Pilot certification in the United States
Pilot certification in the United States is required for an individual to act as a pilot-in-command of an aircraft. It is regulated by the Federal Aviation Administration, a branch of the U. S. Department of Transportation. A pilot is certified under the authority of Parts 61, under 141 of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations known as the Federal Aviation Regulations, or under part 107 rules for drone operation. An FAA-issued pilot certificate is evidence that an individual is duly authorized to exercise piloting privileges; the pilot certificate is one of several kinds of airman certificates issued by the FAA. A pilot is certificated to fly aircraft at one or more named privilege levels and, at each privilege level, rated to fly aircraft of specific categories. Privilege levels of pilot certificates are, in order of increasing privilege: Student Pilot: an individual, learning to fly under the tutelage of a flight instructor and, permitted to fly alone under specific, limited circumstances Sport Pilot: an individual, authorized to fly only Light-sport Aircraft Remote Pilot: an individual who may fly small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for compensation or hire Recreational Pilot: an individual who may fly aircraft of up to 180 horsepower and 4 seats in the daytime for pleasure only Private Pilot: an individual who may fly for pleasure or personal business without accepting compensation Commercial Pilot: an individual who may, with some restrictions, fly for compensation or hire Airline Transport Pilot: an individual authorized to act as pilot for a scheduled airline.
Pilots can be rated in these aircraft categories: Airplane Rotorcraft Glider Lighter than air Powered lift Powered parachute Weight-shift controlMost aircraft categories are further broken down into classes. If a category is so divided, a pilot must hold a class rating to operate an aircraft in that class: The Airplane category is divided into single-engine land, multi-engine land, single-engine sea, multi-engine sea classes The Rotorcraft category is divided into helicopter and gyroplane classes The Lighter-than-air category is divided into airship and balloon classes The Powered parachute category is divided into powered parachute land and powered parachute sea The Weight-shift-control category is divided into weight-shift-control land and weight-shift-control seaA student pilot certificate does not list category or class ratings but is instead endorsed by a flight instructor to confer privileges in specific makes and models of aircraft. A type rating is required in a specific make and model of aircraft if the aircraft weighs more than 12,500 lb at takeoff or is powered by one or more turbojet engines.
The Boeing 747, Beechcraft Super King Air 350, the Hawker Hunter are examples of aircraft that require type ratings. To operate under instrument flight rules, a pilot can separately add an instrument rating to a private or commercial certificate. An airline transport pilot implicitly holds an instrument rating, so the instrument rating does not appear on an ATP certificate; the FAA issues instrument ratings separately for airplane and powered lift categories and the helicopter class. Glider and airship pilots may operate under Instrument Flight Rules under certain circumstances. An individual may hold only one pilot certificate at one time. For example, an Airline Transport Pilot certificate holder may be permitted to exercise ATP privileges when flying multi-engine land airplanes, but only Commercial Pilot privileges when flying single-engine land airplanes and gliders. A Commercial Pilot holder with a glider rating may have only Private Pilot privileges for single-engine land airplanes; the FAA may impose limitations on a pilot certificate if, during training or the practical test, the pilot does not demonstrate all skills necessary to exercise all privileges of a privilege level, class or type rating.
For example, a holder of a DC-3 type rating who does not demonstrate instrument flying skills during the practical test would be assigned a limitation reading, "DC-3". To obtain a certificate or add a rating, a pilot has to undergo a course of training with a Certificated Flight Instructor under 14CFR61 or enroll at an approved course at a 14CFR141 approved flight school; the applicant must accumulate and log specific aeronautical experience, pass a three-part examination: a knowledge test, an oral test, a practical test carried out by either an FAA inspector or a Designated Pilot Examiner. Another form of authorization is a logbook endorsement from a flight instructor that establishes that the certificate holder has received training in specific skill areas that do not warrant a full test, such as the ability to fly a tailwheel-equipped, high-performance, complex, or pressurized airplane. Pilot certificates do not expire, although they may be suspended or revoked by the FAA. However, a pilot must maintain currency — recent flight experience, relevant to the flight being undertaken.
To remain current, every pilot has to undergo a flight review with an instructor every 24 calendar months unless she or he gains a new pilot certificate or rating in that time or satisfies the flight review requirement using an alternate approved means. For most types of certificate, she or he must undergo a medical examination at intervals ra
Airspace is the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including its territorial waters or, more any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere. It is not the same as aerospace, the general term for Earth's atmosphere and the outer space in its vicinity. Within the United States: Controlled airspace exists where it is deemed necessary that air traffic control has some form of positive executive control over aircraft flying in that airspace. Airspace may be further subdivided into a variety of areas and zones, including those where there are either restrictions on flying activities or complete prohibition of flying activities. By international law, the notion of a country's sovereign airspace corresponds with the maritime definition of territorial waters as being 12 nautical miles out from a nation's coastline. Airspace not within any country's territorial limit is considered international, analogous to the "high seas" in maritime law. However, a country may, by international agreement, assume responsibility for controlling parts of international airspace, such as those over the oceans.
For instance, the United States provides air traffic control services over a large part of the Pacific Ocean though the airspace is international. There is no international agreement on the vertical extent of sovereign airspace, with suggestions ranging from about 30 km —the extent of the highest aircraft and balloons—to about 160 km —the lowest extent of short-term stable orbits; the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale has established the Kármán line—at an altitude of 100 km —as the boundary between the Earth's atmosphere and outer space, while the United States considers anyone who has flown above 80 kilometres to be an astronaut. Indeed, descending space shuttles have flown closer than 80 km over other nations, such as Canada, without requesting permission first. Nonetheless, both the Kármán line and the U. S. definition are working benchmarks, without any real legal authority over matters of national sovereignty. The boundary between public airspace and private air rights is defined by local law.
Controlled airspace is a generic term that covers the different classifications of airspace and defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided in accordance with the airspace classification. Controlled airspace consists of: Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E Class A airspace is the airspace from 18,000 feet mean sea level up to and including flight level 600, including the airspace overlying the waters within 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous states and Alaska. Unless otherwise authorized, all operation in Class A airspace is conducted under instrument flight rules. Class B airspace is airspace from the surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation's busiest airports in terms of airport operations or passenger enplanements; the configuration of each Class B airspace area is individually tailored, consists of a surface area and two or more layers, is designed to contain all published instrument procedures once an aircraft enters the airspace.
An ATC clearance is required for all aircraft to operate in the area, all aircraft that are so cleared receive separation services within the airspace. Class C airspace is airspace from the surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower, are serviced by a radar approach control, have a certain number of IFR operations or passenger enplanements. Although the configuration of each Class C area is individually tailored, the airspace consists of a surface area with a five NM radius, an outer circle with a ten NM radius that extends from 1,200 feet to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation, an outer area; each aircraft must establish two-way radio communications with the ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to entering the airspace and thereafter maintain those communications while within the airspace. Class D airspace is airspace from the surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower.
The configuration of each Class D airspace area is individually tailored and when instrument procedures are published, the airspace is designed to contain the procedures. Arrival extensions for instrument approach procedures may be Class E airspace. Unless otherwise authorized, each aircraft must establish two-way radio communications with the ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to entering the airspace and thereafter maintain those communications while in the airspace. If the airspace is not Class A, B, C, or D, is controlled airspace it is Class E airspace. Class E airspace extends upward from either the surface or a designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace; when designated as a surface area, the airspace is configured to contain all instrument procedures. In this class are federal airways, airspace beginning at either 700 or 1,200 feet above ground level used to transition to and from the terminal or en route environment, en route domestic and offshore airspace areas designated below 18,000 feet MSL.
Unless designated at a lower altitude, Class E airspace begins at 14,500 MSL over the United States, including that airspace overlying the waters within 12 NM of the coast of the 48 contiguous states and Alaska, up to but not including 18,000
National Airspace System
The National Airspace System is the airspace, navigation facilities and airports of the United States along with their associated information, rules, policies, procedures and equipment. It includes components shared jointly with the military, it is one of the most complex aviation systems in the world and services air travel in the United States and over large portions of the world's oceans. A flight through the NAS begins and ends at an airport which may be controlled or uncontrolled. On departure, the aircraft is in one of five of the six classes of airspace administered by the Federal Aviation Administration, different flight rules apply to each class. Depending on the class of airspace and flight conditions, communication with controllers may or may not be required. Operation of each flight is always the responsibility of the pilot in command, but air traffic controllers give instructions for sequencing and safety as needed; when a controlled flight is airborne, control passes from the tower controller who authorized the takeoff, if the airport is controlled.
The next step is Terminal Radar Approach Control or TRACON which may be identified as "approach" or "departure". Between the sectors administered by TRACONs are 20 contiguous areas of US airspace above 18,000 feet, each managed by an Air Route Traffic Control Center referred to on the radio as "Center". A flight is handed off from one Center to another until it descends near its destination, when control is transferred to the TRACON serving the destination, to the tower controller serving the airport; some airports have no TRACON around them, so control goes directly to or from a Center, some flights are low enough and short enough that control is kept within one or more TRACONs without being passed to Center. 14,500 air traffic controllers, 4,500 aviation safety inspectors, 5,800 technicians operate and maintain services for the NAS. It has 600 air traffic control facilities. In all, there are 41,000 NAS operational facilities. In addition, there are over 71,000 pieces of equipment, ranging from radar systems to communication relay stations.
On average, about 50,000 flights use NAS services each day. As of February 2015 the NAS is transitioning to a new system known as NextGen, which applies non-radar surveillance of aircraft equipped with GPS satellite-based navigation systems continuously reporting their location. Aircraft receive the broadcast location of others nearby, which improves safety; the system allows pilots to use more precise and efficient landing paths, saving time and fuel. NextGen is being phased in piece by piece. In June 2018, NASA flew a 36 feet long by 66-foot demilitarised MQ-9 Predator for the first time through the NAS with no chase aircraft and controlled from Armstrong Flight Research Center, towards unmanned aircraft operations in civil airspace. In the U. S. airspace consists of classes A, B, C, D, E, G. The NAS includes both uncontrolled airspace. Class A begins and includes 18,000 ft. MSL and continues up to 60,000 ft. MSL, it is the most controlled airspace and requires a pilot to carry an Instrument Flight Rating and proper clearance no matter what type of aircraft is being flown.
Pilots are required to change their altimeter settings to 29.92 in. to ensure all pilots within the airspace have the same readings in order to ensure proper altitude separation. Class B airspace extends from the surface up to 10,000 ft. AGL and is the area above and around the busiest airports and is heavily controlled. A side view of Class B airspace resembles an upside-down wedding cake with three layers becoming bigger toward the top. Class B's layers are designed individually to meet the needs of the airport. Pilots must receive clearance to enter the Class B airspace but Visual Flight Rules may be used, unlike in Class A airspace. Class B airspace corresponds to the area known as a Terminal Control Area or TCA. Class C airspace reaches from the surface to 4,000 ft. AGL above the airport. Class C airspace only exists over airports which have an operational control tower, are serviced by a radar approach control, have a certain number of instrument flight operations. Class C is individually designed for airports but covers a surface area of about 5 nautical miles around the airport up to 1,200 ft AGL.
At 1,200 ft. the airspace extends to 10 nautical miles in diameter which continues to 4,000 ft. Pilots are required to establish two-way radio communications with the ATC facility providing air traffic control service to the area before entering the airspace. Within Class C, Visual and Instrument pilots are separated. Class D airspace exists from the surface to 2,500 ft. AGL above an airport. Class D airspace only surrounds airports with an operational control tower. Class D airspace is tailored to meet the needs of the airport. Pilots are required to establish and maintain two-way radio communications with the ATC facility providing air traffic control services prior to entering the airspace. Pilots using Visual Flight Reference must be vigilant for traffic as there is no positive separation service in the airspace; this airspace corresponds to the former Airport Traffic Area. Class E airspace is the airspace that lies between Classes A, B, C, D. Class E extends from either the surface or the roof of the underlying airspace and ends at the floor of the controlled airspace above.
Class E exists for those planes transitioning from the terminal to en route state. It exists as an area for instrument pilots to remain under ATC control without flying in a controlled airspace. Under visual fligh
In navigation, the course of a vessel or aircraft is the cardinal direction in which the craft is to be steered. The course is to be distinguished from the heading, the compass direction in which the craft's bow or nose is pointed; the path that a vessel follows over the ground is called a ground track, course made good or course over the ground. For an aircraft it is its track; the intended track is a route. For ships and aircraft, routes are straight-line segments between waypoints. A navigator determines the bearing of the next waypoint; because water currents or wind can cause a craft to drift off course, a navigator sets a course to steer that compensates for drift. The helmsman or pilot points the craft on a heading. If the predicted drift is correct the craft's track will correspond to the planned course to the next waypoint. Course directions are specified in degrees from north, either magnetic. In aviation, north is expressed as 360°. Navigators used ordinal directions, instead of compass degrees, e.g. "northeast" instead of 45° until the mid-20th century when the use of degrees became prevalent.
Acronyms and abbreviations in avionics Bearing Breton plotter E6B Ground track Navigation Navigation room Rhumb line Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge glossary
Tel Aviv is the second most populous city in Israel—after Jerusalem—and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area. Located on the country's Mediterranean coastline and with a population of 443,939, it is the economic and technological center of the country. Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Mayor Ron Huldai, is home to many foreign embassies, it is ranked 25th in the Global Financial Centres Index. Tel Aviv has the third- or fourth-largest economy and the largest economy per capita in the Middle East; the city has the 31st highest cost of living in the world. Tel Aviv receives over 2.5 million international visitors annually. A "party capital" in the Middle East, it has 24-hour culture. Tel Aviv is home to Tel Aviv University, the largest university in the country with more than 30,000 students; the city was founded in 1909 by the Yishuv as a modern housing estate on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa part of the Jerusalem province of Ottoman Syria.
It was at first called'Ahuzat Bayit', a name changed the following year to'Tel Aviv'. Its name means "Ancient Hill of Spring". Other Jewish suburbs of Jaffa established outside Jaffa's Old City before Tel Aviv became part of Tel Aviv, the oldest among them being Neve Tzedek. Immigration by Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced that of Jaffa, which had a majority Arab population at the time. Tel Aviv and Jaffa were merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the Israeli Declaration of Independence, proclaimed in the city. Tel Aviv's White City, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, comprises the world's largest concentration of International Style buildings, including Bauhaus and other related modernist architectural styles. Tel Aviv is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzl's Altneuland, translated from German by Nahum Sokolow. Sokolow had adopted the name of a Mesopotamian site near the city of Babylon mentioned in Ezekiel: "Then I came to them of the captivity at Tel Aviv, that lived by the river Chebar, to where they lived.
The name was chosen in 1910 from several suggestions, including "Herzliya". It was found fitting. Aviv is Hebrew for "spring", symbolizing renewal, tel is a man-made mound accumulating layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient. Although founded in 1909 as a small settlement on the sand dunes north of Jaffa, Tel Aviv was envisaged as a future city from the start, its founders hoped that in contrast to what they perceived as the squalid and unsanitary conditions of neighbouring Arab towns, Tel Aviv was to be a clean and modern city, inspired by the European cities of Warsaw and Odessa. The marketing pamphlets advocating for its establishment in 1906, wrote: In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and sidewalks and electric lights; every house will have water from wells that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city, sewerage pipes will be installed for the health of the city and its residents. Jaffa, now a part of Tel Aviv, was an important port city in the region for millennia.
Archaeological evidence shows signs of human settlement there starting in 7,500 BC. Its natural harbour has been used since the Bronze Age. By the time Tel Aviv was founded as a separate city during Ottoman rule of the region, Jaffa had been ruled by the Canaanites, Philistines, Assyrians, Persians, Ptolemies, Hasmoneans, Byzantines, the early Islamic caliphates, Crusaders and Mamluks before coming under Ottoman rule in 1515, it had been fought over numerous times. The city is mentioned in ancient Egyptian documents, as well as the Hebrew Bible. During the First Aliyah in the 1880s, when Jewish immigrants began arriving in the region in significant numbers, new neighborhoods were founded outside Jaffa on the current territory of Tel Aviv; the first was Neve Tzedek, founded by Mizrahi Jews due to overcrowding in Jaffa and built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche. Other neighborhoods were Neve Shalom, Yafa Nof, Ohel Moshe, Kerem HaTeimanim, others. Once Tel Aviv received city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa.
The Second Aliyah led to further expansion. In 1906, a group of Jews, among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh Weiss and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit society; the society's goal was to form a "Hebrew urban centre in a healthy environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics and modern hygiene." The urban planning for the new city was influenced by the Garden city movement. The first 60 plots were purchased in Kerem Djebali near Jaffa by Jacobus Kann, a Dutch citizen, who registered them in his name to circumvent the Turkish prohibition on Jewish land acquisition. Meir Dizengoff Tel Aviv's first mayor joined the Ahuzat Bayit society, his vision for Tel Aviv involved peaceful co-existence with Arabs. On 11 April 1909, 66 Jewish families gathered on a desolate sand dune to parcel out the land by lottery using seashells; this gathering is considered the official date of the establishment of Tel Aviv. The lottery was organised by president of the building society.
Weiss collected 120
An aircraft is a machine, able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, airships and hot air balloons; the human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. The science of aviation, including designing and building aircraft, is called aeronautics. Crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift type, aircraft propulsion and others. Flying model craft and stories of manned flight go back many centuries, however the first manned ascent – and safe descent – in modern times took place by larger hot-air balloons developed in the 18th century; each of the two World Wars led to great technical advances. The history of aircraft can be divided into five eras: Pioneers of flight, from the earliest experiments to 1914.
First World War, 1914 to 1918. Aviation between the World Wars, 1918 to 1939. Second World War, 1939 to 1945. Postwar era called the jet age, 1945 to the present day. Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way, they are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies, filled with a low-density gas such as helium, hydrogen, or hot air, less dense than the surrounding air. When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, it adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces. Small hot-air balloons called sky lanterns were first invented in ancient China prior to the 3rd century BC and used in cultural celebrations, were only the second type of aircraft to fly, the first being kites which were first invented in ancient China over two thousand years ago. A balloon was any aerostat, while the term airship was used for large, powered aircraft designs – fixed-wing. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to "ships of the air," with smaller passenger types as "Air yachts."
In the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as "ships of the air" or "flying-ships". – though none had yet been built. The advent of powered balloons, called dirigible balloons, of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size, began to change the way these words were used. Huge powered aerostats, characterized by a rigid outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags, were produced, the Zeppelins being the largest and most famous. There were still no fixed-wing aircraft or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships, so "airship" came to be synonymous with these aircraft. Several accidents, such as the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, led to the demise of these airships. Nowadays a "balloon" is an unpowered aerostat and an "airship" is a powered one. A powered, steerable aerostat is called a dirigible. Sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons, sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship.
Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back. These soon became known as blimps. During the Second World War, this shape was adopted for tethered balloons; the nickname blimp was adopted along with the shape. In modern times, any small dirigible or airship is called a blimp, though a blimp may be unpowered as well as powered. Heavier-than-air aircraft, such as airplanes, must find some way to push air or gas downwards, so that a reaction occurs to push the aircraft upwards; this dynamic movement through the air is the origin of the term aerodyne. There are two ways to produce dynamic upthrust: aerodynamic lift, powered lift in the form of engine thrust. Aerodynamic lift involving wings is the most common, with fixed-wing aircraft being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings, rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings. A wing is a flat, horizontal surface shaped in cross-section as an aerofoil. To fly, air must generate lift.
A flexible wing is a wing made of fabric or thin sheet material stretched over a rigid frame. A kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the speed of the wind over its wings, which may be flexible or rigid, fixed, or rotary. With powered lift, the aircraft directs its engine thrust vertically downward. V/STOL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet and F-35B take off and land vertically using powered lift and transfer to aerodynamic lift in steady flight. A pure rocket is not regarded as an aerodyne, because it does not depend on the air for its lift. Rocket-powered missiles that obtain aerodynamic lift at high speed due to airflow over their bodies are a marginal case; the forerunner of the fixed-wing aircraft is the kite. Whereas a fixed-wing aircraft relies on its forward speed to create airflow over the wings, a kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the wind blowing over its wings to provide lift. Kites were the first kind of aircraft to fly, were invented in China around 500 BC.
Much aerodynamic research was done with kites before test aircraft, wind tunnels, computer modelling programs became available. The first heavier-than-air craft capable of controlled free-flight were gliders. A glider designed by Geo
Canadian airspace is the region of airspace above the surface of the Earth that falls within a region defined as either Canadian land mass, the Canadian Arctic or the Canadian archipelago, as well as areas of the high seas. Airspace is managed by Transport Canada and detailed information regarding exact dimensions and classification is available in the Designated Airspace Handbook, published every fifty-six days by NAV CANADA; the "Canadian Domestic Airspace" includes all of Canada and extends out over the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. It is broadly divided into the "Northern Domestic Airspace" and the "Southern Domestic Airspace". There are three main differences between the two areas, the most important of them being that the NDA is designated as a "standard pressure" region while the SDA is an "altimeter setting" region; this means that pilots operating in the SDA will calibrate their altimeters to atmospheric pressure according to information available at airports and through weather services.
Conversely, in the NDA, pilots calibrate their altimeters to 29.92 inches of mercury regardless of the actual atmospheric pressure. This is done because weather information is not available for all areas of the far north, so it is better that all pilots use a standard setting in order to avoid collisions. Another major difference between the NDA and SDA is that magnetic declination is not used in the NDA; because the magnetic north pole is in the NDA, magnetic declinations are large. This is further complicated by the fact that magnetic north moves 200 miles in an elliptical path every day. For these reasons, "true" tracks are always used in the NDA while magnetic tracks are used in the SDA for convenience; the final difference between the NDA and the SDA has to do with the location of Class A airspace in each region. This is explained in more detail below. There are seven classes of airspace in Canada, each designated by a letter. Class A airspace exists between FL180 and FL600. Only aircraft flying in terms with Instrument Flight Rules may fly in Class A airspace.
It includes, the Southern Control Area, the Northern Control Area FL 230 and above and the Arctic Control Area FL270 and above. It may include any other airspace so designated by the Minister on either a permanent or temporary basis. For entry into Class A airspace, an aircraft needs a functional Mode C transponder and an IFR clearance. Class B airspace is any controlled airspace between 12,500 ft and 18,000 ft Occasionally, Class B airspace exists in other locations, though this is unusual. For entry into Class B airspace, an aircraft needs a functional Mode C transponder and either an IFR or a CVFR clearance. Class C airspace is a control zone for a large airport; these areas have a 10 nautical mile radius and a height of up to 12,500 above aerodrome elevation. For entry into a Class C control zone, an aircraft needs a functional Mode C transponder and an ATC clearance. Class D airspace is a control zone for smaller airports or aerodromes that has a 5-nautical-mile radius and a height of 3,000 ft AAE.
Airports in busy airspace may have only a 3-nautical-mile radius control zone. For entry into a Class D control zone, an aircraft needs to contact ATC; some Class D control zones require transponders, NORDO flight is not permitted at night in a Class D zone. Class E airspace is used for low-level flight routes and for aerodromes with little traffic. ATC is not required; some Class D control zones change to Class E at night. It is high level controlled airspace above FL600. Any aircraft may fly in Class E airspace. Class F airspace is special use airspace. Any Class F zone will be designated either CYR, CYD, or CYA. CYR stands for restricted, CYD means danger, CYA stands for advisory. CYA zones will have a letter identifying the type of activity in the zone: A – aerobatics, F – aircraft testing, H – hang gliding, M – military, P – parachuting, S – soaring, T – training. For entry into a CYR or CYD zone, an aircraft needs the permission of the operating authority. Pilots may enter CYA zones at their discretion, but are encouraged to avoid them unless taking part in the activity.
Any airspace, not designated is Class G airspace. This airspace is uncontrolled, ATC is not available. Any aircraft may fly in Class G airspace. Airspace classes A through E are controlled. Class F can be uncontrolled. Class G is always uncontrolled. Airspace is managed by Transport Canada and detailed information regarding exact dimensions and classification is available in the Designated Airspace Handbook, published every fifty-six days by NAV CANADA; some control zones have unique procedures because of air traffic demands. These procedures are published in the Canada Flight Supplement. Another important feature of Canadian airspace is the Air Defense Identification Zone that surrounds North America; the Terminal Control Areas of the French islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon are located within Canadian airspace. They are as follows: The class E airspace ranges from 6000 feet AGL to 12,500 feet within the area demarcated by a line beginning at 47°19′57″N 55°57′16″W and ending at 46°55′53″N 56°07′13″W running clockwise along a circle with a radius of 10 miles centred on 46°45′47″N 56°10′27″W.
The Control Area for St-Pierre is the airspace to 2000 feet within a circle with a radius of 6 miles centred on 46°45′47″N 56°10′27″W. The area above 12,000 feet is controlled by NAV CANADA