A chart is a graphical representation of data, in which "the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart". A chart can represent tabular numeric data, functions or some kinds of qualitative structure and provides different info; the term "chart" as a graphical representation of data has multiple meanings: A data chart is a type of diagram or graph, that organizes and represents a set of numerical or qualitative data. Maps that are adorned with extra information for a specific purpose are known as charts, such as a nautical chart or aeronautical chart spread over several map sheets. Other domain specific constructs are sometimes called charts, such as the chord chart in music notation or a record chart for album popularity. Charts are used to ease understanding of large quantities of data and the relationships between parts of the data. Charts can be read more than the raw data, they are used in a wide variety of fields, can be created by hand or by computer using a charting application.
Certain types of charts are more useful for presenting a given data set than others. For example, data that presents percentages in different groups are displayed in a pie chart, but may be more understood when presented in a horizontal bar chart. On the other hand, data that represents numbers that change over a period of time might be best shown as a line chart. A chart can take a large variety of forms, however there are common features that provide the chart with its ability to extract meaning from data; the data in a chart is represented graphically, since humans are able to infer meaning from pictures quicker than from text. Text is used only to annotate the data. One of the most important uses of text in a graph is the title. A graph's title appears above the main graphic and provides a succinct description of what the data in the graph refers to. Dimensions in the data are displayed on axes. If a horizontal and a vertical axis are used, they are referred to as the x-axis and y-axis respectively.
Each axis will have a scale, denoted by periodic graduations and accompanied by numerical or categorical indications. Each axis will also have a label displayed outside or beside it describing the dimension represented. If the scale is numerical, the label will be suffixed with the unit of that scale in parentheses. For example, "Distance traveled" is a typical x-axis label and would mean that the distance traveled, in units of meters, is related to the horizontal position of the data within the chart. Within the graph a grid of lines may appear to aid in the visual alignment of data; the grid can be enhanced by visually emphasizing the lines at significant graduations. The emphasized lines are called major grid lines and the remainder are minor grid lines; the data of a chart can appear in all manner of formats, may include individual textual labels describing the datum associated with the indicated position in the chart. The data may appear as dots or shapes, connected or unconnected, in any combination of colors and patterns.
Inferences or points of interest can be overlaid directly on the graph to further aid information extraction. When the data appearing in a chart contains multiple variables, the chart may include a legend. A legend contains a list of the variables appearing in an example of their appearance; this information allows the data from each variable to be identified in the chart. Four of the most common charts are: This gallery shows: A histogram consists of tabular frequencies, shown as adjacent rectangles, erected over discrete intervals, with an area equal to the frequency of the observations in the interval. A bar chart is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent; the bars can be plotted horizontally. The first known bar charts are attributed to Nicole Oresme, Joseph Priestley, William Playfair. A pie chart shows percentage values as a slice of a pie. A line chart is a two-dimensional scatterplot of ordered observations where the observations are connected following their order.
The first known line charts are credited to Francis Hauksbee, Nicolaus Samuel Cruquius, Johann Heinrich Lambert and William Playfair. Other common charts are: Examples of less common charts are: This gallery shows: A bubble chart is a two-dimensional scatterplot where a third variable is represented by the size of the points. A polar area diagram, sometimes called a Coxcomb chart, is an enhanced form of pie chart developed by Florence Nightingale. A radar chart or "spider chart" or "doi" is a two-dimensional chart of three or more quantitative variables represented on axes starting from the same point. A waterfall chart known as a "Walk" chart, is a special type of floating-column chart. A tree map. Other dimensions can be represented with hue. A streamgraph, a stacked, curvilinear area graph displaced around a central axis A GapChart, a time series chart showing evolving gaps and equalities between series. Other dimensions can be represented with hue; some types of charts have specific uses in a certain field This gallery shows: Stock market prices are depicted with an open-high-low-close chart with a traditional bar chart of volume at the bottom.
Candlestick charts are another type of bar chart used to describe price movements of an equity over time. A Kagi chart is a time-in
Information visualization or information visualisation is the study of visual representations of abstract data to reinforce human cognition. The abstract data include both numerical and non-numerical data, such as text and geographic information. However, information visualization differs from scientific visualization: "it’s infovis when the spatial representation is chosen, it’s scivis when the spatial representation is given"; the field of information visualization has emerged "from research in human-computer interaction, computer science, visual design and business methods. It is applied as a critical component in scientific research, digital libraries, data mining, financial data analysis, market studies, manufacturing production control, drug discovery". Information visualization presumes that "visual representations and interaction techniques take advantage of the human eye’s broad bandwidth pathway into the mind to allow users to see and understand large amounts of information at once.
Information visualization focused on the creation of approaches for conveying abstract information in intuitive ways."Data analysis is an indispensable part of all applied research and problem solving in industry. The most fundamental data analysis approaches are visualization, data mining, machine learning methods. Among these approaches, information visualization, or visual data analysis, is the most reliant on the cognitive skills of human analysts, allows the discovery of unstructured actionable insights that are limited only by human imagination and creativity; the analyst does not have to learn any sophisticated methods to be able to interpret the visualizations of the data. Information visualization is a hypothesis generation scheme, which can be, is followed by more analytical or formal analysis, such as statistical hypothesis testing; the modern study of visualization started with computer graphics, which "has from its beginning been used to study scientific problems. However, in its early days the lack of graphics power limited its usefulness.
The recent emphasis on visualization started in 1987 with the special issue of Computer Graphics on Visualization in Scientific Computing. Since there have been several conferences and workshops, co-sponsored by the IEEE Computer Society and ACM SIGGRAPH", they have been devoted to the general topics of data visualisation, information visualization and scientific visualisation, more specific areas such as volume visualization. In 1786, William Playfair published the first presentation graphics. Cartogram Cladogram Concept Mapping Dendrogram Information visualization reference model Graph drawing Heatmap HyperbolicTree Multidimensional scaling Parallel coordinates Problem solving environment Treemapping Information visualization insights are being applied in areas such as: Scientific research Digital libraries Data mining Information graphics Financial data analysis Health care Market studies Manufacturing production control Crime mapping eGovernance and Policy Modeling Notable academic and industry laboratories in the field are: Adobe Research IBM Research Google Research Microsoft Research Panopticon Software Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute Tableau Software University of Maryland Human-Computer Interaction Lab VviConferences in this field, ranked by significance in data visualization research, are: IEEE Visualization: An annual international conference on scientific visualization, information visualization, visual analytics.
Conference is held in October. ACM SIGGRAPH: An annual international conference on computer graphics, convened by the ACM SIGGRAPH organization. Conference dates vary. EuroVis: An annual Europe-wide conference on data visualization, organized by the Eurographics Working Group on Data Visualization and supported by the IEEE Visualization and Graphics Technical Committee. Conference is held in June. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: An annual international conference on human-computer interaction, hosted by ACM SIGCHI. Conference is held in April or May. Eurographics: An annual Europe-wide computer graphics conference, held by the European Association for Computer Graphics. Conference is held in April or May. PacificVis: An annual visualization symposium held in the Asia-Pacific region, sponsored by the IEEE Visualization and Graphics Technical Committee. Conference is held in March or April. For further examples, see: Category:Computer graphics organizations Computational visualistics Data art Data Presentation Architecture Data visualization Geovisualization Infographics Patent visualisation Software visualization Visual analytics List of information graphics software List of countries by economic complexity, example of Treemapping Ben Bederson and Ben Shneiderman.
The Craft of Information Visualization: Readings and Reflections. Morgan Kaufmann. Stuart K. Card, Jock D. Mackinlay and Ben Shneiderman. Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. Jeffrey Heer, Stuart K. Card, James Landay. "Prefuse: a toolkit for interactive information visualization". In: ACM Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI 2005. Andreas Kerren, John T. Stasko, Jean-Daniel Fekete, Chris North. Information Visualization – Human-Centered Issues and Perspectives. Volume 4950 of LNCS State-of-the-Art Survey, Springer. Riccardo Mazza. Introduction to Information Visualization, Springe
Music visualization or music visualisation, a feature found in electronic music visualizers and media player software, generates animated imagery based on a piece of music. The imagery is generated and rendered in real time and in a way synchronized with the music as it is played. Visualization techniques range from simple ones to elaborate ones, which include a plurality of composited effects; the changes in the music's loudness and frequency spectrum are among the properties used as input to the visualization. Effective music visualization aims to attain a high degree of visual correlation between a musical track's spectral characteristics such as frequency and amplitude and the objects or components of the visual image being rendered and displayed. "Music visualization" can be defined, in contrast to previous existing pre-generated music plus visualization combinations, by its characteristic as being real-time generated. Another possible distinction is seen by some in the ability of some music visualization systems to create different visualizations for each song or audio every time the program is run, in contrast to other forms of music visualization which always show the same visualization.
Music visualization may be achieved in a 2D or a 3D coordinate system where up to 6 dimensions can be modified, the 4th, 5th and 6th dimensions being color and transparency./ The first electronic music visualizer was the Atari Video Music introduced by Atari Inc. in 1976, designed by the initiator of the home version of Pong, Robert Brown. The idea was to create a visual exploration, it is described in US 4081829. In Great Britain music visualization was first pioneered by Fred Judd. Music and audio players were available on early home computers, Sound to Light Generator used the ZX Spectrum's cassette player for example; the 1984 movie Electric Dreams prominently made use of one, although as a pre-generated effect, rather than calculated in real-time. For PC/DOS one of the first modern music visualization programs was the open-source, multi-platform Cthugha in 1993. In the 1990s the emerging demo and tracker music scene pioneered the real-time technics for music visualization on the PC platform.
Subsequently, PC computer music visualization became widespread in the mid to late 1990s as applications such as Winamp and SoundJam. By 1999, there were several dozen freeware non-trivial music visualizers in distribution. In particular, MilkDrop and its predecessor "geiss-plugin" by Ryan Geiss, G-Force by Andy O'Meara, AVS by Nullsoft became popular music visualizations. AVS is part of Winamp and has been open-sourced, G-Force was licensed for use in iTunes and Windows Media Center and is presently the flagship product for Andy O'Meara's software startup company, SoundSpectrum. In 2008, iTunes added the "Magnetosphere" visualizer created by The Barbarian Group; some of the more recent applications such as Luminant Music, produce visualization in real time and render to a full-3D environment. With the increasing popularity of virtual reality, several start ups have begun working on music visualization although reception has been mixed with one informal poll finding that only 33% of respondents were interested in music visualization for VR.
There have been applications of electronic music visualization in order to enhance the music listening experience for the deaf and hard of hearing. Richard Burn, a PhD candidate at Birmingham City University, is researching a device that displays detailed visual feedback from electronic instruments; these visuals will provide information on the specifics of what is being played, such as the pitch and the harmonics of the sound. This allows deaf musicians to better understand what notes they are playing, which enables them to create music in a new way. Researchers from the National University of Singapore have created a device that will enhance musical experiences for the deaf; this technology combines a music display and haptic chair that integrates sound qualities from music into vibrations and visual images that correlate to the specific qualities found within the music. The visual display shows various shapes that change size and brightness in correlation with the music. Combining this visual display with a haptic chair that vibrates along with the music gives a more all-around experience of music to those hard of hearing.
Music visualization can be used in education. The Cooper Union in NYC is using music visualization to teach deaf children about sound, they have developed an interactive light studio in the American Sign Language and English Lower School in NYC. This consists of an interactive wall display that shows digital output created by music. Children can trigger the playing of instruments with their movement, they can watch the visual feedback from this music, they are able to view a "talking flower" wall, in which each flower can transform sound into light based on the specific frequencies of the sounds. Atari Video Music, designed by the initiator of the home version of Pong, Robert Brown, introduced by Atari Inc. in 1976. Pixelmusic 3000, open source music visualizer on a microcontroller, made by Uncommon Projects in 2008. Psychedelia, an early "light synthesizer", did not use audio input but was designed to create visualizations in accompaniment to music. Virtual Light Machine Cthugha (1993, Ke
An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in published media, such as posters, magazines, teaching materials, video games and films. Illustration means providing an example; the origin of the word “illustration” is late Middle English: via Old French from Latin illustratio, from the verb illustrate. Contemporary illustration uses a wide range of styles and techniques, including drawing, printmaking, montage, digital design, multimedia, 3D modelling. Most illustrators work on a freelance basis. Depending on the purpose, illustration may be expressive, realistic or technical. Specialist areas include: Architectural illustration Archaeological illustration Botanical illustration Concept art Fashion illustration Information graphics Technical illustration Medical illustration Narrative illustration Picture books Scientific illustration Technical and scientific illustration communicates information of a technical or scientific nature.
This may include exploded views, fly-throughs, instructional images, component designs, diagrams. The aim is "to generate expressive images that convey certain information via the visual channel to the human observer"Technical and scientific illustration is designed to describe or explain subjects to a nontechnical audience, so must provide "an overall impression of what an object is or does, to enhance the viewer's interest and understanding". In contemporary illustration practice, 2D and 3D software is used to create accurate representations that can be updated and reused in a variety of contexts. In the art world, illustration has at times been considered of less importance than graphic design and fine art. Today, due in part to the growth of graphic novel and video game industries, as well as increased use of illustration in magazines and other publications, illustration is now becoming a valued art form, capable of engaging a global market. Original illustration art has been known to attract high prices at auction.
The US artist Norman Rockwell's painting "Breaking Home Ties" sold in a 2006 Sotheby's auction for USD15.4 million. Many other illustration genres are valued, with pinup artists such as Gil Elvgren and Alberto Vargas, for example attracting high prices; the art of illustration is linked to the industrial processes of printing and publishing. The illustrations of medieval codices were known as illuminations, were individually hand drawn and painted. With the invention of the printing press during the 15th century, books became more distributed illustrated with woodcuts. 1600s Japan saw the origination of Ukiyo-e, an influential illustration style characterised by expressive line, vivid colour and subtle tones, resulting from the ink-brushed wood block printing technique. Subjects included popular figures and every day life. Hokusai’s The Great Wave of Kanazawa is a famous image of the time. During the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe, the main reproduction processes for illustration were engraving and etching.
In 18th Century England, a notable illustrator was William Blake. By the early 19th century, the introduction of lithography improved reproduction quality. In Europe, notable figures of the early 19th Century were John Leech, George Cruikshank, Dickens illustrator Hablot Knight Browne, and, in France, Honoré Daumier. All contributed to "serious" publications. At this time, there was a great demand for caricature drawings encapsulating social mores and classes; the British humorous magazine Punch built on the success of Cruikshank's Comic Almanac and employed many well-regarded illustrators, including Sir John Tenniel, the Dalziel Brothers, Georges du Maurier. Although all fine art trained, their reputations were gained as illustrators. Punch was most influential in the 1840s and 1850s; the magazine was the first to use the term "cartoon" to describe a humorous illustration and its widespread use led to John Leech being known as the world's first "cartoonist". In common with similar magazines such as the Parisian Le Voleur, Punch realised good illustration sold as well as good text.
With publication continuing into the 21st Century, Punch chronicles a gradual shift in popular illustration, from reliance on caricature to sophisticated topical observation. From the early 1800s newspapers, mass market magazines, illustrated books had become the dominant consumer media in Europe and the New World. By the 19th century, improvements in printing technology freed illustrators to experiment with color and rendering techniques; these developments in printing effected all areas of literature from cookbooks and traveling guides, as well as children's books. Due to advances in printing, it became more affordable to produce color photographs within books and other materials. By 1900 100 percent of paper was machine-made, while a person working by hand could produce 60-100lbs of paper per day, mechanization yielded around 1,000lbs per day. Additionally, in the 50 year period between 1846 and 1916, book production increased 400% and the price of books was cut in half. In America, this led to a "golden age of illustration" from before the 1880s until the early 20th century.
A small group of illustrators became successful, with the imagery they created considered a portrait of American aspirations of the time. Among the best known illustrators of that period were N. C. Wyeth and Howard Pyl
Chemical imaging is the analytical capability to create a visual image of components distribution from simultaneous measurement of spectra and spatial, time information. Hyperspectral imaging measures contiguous spectral bands, as opposed to multispectral imaging which measures spaced spectral bands; the main idea - for chemical imaging, the analyst may choose to take as many data spectrum measured at a particular chemical component in spatial location at time. Alternatively, selecting an image plane at a particular data spectrum can map the spatial distribution of sample components, provided that their spectral signatures are different at the selected data spectrum. Software for chemical imaging is most specific and distinguished from chemical methods such as chemometrics. Imaging instrumentation has three components: a radiation source to illuminate the sample, a spectrally selective element, a detector array to collect the images; the data format is called a hypercube. The data set may be visualized as a data cube, a three-dimensional block of data spanning two spatial dimensions, with a series of wavelengths making up the third axis.
The hypercube can be visually and mathematically treated as a series of spectrally resolved images or a series of spatially resolved spectra. Commercially available laboratory-based chemical imaging systems emerged in the early 1990s. In addition to economic factors, such as the need for sophisticated electronics and high-end computers, a significant barrier to commercialization of infrared imaging was that the focal plane array needed to read IR images were not available as commercial items; as high-speed electronics and sophisticated computers became more commonplace, infrared cameras became commercially available, laboratory chemical imaging systems were introduced. Used for novel research in specialized laboratories, chemical imaging became a more commonplace analytical technique used for general R&D, quality assurance and quality control in less than a decade; the rapid acceptance of the technology in a variety of industries rests in the wealth of information characterizing both chemical composition and morphology.
The parallel nature of chemical imaging data makes it possible to analyze multiple samples for applications that require high throughput analysis in addition to characterizing a single sample. Hyperspectral imaging is most applied to either solid or gel samples, has applications in chemistry, medicine, pharmacy (see for example: food science, biotechnology and industry. NIR, IR and Raman chemical imaging is referred to as hyperspectral, spectral or multispectral imaging. However, other ultra-sensitive and selective imaging techniques are in use that involve either UV-visible or fluorescence microspectroscopy. Many imaging techniques can be used to analyze samples of all sizes, from the single molecule to the cellular level in biology and medicine, to images of planetary systems in astronomy, but different instrumentation is employed for making observations on such different systems. Any material that depends on chemical gradients for functionality may be amenable to study by an analytical technique that couples spatial and chemical characterization.
To efficiently and design and manufacture such materials, the ‘what’ and the ‘where’ must both be measured. The demand for this type of analysis is increasing as manufactured materials become more complex. Chemical imaging techniques are critical to understanding modern manufactured products and in some cases is a non-destructive technique so that samples are preserved for further testing. Many materials, both manufactured and occurring, derive their functionality from the spatial distribution of sample components. For example, extended release pharmaceutical formulations can be achieved by using a coating that acts as a barrier layer; the release of active ingredient is controlled by the presence of this barrier, imperfections in the coating, such as discontinuities, may result in altered performance. In the semi-conductor industry, irregularities or contaminants in silicon wafers or printed micro-circuits can lead to failure of these components; the functionality of biological systems is dependent upon chemical gradients – a single cell and whole organs function because of the specific arrangement of components.
It has been shown that small changes in chemical composition and distribution may be an early indicator of disease. Chemical imaging shares the fundamentals of vibrational spectroscopic techniques, but provides additional information by way of the simultaneous acquisition of spatially resolved spectra, it combines the advantages of digital imaging with the attributes of spectroscopic measurements. Vibrational spectroscopy measures the interaction of light with matter. Photons that interact with a sample are either scattered. On the other hand, in terms of the observation setup, chemical imaging can be carried out in one of the following modes: absorption, transmission or scattering. A consensus exists that the fluorescence and Raman scatter
Technical Illustration is the use of illustration to visually communicate information of a technical nature. Technical illustrations can be components of technical diagrams. Technical illustrations in general aim "to generate expressive images that convey certain information via the visual channel to the human observer". Technical illustrations have to describe and explain the subjects to a nontechnical audience. Therefore, the visual image should be accurate in terms of dimensions and proportions, should provide "an overall impression of what an object is or does, to enhance the viewer’s interest and understanding". Today, technical illustration can be broken down into three categories based on the type of communication: Communication with the general public: informs the general public, for example illustrated instructions found in the manuals for automobiles and consumer electronics; this type of technical illustration contains simple terminology and symbols that can be understood by the lay person and is sometimes called creative technical illustration/graphics.
Specialized engineering or scientific communication: used by engineers/scientists to communicate with their peers and in specifications. This use of technical illustration has specialized symbols; these areas can be further broken down into disciplines of mechanical, architectural engineering and many more. Communication between skilled experts: used by engineers to communicate with people who are skilled in a field, but who are not engineers. Examples of this type of technical illustration are illustrations found in user/operator documentation; these illustrations can be complex and have jargon and symbols not understood by the general public, such as illustrations that are part of instructional materials for operating CNC machinery. Main types of drawings in technical communication are: conventional line drawings, exploded view drawings, cutaway drawings, clip art images Technical illustration uses several basic mechanical drawing configurations called axonometric projection; these are: Parallel projections, many types of perspective projections.
Technical illustration and computer-aided design can use 3D and solidbody projections, such as rapid prototyping. In the natural sciences, "scientific illustration" refers to a style of drawing using stippling and simple line techniques to convey information with a minimum of artistic interpretation. McDonnell, Phyllis Wood. With a chapter by Patrick. Scientific illustration: a guide to biological and medical rendering techniques, design and display. New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0471285250. Technical Illustration – A Historical Perspective by Kevin Hulsey Technical Illustration in the 21st Century: A Primer for Today’s Professionals by Parametric Technology Corporation 2007. Stuttgart Database of Scientific Illustrators 1450–1950
Motor imagery is a mental process by which an individual rehearses or simulates a given action. It is used in sport training as mental practice of action, neurological rehabilitation, has been employed as a research paradigm in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive psychology to investigate the content and the structure of covert processes that precede the execution of action. In some medical and athletic contexts, when paired with physical rehearsal, mental rehearsal can be as effective as pure physical rehearsal of an action. Motor imagery can be defined as a dynamic state during which an individual mentally simulates a given action; this type of phenomenal experience implies. It corresponds to the so-called internal imagery of sport psychologists. Mental practice refers to use of visuo-motor imagery with the purpose of improving motor behavior. Visuo-motor imagery requires the use of one's imagination to simulate an action, without physical movement, it has come to the fore due to the relevance of imagery in enhancing sports and surgical performance.
Mental practice, when combined with physical practice, can be beneficial to beginners learning a sport, but more helpful to professionals looking to enhance their skills. Physical practice generates the physical feedback necessary to improve, while mental practice creates a cognitive process physical practice cannot replicate; when surgeons and other medical practitioners mentally rehearse procedures along with their physical practice, it produces the same results as physical rehearsal, but costs much less. But unlike its use in sports, to improve a skill, mental practice is used in medicine as a form of stress reduction before operations. Mental practice is a technique used in music as well. Professional musicians may use mental practice when they are away from their instrument or unable to physically practice due to an injury. Studies show that a combination of physical and mental practice can provide improvement in mastering a piece equal to physical practice alone; this is because mental practice causes neuron growth that mirrors growth caused by physical practice.
And there is precedent: Vladimir Horowitz and Arthur Rubinstein, among others, supplemented their physical practice with mental rehearsal. Mental practice has been used to rehabilitate motor deficits in a variety of neurological disorders. Mental practice of action seems to improve balance in individuals with multiple sclerosis and in elderly women. For instance, mental practice has been used with success in combination with actual practice to rehabilitate motor deficits in a patient with sub-acute stroke. Several studies have shown improvement in strength and use of both upper and lower extremities in chronic stroke. Motor imagery has been studied using the classical methods of introspection and mental chronometry; these methods have revealed that motor images retain many of the properties, in terms of temporal regularities, programming rules and biomechanical constraints, which are observed in the corresponding real action when it comes to execution. For instance, in an experiment participants were instructed to walk mentally through gates of a given apparent width positioned at different apparent distances.
The gates were presented to the participants with a 3-D visual display which involved no calibration with external cues and no possibility for the subject to refer to a known environment. Participants were asked to indicate the time they started walking and the time they passed through the gate. Mental walking time was found to increase with decreasing gate width. Thus, it took the participant longer to walk mentally through a narrow gate than to walk through a larger gate placed at the same distance; this finding led neurophysiologists Marc Jeannerod and Jean Decety to propose that there is a similarity in mental states between action simulation and execution. The functional equivalence between action and imagination goes beyond motor movements. For instance similar cortical networks mediate music music imagery in pianists. A large number of functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that motor imagery is associated with the specific activation of the neural circuits involved in the early stage of motor control.
This circuits includes the supplementary motor area, the primary motor cortex, the inferior parietal cortex, the basal ganglia, the cerebellum. Such physiological data gives strong support about common neural mechanisms of imagery and motor preparation. Measurements of cardiac and respiratory activity during motor imagery and during actual motor performance revealed a covariation of heart rate and pulmonary ventilation with the degree of imagined effort. Motor imagery activates motor pathways. Muscular activity increases with respect to rest, during motor imagery; when this is the case, EMG activity is limited to those muscles that participate in the simulated action and tends to be proportional to the amount of imagined effort. Motor imagery is now used as a technique to enhance motor learning and to improve neurological rehabilitation in patients after stroke, its effectiveness has been demonstrated in musicians. On motor learning: Motor imagery is an accepted procedure in the preparation of athletes.
Such practice covers a warming up period and concentration, mental simulation of the specific movement. In neurological rehabilitation: There is some evidence to suggest that motor imagery provides additional benefits to conventional physiotherapy or occupational therapy. A recent review on four randomized controlled trials indicates that there