythology. In the earliest Irish mythological texts, Manannán is a king of the otherworld, but the 9th-century Sanas Cormaic identifies a euhemerised Manannán as "a famous merchant who resided in, gave name to, the Isle of Man". A Manannán is recorded as the first king of Mann in a Manx poem; the island was cut off from the surrounding islands around 8000 BC, but was colonised by sea some time before 6500 BC. The first residents were fishermen. Examples of their tools are kept at the Manx Museum; the Neolithic Period marked the beginning of farming, megalithic monuments began to appear, such as Cashtal yn Ard near Maughold, King Orry's Grave at Laxey, Meayll Circle near Cregneash, Ballaharra Stones at St John's.
There were the local Ronaldsway and Bann cultures. During the Bronze Age, burial mounds became smaller. Bodies were put in stone-lined graves with ornamental containers; the Bronze Age burial mounds created long-lasting markers around the countryside. The ancient Romans knew of the island and called it Insula Manavia although it is uncertain whether they conquered the island. Around the 5th century AD, large-scale migration from Ireland precipitated a process of Gaelicisation evidenced by Ogham inscriptions, giving rise to the Manx language, a Goidelic language related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic. Vikings arrived at the end of the 8th century, they introduced many land divisions that still exist. In 1266 King Magnus VI of Norway ceded the islands to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth. In 1290 King Edward I of England sent Walter de Huntercombe to take possession of Mann, it remained in English hands until 1313, when Robert Bruce took it after besieging Castle Rushen for five weeks. A confused period followed when Mann was sometimes under English rule and sometimes Scottish, until 1346, when the Battle of Neville's Cross decided the long struggle between England and Scotland in England's favour.
English rule was delegated to a series of magnates. The Tynwald passed laws concerning the government of the island in all respects and had control over its finances, but was subject to the approval of the Lord of Mann. In 1866, the Isle of Man obtained limited home rule, with democratic elections to the House of Keys, but an appointed Legislative Council. Since democratic government has been extended; the Isle of Man has designated more than 250 historic sites as registered buildings. The Isle of Man is located in the middle of t