Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour, it was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo. Oslo is the governmental centre of Norway; the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is maritime trade in Europe; the city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies and maritime insurance brokers.
Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008, it was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living study; as of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467. The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million. The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.
This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population, in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included; as of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390. The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus; the city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y". To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre; the urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated.
Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 is built-up and 7 km2. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2; the city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838. It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842; the rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948. Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county; as defined in January 2004 by the city council ^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour; the old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" to avoid confusion; the Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo.
The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo Oslo hospital. The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate, it is derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered likely. Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros; the name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his etymology
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent; the mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is the case; the concentration of a solute in a solution is the mass of that solute expressed as a percentage of the mass of the whole solution. The term aqueous solution is. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; the particles of solute in a solution cannot be seen by the naked eye. A solution does not allow beams of light to scatter. A solution is stable; the solute from a solution cannot be separated by filtration. It is composed of only one phase. Homogeneous means. Heterogeneous means; the properties of the mixture can be uniformly distributed through the volume but only in absence of diffusion phenomena or after their completion.
The substance present in the greatest amount is considered the solvent. Solvents can be liquids or solids. One or more components present in the solution other; the solution has the same physical state as the solvent. If the solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under a given set of conditions. An example of a gaseous solution is air. Since interactions between molecules play no role, dilute gases form rather trivial solutions. In part of the literature, they are not classified as solutions, but addressed as mixtures. If the solvent is a liquid almost all gases and solids can be dissolved. Here are some examples: Gas in liquid: Oxygen in water Carbon dioxide in water – a less simple example, because the solution is accompanied by a chemical reaction. Note that the visible bubbles in carbonated water are not the dissolved gas, but only an effervescence of carbon dioxide that has come out of solution. Liquid in liquid: The mixing of two or more substances of the same chemistry but different concentrations to form a constant.
Alcoholic beverages are solutions of ethanol in water. Solid in liquid: Sucrose in water Sodium chloride or any other salt in water, which forms an electrolyte: When dissolving, salt dissociates into ions. Solutions in water are common, are called aqueous solutions. Non-aqueous solutions are. Counter examples are provided by liquid mixtures that are not homogeneous: colloids, emulsions are not considered solutions. Body fluids are examples for complex liquid solutions. Many of these are electrolytes. Furthermore, they contain solute molecules like urea. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are essential components of blood chemistry, where significant changes in their concentrations may be a sign of severe illness or injury. If the solvent is a solid gases and solids can be dissolved. Gas in solids: Hydrogen dissolves rather well in metals in palladium. Liquid in solid: Mercury in gold, forming an amalgam Water in solid salt or sugar, forming moist solids Hexane in paraffin wax Solid in solid: Steel a solution of carbon atoms in a crystalline matrix of iron atoms Alloys like bronze and many others Polymers containing plasticizers The ability of one compound to dissolve in another compound is called solubility.
When a liquid can dissolve in another liquid the two liquids are miscible. Two substances that can never mix to form a solution are said to be immiscible. All solutions have a positive entropy of mixing; the interactions between different molecules or ions may be energetically favored or not. If interactions are unfavorable the free energy decreases with increasing solute concentration. At some point the energy loss outweighs the entropy gain, no more solute particles can be dissolved. However, the point at which a solution can become saturated can change with different environmental factors, such as temperature and contamination. For some solute-solvent combinations a supersaturated solution can be prepared by raising the solubility to dissolve more solute, lowering it; the greater the temperature of the solvent, the more of a given solid solute it can dissolve. However, most gases and some compounds exhibit solubilities that decrease with increased temperature; such behavior is a result of an exothermic enthalpy of solution.
Some surfactants exhibit this behaviour. The solubility of liquids in liquids is less temperature-sensitive than that of solids or gases; the physical properties of compounds such as melting point and boiling point change when other compounds are added. Together they are called colligative properties. There are several ways to quantify the amount of one compound dissolved in the other compounds collectively called concentration. Examples include molarity, volume fraction, mole fraction; the properties of ideal solutions can be calculated by the linear combination of the properties of
Road bicycle racing
Road bicycle racing is the cycle sport discipline of road cycling, held on paved roads. Road racing is the most popular professional form of bicycle racing, in terms of numbers of competitors and spectators; the two most common competition formats are mass start events, where riders start and race to set finish point. Stage races or "tours" take multiple days, consist of several mass-start or time-trial stages ridden consecutively. Professional racing has been most popular in Western Europe, centered on France, Spain and the Low Countries. Since the mid-1980s the sport has diversified with professional races now held on all continents of the globe. Semi-professional and amateur races are held in many countries; the sport is governed by the Union Cycliste Internationale. As well as the UCI's annual World Championships for men and women, the biggest event is the Tour de France, a three-week race that can attract over 500,000 roadside supporters a day. Road racing in its modern form originated in the late 19th century.
It began as an organized sport in 1868. The sport was popular in the western European countries of France, Spain and Italy, some of those earliest road bicycle races remain among the sport's biggest events; these early races include Liège–Bastogne–Liège, Paris–Roubaix, the Tour de France, the Milan–San Remo and Giro di Lombardia, the Giro d'Italia, the Volta a Catalunya, the Tour of Flanders. They provided a template for other races around the world. Cycling has been part of the Summer Olympic Games since the modern sequence started in Athens in 1896; the most competitive and devoted countries since the beginning of 20th century were Belgium and Italy road cycling spread in Colombia, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal and Switzerland after World War II. However nowadays as the sport grows in popularity through globalization, countries such as Kazakhstan, Russia, South Africa, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Ireland and the United States continue to produce world-class cyclists. Single-day race distances may be as long as 180 miles.
Courses may run from place to comprise one or more laps of a circuit. Races over short circuits in town or city centres, are known as criteriums; some races, known as handicaps, ages. Individual time trial is an event in which cyclists race alone against the clock on flat or rolling terrain, or up a mountain road. A team time trial, including two-man team time trial, is a road-based bicycle race in which teams of cyclists race against the clock. In both team and individual time trials, the cyclists start the race at different times so that each start is fair and equal. Unlike individual time trials where competitors are not permitted to'draft' behind each other, in team time trials, riders in each team employ this as their main tactic, each member taking a turn at the front while teammates'sit in' behind. Race distances vary from a few km to between 20 miles and 60 miles. Stage races consist of stages, ridden consecutively; the competitor with the lowest cumulative time to complete all stages is declared the overall, or general classification, winner.
Stage races may have other classifications and awards, such as individual stage winners, the points classification winner, the "King of the Mountains" winner. A stage race can be a series of road races and individual time trials; the stage winner is the first person to cross the finish line that day or the time trial rider with the lowest time on the course. The overall winner of a stage race is the rider who takes the lowest aggregate time to complete all stages. Three-week stage races are called Grand Tours; the professional road bicycle racing calendar includes three Grand Tours - the Giro d'Italia, the Tour de France, the Vuelta a Espana. Ultra-distance cycling races are long single stage events where the race clock continuously runs from start to finish, they last several days and the riders take breaks on their own schedules, with the winner being the first one to cross the finish line. Among the best-known ultramarathons is the Race Across America, a coast-to-coast non-stop, single-stage race in which riders cover 3,000 miles in about a week.
The race is sanctioned by the UltraMarathon Cycling Association. RAAM and similar events allow racers to be supported by a team of staff. A number of tactics are employed to reach the objective of a race; this objective is being the first to cross the finish line in the case of a single-stage race, clocking the least aggr
The krone, plural kroner, is the currency of Norway and its dependent territories. It is subdivided into 100 øre, which have existed only electronically since 2012; the name translates into English as crown. The krone was the thirteenth most traded currency in the world by value in April 2010, down three positions from 2007; the krone was introduced in 1875, replacing the Norwegian speciedaler/spesidaler at a rate of 4 kroner = 1 speciedaler. In doing so, Norway joined the Scandinavian Monetary Union, established in 1873; the Union persisted until 1914. After its dissolution, Denmark and Sweden all decided to keep the names of their respective and since separate currencies. Within the Scandinavian Monetary Union, the krone was on a gold standard of 2,480 kroner = 1 kilogram of pure gold; this gold standard was restored between 1916 and 1920 and again in 1928. It was suspended permanently in 1931, when a peg to the British pound of 19.9 kroner = 1 pound was established.. In 1939, Norway pegged the krone temporarily to the U.
S. dollar at a rate of 4.4 kroner = 1 dollar. Nonetheless, Norway would continue to hold the Kingdom's gold reserves. During the German occupation in the Second World War, the krone was pegged to the Reichsmark at a rate of 1 krone = 0.6 Reichsmark reduced to 0.57. After the war, a rate of 20 kroner = 1 pound was established; the rate to the pound was maintained in 1949, when the pound devalued relative to the U. S. dollar, leading to a rate of 7.142 kroner = 1 U. S. dollar. In December 1992, the Central Bank of Norway abandoned the fixed exchange rate in favor of a floating exchange rate due to the heavy speculation against the Norwegian currency in the early 1990s, which lost the central bank around two billion kroner in defensive purchases of the NOK through usage of foreign currency reserves for a short period of time. In 1875, coins were introduced in denominations of 1 and 10 kroner; these coins bore the denomination in the previous currency, as 3, 15, 30 skillings and 2½ specidaler. Between 1875 and 1878, the new coinage was introduced in full, in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 øre and 1, 2, 10 kroner.
The 1, 2, 5 øre were struck in bronze. The last gold coins were issued in 1910. Between 1917 and 1921, iron temporarily replaced bronze. 1917 saw the last issuance of 2 kroner coins. During the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War, zinc was used in place of cupro-nickel in 10, 25, 50 øre coins, production of the 1 krone piece was suspended. In 1963, 5 kroner coins were introduced. Production of 1 and 2 øre coins ceased in 1972; the following year, the size of the 5 øre coin was reduced. Ten-kroner coins were introduced in 1983. In 1992, the last 10 øre coins were minted. Between 1994 and 1998, a new coinage was introduced, consisting of 50 øre, 1, 5, 10, 20 kroner; these are the only coins which are legal tender, with the exception of the 50-øre coin, withdrawn on 1 May 2012. It was withdrawn. However, banks in Norway will still exchange 50 øre coins for higher values until 2022; the 10- and 20-kroner coins carry the effigy of the current monarch. The 1- and 5-kroner coins carried the royal effigy, but now these denominations are decorated only with stylistic royal or national symbols.
The royal motto of the monarch is inscribed on the 10-kroner coin. Coins and banknotes of the Norwegian krone are distributed by the Central Bank of Norway. Up to 25 coins of any single denomination is considered tvungent betalingsmiddel—a recognized method of payment, in which the intended recipient can not refuse payment, according to Norwegian law; the characteristics of the 10 Syrian pound coin have been found to so resemble the 20 Norwegian kroner coin that it can fool vending machines, coins-to-cash machines, arcade machines, any other coin-operated, automated service machine in the country. Whilst they are hardly similar to the naked eye, machines are unable to tell the coins apart, owing to their identical weight and size; as of mid February 2017, 10 Syrian pounds were worth 39 øre, making the 20-kroner coin 51.5 times more valuable than the 10-pound coin. While not easy to find in Norway, the Syrian coins are still used in automated machines there with such frequency that Posten Norge, the Norwegian postal service, decided to close many of their coins-to-cash machines on 18 February 2006, with plans to develop a system able to differentiate between the two coins.
In the summer of 2005, a Norwegian man was sentenced to 30 days, for having used Syrian coins in arcade machines in the municipality of Bærum. In 1877, Norges Bank introduced notes for 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 kroner. In 1917, 1-krone notes were issued, 2-kroner notes were issued between 1918 and 1922; because of metal shortages, 1- and 2-kroner notes were again issued between 1940 and 1950. In 1963, 5-kroner notes were replaced by coins, with the same happening to the 10-kroner notes in 1984. 200-kroner notes were introduced in 1994. Sources: The value of Norwegian krone compared to other currencies varies from one year to another based on changes in oil prices and interest rates. In 2002 the Norwegian kro
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Team Jumbo–Visma is a men's professional bicycle racing team, successor of the former Rabobank. The team consists of three sections: ProTeam and Cyclo-cross; the cycling team was founded for the 1984 season under the name Kwantum–Decosol, anchored by Jan Raas, with cyclists coming from the TI–Raleighcycling team. With Raas as directeur sportif from 1985 onwards, the head sponsor was succeeded by Superconfex, Buckler and Novell before Raas signed a contract with Rabobank, a Dutch association of credit unions, in 1996. After Rabobank sponsorship ended in 2012, it was known as Blanco and Lotto-Jumbo. Since 1984, the team has entered every Tour de France and since the introduction of divisions in 1998, the team has always been in the first division. A 2012 investigation by Dutch newspaper de Volkskrant concluded that doping was at least tolerated, from the team's 1996 beginnings as Rabobank until at least 2007. In road bicycle racing, teams take name from their main sponsors. Team LottoNL–Jumbo has had the following sponsors, thus names.
After the season of 1983, the TI–Raleigh team split up because of tension between former world champion Jan Raas and team leader Peter Post, with seven cyclists following Post to the new Panasonic-team and six cyclists joining Raas to the Kwantum team. The team captains of the Kwantum team were Jan Gisbers and Walter Godefroot. In their first year, the team managed to win the intermediate sprints classification and one stage in the 1984 Tour de France, the Amstel Gold Race and the Dutch national road championship. After the 1984 season, Jan Raas became team manager. In 1985 the Kwantum team had a successful year. Victories included two Tour de France stages, the Tour of Luxembourg, Paris–Tours, Paris–Brussels, the Tirreno–Adriatico, the Tour of Belgium, again the Dutch national road championship, the World cycling championship. 1986 was less successful. For the 1987 season, the main sponsor became Superconfex. In that year, the team was known as Superconfex – Kwantum – Yoko – Colnago. Jan Raas remained the team leader.
After a victory in Kuurne–Brussels–Kuurne for Ludo Peeters, the new sprinter Jean-Paul van Poppel gave the team a great year, with three stage wins in the Tour de France and the victory in the points classification in the Tour de France for Jean-Paul van Poppel. Joop Zoetemelk ended his career with a victory in the Amstel Gold Race. From 1988 on, the team was known as Superconfex – Yoko – Opel – Colnago. 1988 was a successful season for the team, with victories in Paris–Brussels, the Tour of Ireland, the Tour of Belgium, the Amstel Gold Race, six stages in the Tour de France. In the 1989 season, Jean-Paul van Poppel changed to the Panasonic team. In 1989 his sprinting capacities were missed, the number of victories was reduced. Still, Paris–Brussels, the Tour of Flanders and Paris–Tours were won, together with two stages in the 1989 Tour de France. After the 1989 season, the main sponsoring was taken over by Buckler; the Tour of Belgium was won again, the Ronde van Nederland was won as well. That year, the team had the winner of the Dutch national road race championships again, as Peter Winnen won the race.
In 1991, the team won the Ronde van Nederland and Tour of Flanders. The team had taken over Steven Rooks from the Panasonic team, who became the Dutch national road race champion; the worst year in the team's history was 1992. Only 26 races were won compared to 64 victories in the successful 1988 season. 1992 saw a young Erik Dekker entering the team. After that season, Buckler decided to stop sponsoring. A new sponsor was found in WordPerfect. Steven Rooks left the team, Raúl Alcalá joined the team. Still, the 1993 season did not turn out a great season, with only 29 victories, the most important being Three Days of De Panne and the Tour DuPont. In 1993 and 1994, Michael Boogerd and Leon van Bon started their professional career in the team, Viatcheslav Ekimov came; the Tour du Pont was won together with the Tour of Luxembourg. The year still was disappointing with only 25 victories. In 1995, the team was joined by Djamolidine Abdoujaparov, the winner of the points classification in the 1994 Tour de France.
Abdoujaparov won one stage in the Tour de France, but other than that, the year was still not what the sponsors had hoped, so a new sponsor had to be found. The title sponsor of the previous two years, WordPerfect, was a product of Novell Software, which carried the team's name this one season. Raas became the team manager of the Rabobank team while Theo de Rooy, Adrie van Houwelingen and Zoetemelk were directeur sportifs; as a Dutch cycling team, the team has signed many of the prominent Dutch cyclists of the 1990s including Adrie van der Poel, Richard Groenendaal and Erik Breukink as well as keeping the prominent Dutch cyclists from the Novell team that included Leon van Bon, Erik Dekker and Michael Boogerd. In addition, the team had many successful cyclists in Edwig van Hooydonck, Rolf Sørensen, Johan Bruyneel and the neo-pro for the 1996 season Australian Robbie McEwen; the Rabobank team has dominated the Dutch National championships over several disciplines in cycling for example Elite and Under 23 time trial championships and Under 23 Road Race and Under 23 Cyclo-cross disciplines as well as Mountain Bike championships.
The team has had the World Champion in several categories for example Cyclo-cross. Ósca