Abakan is the capital city of the Republic of Khakassia, located in the central part of Minusinsk Depression, at the confluence of the Yenisei and Abakan Rivers. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 165,214—a slight increase over 165,197 recorded during the 2002 Census and a further increase from 154,092 recorded during the 1989 Census. Abakansky ostrog known as Abakansk, was built at the mouth of the Abakan River in 1675. In the 1780s, the selo of Ust-Abakanskoye was established in this area, it was granted town status and given its current name on April 30, 1931. In 1940, Russian construction workers found ancient ruins during the construction of a highway between Abakan and Askiz; when the site was excavated by Soviet archaeologists in 1941–1945, they realized that they had discovered a building unique for the area: a large Chinese-style Han Dynasty era palace. The identity of the high-ranking personage who lived luxuriously in Chinese style, far outside of the borders of the Han Empire, has remained a matter for discussion since.
Russian archaeologist L. A. Yevtyukhova surmised, based on circumstantial evidence, that the palace may have been the residence of Li Ling, a Chinese general, defeated by the Xiongnu in 99 BCE, defected to them as a result. While this opinion has remained popular, other views have been expressed as well. More for example, it was claimed by A. A. Kovalyov as the residence of Lu Fang, a Han throne pretender from the Guangwu era. In the late 18th and during the 19th century, Lithuanian participants in the 1794, 1830–1831, 1863 rebellions against Russian rule were exiled to Abakan. A group of camps was established. After Stalin's death, Lithuanian exiles from the nearby settlements moved in. Abakan is the capital of the republic. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the City of Abakan—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts As a municipal division, the City of Abakan is incorporated as Abakan Urban Okrug; the city has a river port, industry enterprises, Katanov State University of Khakasia, three theatres.
Furthermore, it has a commercial center that produces footwear and metal products. Abakan was a terminal of the major Abakan-Taishet Railway. Now it is an important railway junction; the city is served by the Abakan International Airport. The 100th Air Assault Brigade of the Russian Airborne Troops was based in the city until circa 1996. Abakan's sites of interest include: Holy Transfiguration Cathedral "Good Angel of Peace" sculpture Park of Topiary Art Khakasskiy Natsional'nyy Krayevedcheskiy Muzey Im. L.r. Kyzlasova Bandy, similar to hockey, is the one of the most popular sports in the city. Sayany-Khakassia was playing in the top-tier Super League in the 2012–13 season but was relegated for the 2013–14 season and has been playing in the Russian Bandy Supreme League since. Russian Government Cup was played here in 1988 and in 2012. Abakan has a borderline humid continental /cold semi-arid climate. Temperature differences between seasons are extreme, typical for Siberia. Precipitation is concentrated in the summer and is less common because of rain shadow from nearby mountains.
Official website of Abakan Unofficial website of Abakan Tourist Information Centre of the Republic of Khakassia Abakan live cam Abakan city streets views Beyaz Arif Akbas, "Khakassia: The Lost Land", Portland State Center for Turkish Studies, 2007
RT (TV network)
RT is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government. It operates pay television channels directed to audiences outside of Russia, as well as providing Internet content in English, French, German and Russian. RT International, based in Moscow, presents around-the-clock news bulletins, talk shows, sports news, cultural programmes that it says provide "a Russian viewpoint on major global events". RT operates as a multilingual service with conventional channels in five languages: the original English-language channel was launched in 2005, the Arabic-language channel in 2007, Spanish in 2009, German in 2014 and French in 2017. RT America, RT UK, other regional channels offer some locally based content. RT is a brand of "TV-Novosti", an "autonomous non-profit organization", founded by the Russian news agency, RIA Novosti, on 6 April 2005. During the economic crisis in December 2008, the Russian government, headed by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, included ANO "TV-Novosti" on its list of core organizations of strategic importance of Russia.
RT has been described as a propaganda outlet for the Russian government and its foreign policy. RT has been accused of spreading disinformation by news reporters, including some former RT reporters; the United Kingdom media regulator, has found RT to have breached its rules on impartiality and of broadcasting "materially misleading" content. RT's editor-in-chief compared it with the Russian Army and Defence Ministry, talked about it "waging the information war against the entire Western world." September 2017, RT America was ordered to register as a "foreign agent" with the United States Department of Justice under the Foreign Agents Registration Act. Under the act, RT will be required to disclose financial information; the creation of RT was a part of a larger public relations effort by the Russian Government in 2005, intended to improve the image of Russia abroad. RT was conceived by former media minister Mikhail Lesin, Russian president Vladimir Putin's press spokesperson Aleksei Gromov. At the time of RT's founding, RIA Novosti director Svetlana Mironyuk stated: "Unfortunately, at the level of mass consciousness in the West, Russia is associated with three words: communism and poverty," and added "we would like to present a more complete picture of life in our country."
It is registered as an autonomous nonprofit organization funded by the federal budget of Russia through the Federal Agency on Press and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation. In 2005, RIA Novosti helped establish ANO TV-Novosti to serve as the parent organization for the planned channel. ANO TV-Novosti was registered on 6 April 2005. ANO TV-Novosti appointed Sergey Frolov as its CEO position. At its launch, the channel employed 300 journalists, including 70 from outside Russia. Russia Today appointed Margarita Simonyan as its editor-in-chief, who recruited foreign journalists as presenters and consultants. Simonyan stated that the channel's intent was to have a "professional format" akin to the BBC and Euronews that would "reflect Russia's opinion of the world" and present a "more balanced picture" of Russia. Simonyan, only 25 years old at the time of her hiring by the channel, was a former Kremlin pool reporter and had worked in journalism since she was 18, she told The New York Times that after the fall of the Soviet Union, many new young journalists were hired, resulting in a much younger pool of staffers than other news organizations.
Journalist Danny Schechter has stated that having been part of the launch staff at CNN, he saw RT as another "channel of young people who are inexperienced, but enthusiastic about what they are doing." Shortly after the channel was launched, James Painter wrote that RT and similar news channels such as France 24 and TeleSUR saw themselves as "counter-hegemonic", offering a differing vision and news content from that of Western media like the CNN and the BBC. RT launched several new channels in ensuing years: the Arabic language channel Rusiya Al-Yaum in 2007, the Spanish language channel RT Actualidad in 2009, RT America – which focuses on the United States – in 2010, the RT Documentary channel in 2011. In August 2007, Russia Today became the first television channel to report live from the North Pole. An RT crew participated in the Arktika 2007 Russian polar expedition, led by Artur Chilingarov on the Akademik Fyodorov icebreaker. On 31 December 2007, RT's broadcasts of New Year's Eve celebrations in Moscow and Saint Petersburg were broadcast in the hours prior to the New Year's Eve event at New York City's Times Square.
RT drew particular attention worldwide for its coverage of the 2008 South Ossetia war. RT named Georgia as the aggressor against the separatist governments of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, which were protected by Russian troops. RT saw this as the incident. Margarita Simonyan stated, "we were the only ones among the English-language media who were giving the other side of the story – the South Ossetian side of the story."In 2009, Russia Today rebranded itself to the "RT" initials. Simonyan denied that the name change was an attempt to hide its Russian origins, stating the corporate logo was changed to attract more viewers and commenting, "who is interested in watching news from Russia all day long?"In early 2010, RT unveiled a controversial advertising campaign called "Question More", created for the channel by Britain-based McCann Erickson
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established after the 1917 October Revolution; the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; the Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan. During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote: "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and, to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army."
At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. 23% of the male population of the Russian Empire were mobilized. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters, 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million. While the Imperial Russian Army was being taken apart, "it became apparent that the rag-tag Red Guard units and elements of the imperial army who had gone over the side of the Bolsheviks were quite inadequate to the task of defending the new government against external foes." Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Its role being the defense "of the Soviet authority, the creation of a basis for the transformation of the standing army into a force deriving its strength from a nation in arms, furthermore, the creation of a basis for the support of the coming Socialist Revolution in Europe."
Enlistment was conditional upon "guarantees being given by a military or civil committee functioning within the territory of the Soviet Power, or by party or trade union committees or, in extreme cases, by two persons belonging to one of the above organizations." In the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a "collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary." Because the Red Army was composed of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army; the Council of People's Commissars appointed itself the supreme head of the Red Army, delegating command and administration of the army to the Commissariat for Military Affairs and the Special All-Russian College within this commissariat. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy.
Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as people's commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked: "We have no army; the demoralized soldiers are fleeing, panic-stricken, as soon as they see a German helmet appear on the horizon, abandoning their artillery and all war material to the triumphantly advancing enemy. The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies. We have no power to stay the enemy; the Russian Civil War occurred in three periods: October 1917 – November 1918: From the Bolshevik Revolution to the First World War Armistice, developed from the Bolshevik government's nationalization of traditional Cossack lands in November 1917. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledin's Volunteer Army in the River Don region; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics.
The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in which twelve foreign countries supported anti-Bolshevik militias. A series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. January 1919 – November 1919: Initially the White armies advanced: from the south, under General Anton Denikin; the Whites defeated the Red Army on each front. Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked: the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchak's army in June, the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-Nove
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that the non-physical essence of a living being starts a new life in a different physical form or body after biological death. It is called rebirth or transmigration, is a part of the Saṃsāra doctrine of cyclic existence, it is a central tenet of Indian religions, namely Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism, although there are Hindu groups that do not believe in reincarnation but believe in an afterlife. A belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras and Plato, it is a common belief of various ancient and modern religions such as Spiritism and Eckankar, as an esoteric belief in many streams of Orthodox Judaism. It is found as well in some tribal societies around the world, in places such as Australia and South America. Although the majority of denominations within Christianity and Islam do not believe that individuals reincarnate, particular groups within these religions do refer to reincarnation; the historical relations between these sects and the beliefs about reincarnation that were characteristic of Neoplatonism, Hermeticism and Gnosticism of the Roman era as well as the Indian religions have been the subject of recent scholarly research.
Unity Church and its founder Charles Fillmore teaches reincarnation. In recent decades, many Europeans and North Americans have developed an interest in reincarnation, many contemporary works mention it; the word "reincarnation" derives from Latin meaning, "entering the flesh again". The Greek equivalent metempsychosis derives from meta and empsykhoun, a term attributed to Pythagoras. An alternate term is transmigration implying migration from one life to another. Reincarnation refers to the belief that an aspect of every human being continues to exist after death, this aspect may be the soul or mind or consciousness or something transcendent, reborn in an interconnected cycle of existence; the term has been used by modern philosophers such as Kurt Gödel and has entered the English language. Another Greek term sometimes used synonymously is palingenesis, "being born again". Rebirth is a key concept found in major Indian religions, discussed with various terms. Punarjanman means "rebirth, transmigration".
Reincarnation is discussed in the ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism and Jainism, with many alternate terms such as punarāvṛtti, punarājāti, punarjīvātu, punarbhava, āgati-gati, nibbattin and uppajjana. These religions believe that this reincarnation is cyclic and an endless Saṃsāra, unless one gains spiritual insights that ends this cycle leading to liberation; the reincarnation concept is considered in Indian religions as a step that starts each "cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence", but one, an opportunity to seek spiritual liberation through ethical living and a variety of meditative, yogic, or other spiritual practices. They consider the release from the cycle of reincarnations as the ultimate spiritual goal, call the liberation by terms such as moksha, nirvana and kaivalya. However, the Buddhist and Jain traditions have differed, since ancient times, in their assumptions and in their details on what reincarnates, how reincarnation occurs and what leads to liberation.
Gilgul, Gilgul neshamot or Gilgulei Ha Neshamot is the concept of reincarnation in Kabbalistic Judaism, found in much Yiddish literature among Ashkenazi Jews. Gilgul means "cycle" and neshamot is "souls". Kabbalistic reincarnation says that humans reincarnate only to humans and to the same sex only: men to men, women to women; the origins of the notion of reincarnation are obscure. Discussion of the subject appears in the philosophical traditions of India; the Greek Pre-Socratics discussed reincarnation, the Celtic Druids are reported to have taught a doctrine of reincarnation. The idea of reincarnation did not exist in early Indian religions; the concepts of the cycle of birth and death and liberation derive from ascetic traditions that arose in India around the second half of the first millennium BCE. Though no direct evidence of this has been found, the tribes of the Ganges valley or the Dravidian traditions of South India have been proposed as another early source of reincarnation beliefs.
But the religions of southern India, like the ancient historical Vedic religion in the North, the Dravidian folk religions do not have the concept of reincarnation. The Vedas, does not mention the doctrine of Karma and rebirth but mention the belief in an afterlife, it is in the early Upanishads, which are pre-Buddha and pre-Mahavira, where these ideas are beginning to develope. Detailed descriptions first appear around the mid 1st millennium BCE in diverse traditions, including Buddhism and various schools of Hindu philosophy, each of which gave unique expression to the general principle; the texts of ancient Jainism that have survived into the modern era are post-Mahavira from the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE, extensively mention rebirth and karma doctrines. The Jaina philosophy assumes that the soul exists and is eternal, passing through cycle
Western esotericism called esotericism and sometimes the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society. These ideas and currents are united by the fact that they are distinct both from orthodox Judeo-Christian religion and from Enlightenment rationalism. Esotericism has pervaded various forms of Western philosophy, pseudoscience, art and music, continuing to affect intellectual ideas and popular culture; the idea of grouping a wide range of Western traditions and philosophies together under the category, now termed esotericism developed in Europe during the late seventeenth century. Various academics have debated how to define Western esotericism, with a number of different options proposed. One scholarly model adopts its definition of "esotericism" from certain esotericist schools of thought themselves, treating "esotericism" as a perennialist hidden, inner tradition.
A second perspective sees esotericism as a category that encompasses movements which embrace an "enchanted" world-view in the face of increasing disenchantment. A third views Western esotericism as a category encompassing all of Western culture's "rejected knowledge", accepted neither by the scientific establishment nor by orthodox religious authorities; the earliest traditions which analysis would label as forms of Western esotericism emerged in the Eastern Mediterranean during Late Antiquity, where Hermetism and Neoplatonism developed as schools of thought distinct from what became mainstream Christianity. Renaissance Europe saw increasing interest in many of these older ideas, with various intellectuals combining "pagan" philosophies with the Kabbalah and Christian philosophy, resulting in the emergence of esoteric movements like Christian theosophy; the seventeenth century saw the development of initiatory societies professing esoteric knowledge such as Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry, while the Age of Enlightenment of the eighteenth century led to the development of new forms of esoteric thought.
The nineteenth century saw the emergence of new trends of esoteric thought that have come to be known as occultism. Prominent groups in this century included the Theosophical Society and the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Modern Paganism developed within occultism, includes religious movements such as Wicca. Esoteric ideas permeated the counterculture of the 1960s and cultural tendencies, from which emerged the New Age phenomenon in the 1970s. Although the idea that these varying movements could be categorised together under the rubric of "Western esotericism" developed in the late eighteenth century, these esoteric currents were ignored as a subject of academic enquiry; the academic study of Western esotericism only emerged in the late twentieth-century, pioneered by scholars like Frances Yates and Antoine Faivre. Esoteric ideas have meanwhile exerted an influence in popular culture, appearing in art, literature and music; the concept of the "esoteric" originated in the second century AD with the coining of the Ancient Greek adjective esôterikós.
The term "esotericism" thus came into use in the wake of the Age of Enlightenment and of its critique of institutionalised religion, during which time alternative religious groups began to disassociate themselves from the dominant Christianity in Western Europe. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the term "esotericism" came to be seen as something, distinct from Christianity, which had formed a subculture, at odds with the Christian mainstream from at least the time of the Renaissance; the French occultist and ceremonial magician Eliphas Lévi popularized the term in the 1850s, Theosophist Alfred Percy Sinnett introduced it into the English language in his book Esoteric Buddhism. Lévi introduced the term l'occultisme, a notion that he developed against the background of contemporary socialist and Catholic discourses. "Esotericism" and "occultism" were employed as synonyms until scholars distinguished the concepts. The concept of "Western esotericism" is a modern scholarly construct rather than a pre-existing, self-defined tradition of thought.
In the late seventeenth century, several European Christian thinkers presented the argument that certain traditions of Western philosophy and thought could be categorised together, thus establishing the category, now called "Western esotericism". The first to do so was de: Ehregott Daniel Colberg, a German Lutheran who wrote Platonisch-Hermetisches Christianity. A hostile critic of various currents of Western thought that had emerged since the Renaissance—among them Paracelsianism and Christian theosophy—in his book he labelled all of these traditions under the category of "Platonic–Hermetic Christianity", arguing that they were heretical to what he saw as true Christianity. Despite his hostile attitude toward these traditions of thought, he was the first to connect these disparate philosophies and study them under one rubric recognising that these ideas linked back to earlier philosophies from late antiquity. In Europe during the eighteenth century, amid the Age of Enlightenment, these esoteric traditions came to be categorised under the labels of "superstition", "magic", "the occult", terms which were used interchangeably.
Sergey Anatolyevitch Torop, known by his followers as Vissarion, is a Russian mystic and spiritual leader. He founded and heads a religious or spiritual movement known as the Church of the Last Testament with its head church in the Siberian Taiga in the Minusinsk Depression east of Abakan, in the southern Siberia Kuraginsk district of Krasnoyarsk territory, in the small settlement of Petropavlovka, he has around 4,000 followers living in around 10,000 followers worldwide. Vissarion claims to be a reincarnated Christ, he teaches reincarnation and apocalypse. On 18 August 1990, when he was 29, Vissarion claims that he had a revelation that he was the reincarnation of Christ, he first spoke publicly in Minusinsk on 18 August 1991. He founded the "Church of the Last Testament" known as "Community of Unified Faith". Vissarion was born in Krasnodar, he worked as a patrol officer before losing his job in 1989. He claims that in 1990 he was "reborn" as a returned Christ. In his system this does not make him God, but instead the word of God.
His religion combines elements of the Russian Orthodox Church with Buddhism, apocalypticism and ecological values. His followers observe strict regulations, are vegetarians, are allowed no vices such as smoking or drinking alcohol, money is banned; the aim of the group is to unite all religions on Earth. Vissarion formed his religion around the time of the fall of the USSR. Tiberkul, the settlement in the Taiga, was established in 1994 on a territory of 2.5 square kilometres, today the community spans several nearby villages as well, including villages of Petropavlovka and Cheremshanka, at ca. 53°53′N 93°45′E, counts some five thousand inhabitants living autochthonous and on ecological principles. The central settlement called The Town and The Mountain, has a three-tiered structure: the Town itself, the Heavenly Abode, the Temple Peak. In October 1995, the religious association of Vissarion registered as the "Church of the Last Testament". Vissarion has two wives, six children from two marriages.
He rejected his first wife and married a nineteen-year-old who had lived with him since she was a girl of seven. Vissarion has Irina. Though his biological mother is a woman named Nadyezhda, Vissarion considers Mary, mother of Jesus, as his own mother. Vissarion's cult is estimated to have some ten thousand adherents, with claims of up to 50,000 adherents in eighty-three communities spread over 150 square kilometers.. Since 1992, biographer Vadim Redkin has published an annual volume detailing Vissarion's activities. Vissarion has attracted a number of followers from Germany's esoteric subculture, seven volumes of Vadim's account have been translated into German. In May 2012, the Vice YouTube channel released "Cult Leader Thinks He's Jesus", containing a report by Rocco, a reporter for Vice in Petropavlovka, his interview with Vissarion; the video depicts the settlement and the people as a nice place with good people, but the ideas of the group as cultish. This was the first time. In a video released in January 2014 by RT, titled "Siberian'Messiah'", Vissarion predicts a great flood and promises salvation and spiritual perfection to his followers.
Christianity in Russia List of people who have claimed to be Jesus Official Russian-language website Russian-language Last Testament English-language website English-language Last Testament Vissarion Community International Portal Vissarion's Personal page Orthodox church and Vissarion Film of BBC A Long Weekend with The Son of God. Stanislav Krupar's photos of Vissarion community Globe and Mail: Jesus Lives The Washington Post: Novel Faiths Find Followers Among Russia's Disillusioned The Guardian on him Section in news about religion in Russia listed under "Sect in Siberia Sydney Morning Herald article ABC Nightline video and article Vice Guide to Travel: Jesus of Siberia Russian-language profile and critique Cult Leader Thinks He’s Jesus Reincarnated Jesus' Secluded Siberian Sect