Radio City Music Hall
Radio City Music Hall is an entertainment venue at 1260 Avenue of the Americas, within Rockefeller Center, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Nicknamed the Showplace of the Nation, it is the headquarters for the Rockettes, the precision dance company. Radio City Music Hall was built on a plot of land, intended for a Metropolitan Opera House; the opera house plans were canceled in 1929. Radio City Music Hall was designed by Edward Durell Donald Deskey in the Art Deco style. One of the more notable parts of the Music Hall is its large auditorium, the world's largest when the Hall first opened; the new complex included two theaters, the "International Music Hall" and the Center Theatre, as part of the "Radio City" portion of Rockefeller Center. The 5,960-seat Music Hall was the larger of the two venues, it was successful until the 1970s, when declining patronage nearly drove the Music Hall to bankruptcy. Radio City Music Hall was designated a New York City Landmark in May 1978, the Music Hall was restored and allowed to remain open.
The hall was extensively renovated in 1999. The Music Hall contains a variety of art. Although Radio City Music Hall was intended to host stage shows, it hosted performances in a film-and-stage-spectacle format through the 1970s, was the site of several movie premieres, it now hosts concerts, including by leading pop and rock musicians, live stage shows such as the Radio City Christmas Spectacular. The Music Hall has hosted televised events including the Grammy Awards, the Tony Awards, the Daytime Emmy Awards, the MTV Video Music Awards, the NFL Draft; the construction of Rockefeller Center occurred between 1932 and 1940 on land that John D. Rockefeller Jr. leased from Columbia University. The Rockefeller Center site was supposed to be occupied by a new opera house for the Metropolitan Opera. By 1928, Benjamin Wistar Morris and designer Joseph Urban were hired to come up with blueprints for the house. However, the new building was too expensive for the opera to fund by itself, it needed an endowment, the project gained the support of John D. Rockefeller Jr.
The planned opera house was canceled in December 1929 due to various issues, but Rockefeller made a deal with RCA to develop Rockefeller Center as a mass media complex with four theaters. This was downsized to two theaters. Samuel Roxy Rothafel, a successful theater operator, renowned for his domination of the city's theater industry, joined the center's advisory board in 1930, he offered to build two theaters: a large vaudeville "International Music Hall" on the northernmost block with more than 6,200 seats, the smaller 3,500-seat "RKO Roxy" movie theater on the southernmost block. The idea for these theaters was inspired by Roxy's failed expansion of the 5,920-seat Roxy Theatre on 50th Street, one and a half blocks away. Roxy envisioned an elevated promenade between the two theaters, but this was never published in any of the official blueprints. In September 1931, a group of NBC managers and architects went to tour Europe to find performers and look at theater designs. However, the group did not find any significant architectural details that they could use in the Radio City theaters.
In any case, Roxy's friend Peter B. Clark turned out to have much more innovative designs for the proposed theaters than the Europeans did. Roxy had a list of design requests for the Music Hall. First, he did not want the hall to have either a large balcony over the box seating, or rows of box seating facing each other, as implemented in opera houses; this resulted in a "tiered" balcony system where several shallow balconies were built at the back of the theater, cantilevered off the back wall. Second, Roxy specified that the stage contain a central section with three parts, so that the sets could be changed easily. Roxy wanted red seats because he believed it would make the theater successful, he wished for an auditorium with an oval shape because contemporary wisdom held that oval-shaped auditoriums had better acoustic qualities. He wanted to build at least 6,201 seats in the Music Hall so it would be larger than the Roxy Theatre. There were only 5,960 audience seats, but Roxy counted 6,201 seats by including elevator stools, orchestra pit seats, dressing-room chairs.
Despite Roxy's specific requests for design features, the Music Hall's general design was determined by the Associated Architects, the architectural consortium, designing the rest of Rockefeller Center. The Radio City Music Hall was designed by architect Edward Durell Stone and interior designer Donald Deskey in the Art Deco style. Stone used Indiana Limestone for the facade, as with all the other buildings in Rockefeller Center, but he included some distinguishing features. Three 90-foot-tall signs with the hall's name on it were placed on the facade, while intricately ornamented fire escapes were installed on the walls facing 50th and 51st Streets. Inside, Stone designed 165-foot-long Grand Foyer with a large staircase and mirrors, commissioned Ezra Winter for the grand foyer's 2,400-square-foot mural, "Quest for the Fountain of Eternal Youth". Deskey, was selected as part of a competition for interior designers for the Music Hall, he had called Winter's painting "God-awful" and regarded the interior and exterior as not much better.
To make the Music Hall presentable in his opinion, Deskey designed upholstery and furniture, custom to the Hall. Deskey's plan was regarded the best of 35 submissions, he used the rococo style in his interior design; the International Music Hall became the Radio City Music Hall. The names "Radio City" and "Radio
Van Cleave was a composer and orchestrator for film and radio. Born in Bayfield, Wisconsin, he played with big bands, including Doc Fenton and his Sooners and Al Katz and his Kittens, he moved to New York City where he led his own band in the early 1930s played trumpet and arranged music for Charlie Barnet's orchestra. In 1933, he married Doris Blumenfeld, a Broadway chorus girl and the child of vaudeville actors of the German Blumenfeld circus family, he studied music with music theorist Joseph Schillinger. He worked in radio, as a staff arranger for Paul Whiteman, Andre Kostelanetz, Fred Waring, for CBS Radio, he invented new record needles with improved sound, founded the Duotone company, which manufactured needles. In 1945, Van Cleave moved to Los Angeles to pursue his musical career, his film credits, as composer and orchestrator, include Cinerama Holiday, The Colossus of New York, Easter Parade, Funny Face, Robinson Crusoe on Mars, White Christmas. He composed the VistaVision Fanfare to accompany the opening of theatre curtains to the wide screen format.
In addition, he worked on many TV episodes of Gunsmoke and The Twilight Zone, where he pioneered the use of the theremin in television scores. In the Gunsmoke episode "The Quest for Asa Janin," the last episode of season 8, from June 1963, with music by Van Cleave, the five-note main theme used throughout 1964's Robinson Crusoe on Mars can be heard several times. Van Cleave on IMDb Nathan Van Cleave at Soundtrack, the Cinemascore & Soundtrack Archives. Retrieved 19 September 2014. "VistaVision Fanfare" Score at the University of Wyoming. American Heritage Center. Nathan Van Cleave papers
Richard Edlund, A. S. C. is a multi-Academy Award-winning US special effects cinematographer. Edlund was raised in Fergus Falls, Minnesota. After first joining the United States Navy, he developed an interest in experimental film and attended the USC School of Cinematic Arts in the late 1960s. On the strength of a couple of short films, he was picked by John Dykstra to work as first cameraman at the embryonic Industrial Light & Magic on the production on Star Wars for which he shared an Academy Award. Edlund continued to work with Dykstra on Battlestar Galactica but was invited back by George Lucas to work on The Empire Strikes Back. Edlund's considerable technical challenge on this film was to optically composite miniatures against a white background resulting in a second Academy Award. Edlund did distinguished work for Lucas and ILM on Raiders of the Lost Ark and Poltergeist. In 1983, following the completion of Return of the Jedi, Edlund set up his own effects company, Boss Films, whose credits include Ghostbusters, Big Trouble in Little China, Die Hard, The Hunt for Red October, Cliffhanger and Air Force One.
Boss Film Studios was one of the first traditional effects houses that transitioned from "tangible world" visual effects, to computer generated imagery, with many notable CGI artists beginning their careers at Boss. Aside from film-work, Edlund developed and manufactured the Pignose portable-style guitar amplifier. Edlund is married to the only daughter of entrepreneur Michael Kogan. Richard Edlund on IMDb Boss Film Studios Richard Edlund on IMDb "Richard Edlund", FilmReference.com
Edward Raymond Turner
Edward Raymond Turner was a pioneering British inventor and cinematographer. He produced the earliest known colour motion picture film footage Turner was born in 1873 in Clevedon, North Somerset, UK. In life and his wife Edith lived near the centre of Hounslow in West London; some of Turner's colour film experiments were carried out in the back garden of this house in Montague Road and showed his three young children, Alfred and Wilfrid. Turner died on 9 March 1903 of a heart attack. Following his death, film producer Charles Urban, financing Turner, asked George Albert Smith to continue his work. Turner is noted for his attempts to develop what is believed to be the first implemented colour motion picture system with financial backing from Frederick Marshall Lee later from Charles Urban. On 22 March 1899, while Turner was employed in the London workshop of colour photography pioneer Frederic E. Ives and Lee applied for a British patent on a 3-colour additive motion picture process, it was granted on 3 March 1900.
In September 1902, Urban bought out development. Turner's camera used a rotating disk of three colour filters to photograph colour separations on one roll of black-and-white film. A red, green or blue-filtered image was recorded on each successive frame of film; the finished film print was projected, three frames at a time, through the corresponding colour filters. The system suffered from two types of colour registration problems. First, because the three frames had not been photographed at the same time moving objects in the scene did not match up on the screen and appeared as a blurred jumble of false colours. Second, much worse, mechanical instabilities in the system caused serious overall registration problems, so that the three superimposed images ceaselessly jittered and wove about relative to each other; when Turner died in 1903, Urban passed on the development of the process to George Albert Smith in the hope of creating a commercially viable process. Smith however found the process unworkable, instead developed Kinemacolor, a simplified two-colour version that enjoyed a moderate commercial success for several years.
Turner's role in the development of colour film technology was not appreciated until the UK's National Media Museum produced digital colour composites of his 110-year-old test films and unveiled them publicly on 12 September 2012. The modern digital restoration allows present-day viewers to see a more successful combination of the three colour elements than was possible with the original mechanical projection system. List of colour film systems List of early colour feature films List of film formats Edward Raymond Turner on IMDb Lee and Turner on Timeline of Historical Film Colors, with primary and secondary sources and photographs of historical film prints. Edward Raymond Turner entry at Who's Who in Victorian Cinema
IMAX is a system of high-resolution cameras, film formats, film projectors and theaters known for having large screens with a tall aspect ratio and steep stadium seating. Graeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor, Robert Kerr, William C. Shaw were the co-founders of what would be named the IMAX Corporation, they developed the first IMAX cinema projection standards in the late 1960s and early 1970s in Canada. Unlike conventional projectors, the film runs horizontally so that the image width is greater than the width of the film; when IMAX was introduced, it was a radical change in the movie-going experience. Viewers were treated to the scene of a curved giant screen more than seven stories tall and steep stadium seating that made for a visually immersive experience, along with a sound system, far superior to the audio at typical theaters in the years prior to the advent of THX; some IMAX theaters have a dome screen geometry which can give the viewer an more immersive feel. Over the decades since its introduction, IMAX evolved to include "3D" stereoscopic films, introduced in January 1998, began to proliferate with a transition away from analog film into the digital era.
Beginning in May of 1991, a visceral dimension of the movie experience was added by having the audience's seats mounted on a full-motion platform as an amusement park ride in IMAX ride film theaters. Switching to digital projection, introduced in July 2008, came at a steep cost in image quality, with 2K projectors having an order of magnitude less resolution. Maintaining the same 7-story giant screen size would only make this loss more noticeable, so many new theaters were being built with smaller screen sizes, yet being marketed with the same brand name of "IMAX"; these newer theaters with the much lower resolution and much smaller screens were soon being referred to by the derogatory name "LieMAX" because the company did not make this major distinction clear to the public, going so far as to build the smallest "IMAX" screen having 10 times less area than the largest while persisting with the exact same brand name. Since 2002, some feature films have been converted into IMAX format for displaying in IMAX theatres, some have been shot in IMAX.
By late 2017, 1,302 IMAX theatre systems were installed in 1,203 commercial multiplexes, 13 commercial destinations, 86 institutional settings in 75 countries, with less than a quarter of these having the capability to show 70mm film at the resolution of the large format as conceived. The IMAX film standard uses 70 mm film run through the projector horizontally; this technique produces an area, nine times larger than the 35 mm format, three times larger than 70 mm film, run conventionally through the projector in a vertical orientation. The desire to increase the visual impact of film has a long history. In 1929, Fox introduced Fox Grandeur, the first 70 mm film format, but it fell from use. In the 1950s, the potential of 35 mm film to provide wider projected images was explored in the processes of CinemaScope and VistaVision, following multi-projector systems such as Cinerama. While impressive, Cinerama was difficult to install. During Expo 67 in Montreal, the National Film Board of Canada's In the Labyrinth and Ferguson's Man and the Polar Regions both used multi-projector, multi-screen systems.
Each encountered technical difficulties that led them to found a company called "Multiscreen", with a goal of developing a simpler approach. The single-projector/single-camera system they settled upon was designed and built by Shaw based upon a novel "Rolling Loop" film-transport technology purchased from Peter Ronald Wright Jones, a machine shop worker from Brisbane, Australia. Film projectors do not continuously flow the film in front of the bulb, but instead "stutter" the film travel so that each frame can be illuminated in a momentarily paused flicker; this requires a mechanical apparatus to stagger the travel of the film strip. The older technology of running 70 mm film vertically through the projector used only five sprocket perforations on the sides of each frame, however the IMAX method used fifteen perforations per frame; the previous mechanism was inadequate to handle this mechanical staggering, three time larger, so Jones's invention was necessary for the novel IMAX projector method with its horizontal film feed.
As it became clear that a single, large-screen image had more impact than multiple smaller ones and was a more viable product direction, Multiscreen changed its name to IMAX. Cofounder Graeme Ferguson explained how the name IMAX originated: "... the incorporation date September, 1967.... Came a year or two later. We first called the company Multiscreen Corporation because that, in fact, was what people knew us as.... After about a year, our attorney informed us that we could never trademark Multivision, it was too generic. It was a descriptive word; the words that you can copyright are words like Xerox or Coca-Cola. If the name is descriptive, you can't trademark it. So we were sitting at lunch one day in a Hungarian restaurant in Montreal and we worked out a name on a place mat on which we wrote all the possible names we could think of. We kept working with the idea of maximum image. We turned it around and came up with IMAX." The name change happened more than two years because a key patent filed on January 16, 1970, was assigned under the original name Multiscreen Corporation, Limited.
IMAX Chief Administration O
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating to 1916, followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the second major color process, after Britain's Kinemacolor, the most used color process in Hollywood from 1922 to 1952. Technicolor became known and celebrated for its saturated color, was most used for filming musicals such as The Wizard of Oz and Down Argentine Way, costume pictures such as The Adventures of Robin Hood and Gone with the Wind, animated films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Gulliver's Travels, Fantasia; as the technology matured it was used for less spectacular dramas and comedies. A film noir—such as Leave Her to Heaven or Niagara —was filmed in Technicolor. "Technicolor" is the trademark for a series of color motion picture processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, now a division of the French company Technicolor SA. The Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation was founded in Boston in 1914 by Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Frost Comstock, W. Burton Wescott.
The "Tech" in the company's name was inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where both Kalmus and Comstock received their undergraduate degrees and were instructors. Technicolor, Inc. was chartered in Delaware in 1921. Most of Technicolor's early patents were taken out by Comstock and Wescott, while Kalmus served as the company's president and chief executive officer; the term "Technicolor" has been used to describe at least five concepts: Technicolor: an umbrella company encompassing all of the below as well as other ancillary services. Technicolor labs: a collection of film laboratories across the world owned and run by Technicolor for post-production services including developing and transferring films in all major color film processes, as well as Technicolor's proprietary ones. Technicolor process or format: several custom image origination systems used in film production, culminating in the "three-strip" process in 1932. Technicolor IB printing: a process for making color motion picture prints that allows the use of dyes which are more stable and permanent than those formed in ordinary chromogenic color printing.
Used for printing from color separation negatives photographed on black-and-white film in a special Technicolor camera. Prints or Color by Technicolor: used from 1954 on, when Eastmancolor supplanted the three-film-strip camera negative method, while the Technicolor IB printing process continued to be used as one method of making the prints; this meaning of the name applies to nearly all Wikipedia articles about films made from 1954 onward in which Technicolor is named in the credits. Technicolor existed in a two-color system. In Process 1, a prism beam-splitter behind the camera lens exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white negative film one behind a red filter, the other behind a green filter; because two frames were being exposed at the same time, the film had to be photographed and projected at twice the normal speed. Exhibition required a special projector with two apertures, two lenses, an adjustable prism that aligned the two images on the screen; the results were first demonstrated to members of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in New York on February 21, 1917.
Technicolor itself produced the only movie made in Process 1, The Gulf Between, which had a limited tour of Eastern cities, beginning with Boston and New York on September 13, 1917 to interest motion picture producers and exhibitors in color. The near-constant need for a technician to adjust the projection alignment doomed this additive color process. Only a few frames of The Gulf Between, showing star Grace Darmond, are known to exist today. Convinced that there was no future in additive color processes, Comstock and Kalmus focused their attention on subtractive color processes; this culminated in what would be known as Process 2. As before, the special Technicolor camera used a beam-splitter that exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white film, one behind a green filter and one behind a red filter; the difference was that the two-component negative was now used to produce a subtractive color print. Because the colors were physically present in the print, no special projection equipment was required and the correct registration of the two images did not depend on the skill of the projectionist.
The frames exposed behind the green filter were printed on one strip of black-and-white film, the frames exposed behind the red filter were printed on another strip. After development, each print was toned to a color nearly complementary to that of the filter: orange-red for the green-filtered images, cyan-green for the red-filtered ones. Unlike tinting, which adds a uniform veil of color to the entire image, toning chemically replaces the black-and-white silver image with transparent coloring matter, so that the highlights remain clear, dark areas are colored, intermediate tones are colored proportionally; the two prints, made on film stock half the thickness of regular film, we