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Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins found in foods and in dietary supplements. The human body requires vitamin K for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are needed for blood coagulation or for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues; the vitamin K–related modification of the proteins allows them to bind calcium ions, which they cannot do otherwise. Without vitamin K, blood coagulation is impaired, uncontrolled bleeding occurs. Preliminary clinical research indicates that deficiency of vitamin K may weaken bones leading to osteoporosis, may promote calcification of arteries and other soft tissues. Chemically, the vitamin K family comprises 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives. Vitamin K includes two natural vitamers: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Vitamin K2, in turn, consists of a number of related chemical subtypes, with differing lengths of carbon side chains made of isoprenoid groups of atoms. Vitamin K1 known as phylloquinone, is made by plants, is found in highest amounts in green leafy vegetables because it is directly involved in photosynthesis.

It may be thought of as the plant form of vitamin K. It is active as a vitamin in animals and performs the classic functions of vitamin K, including its activity in the production of blood-clotting proteins. Animals may convert it to vitamin K2. Bacteria in the gut flora can convert K1 into vitamin K2. In addition, bacteria lengthen the isoprenoid side chain of vitamin K2 to produce a range of vitamin K2 forms, most notably the MK-7 to MK-11 homologues of vitamin K2. All forms of K2 other than MK-4 can only be produced by bacteria, which use these during anaerobic respiration; the MK-7 and other bacterially derived forms of vitamin K2 exhibit vitamin K activity in animals, but MK-7's extra utility over MK-4, if any, is unclear and is a matter of investigation. Because a synthetic form of vitamin K, vitamin K3, may be toxic by interfering with the function of glutathione, it is no longer used to treat vitamin K deficiency. Vitamin K is one of the treatments for bleeding events caused by overdose of the anticoagulant drug warfarin.

It can be administered by intravenously, or subcutaneously. Vitamin K is used in situations when a patient's INR is greater than 10 and there is no active bleeding. Vitamin K is part of the suggested treatment regime for poisoning by rodenticide. Vitamin K treatment may only be necessary in people who deliberately have consumed large amounts of rodenticide or have consumed an unknown amount of rodenticide. Patients should be given oral Vitamin K1 to prevent the negative effects of rodenticide poisoning. Oral Vitamin K1 is preferred over other routes of administration. Vitamin K is given as an injection to newborns to prevent Vitamin K deficiency bleeding; the blood clotting factors of newborn babies are 30–60% that of adult values. Human milk contains 1–4 μg/L of vitamin K1, while formula-derived milk can contain up to 100 μg/L in supplemented formulas. Vitamin K2 concentrations in human milk appear to be much lower than those of vitamin K1. Occurrence of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in the first week of the infant's life is estimated at 0.25–1.7%, with a prevalence of 2–10 cases per 100,000 births.

Premature babies have lower levels of the vitamin, so they are at a higher risk from this deficiency. Bleeding in infants due to vitamin K deficiency can be severe, leading to hospitalization, blood transfusions, brain damage, death. Supplementation can prevent most cases of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in the newborn. Intramuscular administration is more effective in preventing late vitamin K deficiency bleeding than oral administration. There is no good evidence that vitamin K supplementation benefits the bone health of postmenopausal women. Adequate intake of vitamin K is associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification and stiffening, but there have been few interventional studies and no good evidence that vitamin K supplementation is of any benefit in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. One 10-year population study, the Rotterdam Study, did show a clear and significant inverse relationship between the highest intake levels of menaquinone and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in older men and women.

Vitamin K has been promoted in supplement form with claims. Although allergic reaction from supplementation is possible, no known toxicity is associated with high doses of the phylloquinone or menaquinone forms of vitamin K, so no tolerable upper intake level has been set. Vitamin K1 has been associated with severe adverse reactions such as bronchospasm and cardiac arrest when given intravenously as opposed to orally. Blood clotting studies in humans using 45 mg per day of vitamin K2 and up to 135 mg per day of K2, showed no increase in blood clot risk. Doses in rats as high as 250 mg/kg body weight did not alter the tendency for blood-clot formation to occur. Unlike the safe natural forms of vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 and their various isomers, a synthetic form of vitamin K, vitamin K3, is demonstrably toxic at high levels; the U. S. FDA has banned this form from over-the-counter sale in the United States because large doses have been shown to cause allergic reactions, hemolytic anemia, cytotoxicity in live

Swimming at the 1936 Summer Olympics – Women's 4 × 100 metre freestyle relay

The women's 4×100 metre freestyle relay was a swimming event held as part of the swimming at the 1936 Summer Olympics programme. It was the sixth appearance of the event, established in 1912; the competition was held on Wednesday and Friday, 12 and 14 August 1936. The United States and Germany both replaced one swimmer between the final. Thirty-eight swimmers from nine nations competed. Note: The International Olympic Committee medal database shows only these swimmers as medalists. Ursula Pollack is not credited with a silver medal; the American Elizabeth Ryan who swam in the semi-finals is not listed as bronze medalist. These were the standing world and Olympic records prior to the 1936 Summer Olympics. In the final the Netherlands set a new Olympic record with 4:36.0 minutes. Wednesday, 12 August 1936: The fastest three in each semi-final and the fastest fourth-placed advanced to the final. Semifinal 1 Semifinal 2 Friday, 14 August 1936: Olympic Report Wudarski, Pawel. "Wyniki Igrzysk Olimpijskich".

Retrieved 23 November 2008

Galib Kalan

Galib Kalan is a village in Jagraon in Ludhiana district of Punjab State, India. It is located 23 kilometres from Moga, 39 kilometres from Nakodar, 47 kilometres from district headquarter Ludhiana and 155 kilometres from state capital Chandigarh; the village is administrated by Sarpanch an elected representative of the village. As of 2011, The village has a total number of 1316 houses and the population of 6825 of which 3579 are males while 3246 are females according to the report published by Census India in 2011; the literacy rate of the village is 7311%, lower than the state average of 80.36%. The population of children under the age of 6 years is 759, 11.12% of total population of the village, child sex ratio is 568 lower than the state average of 846. Most of the people are from Schedule Caste which constitutes 44.84% of total population in the village. The town does not have any Schedule Tribe population so far; as per census 2011, 2,060 people were engaged in work activities out of the total population of the village which includes 1913 males and 147 females.

According to census survey report 2011, 97.57% workers describe their work as main work and 2.43% workers are involved in marginal activity providing livelihood for less than 6 months. Nanaksar railway station is the nearest train station; the village is 65 kilometres away from domestic airport in Ludhiana and 139 kilometres away from Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport is located in Amritsar. List of villages in India

Battle of Najaf (2007)

The Battle of Najaf took place on 28 January 2007 at Zarqa near Najaf, between Iraqi Security Forces and fighters thought to be Iraqi insurgents but reported to be members of the Shia Islam cult Soldiers of Heaven, who had joined a gathering of worshippers — or, by other accounts, a conflict between an Iraqi government forces checkpoint and 200 armed pilgrims, which expanded to include local residents, the Soldiers of Heaven group, UK and U. S. forces. In the lead-up to the Day of Ashura, which involves large numbers of pilgrims travelling, some to Najaf, for Shiite festivals, the Iraqi officials were said to have discovered a plot to assassinate the Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani and other Shia religious leaders by the insurgents. Alleged plans called for the insurgents to disguise themselves as pilgrims and open fire, in attempts to assassinate as many leading Shiite clerics as possible and cause overall disruption of the holiday. Violent attacks have occurred in Najaf during previous Ashura festivals.

The initial raid by the Iraqi security forces against suspected insurgent hideout turned into heavy fighting, with the Iraqi Army being overwhelmed. The government forces were soon surrounded and pinned down. During the hours-long battle, rebel fighters captured one wounded Iraqi soldier. At one point the Iraqi forces called on the radio to say; the fighting became so intense that support from U. S. and British attack helicopters and F-16 fighter jets was called in. The airstrikes carried out by Special Forces operators partnered with the Iraqi Army helped break the stalemate, but not before one American AH-64 attack helicopter was shot down, killing two U. S. soldiers. Military Transition Team 0810 partnered with the Iraqi Army was first to respond to the Apache helicopter crash as the Soldiers of Heaven cult was attempting to seize the crash site. Once the crash site was secured by U. S. forces and the enemy disposition was ascertained, further support was requested. The Iraqi Army was still unable to advance, they called in support from both an Iraqi SWAT team in Hillah and U.

S. motorized infantry troops. Around 1pm, elements of the Charlie Company 2nd Battalion, 3rd Infantry Regiment, part of 3rd Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division were dispatched from near Baghdad; some of the gunmen managed to break out toward Karbala. On 1 February, the city of Najaf was cordoned off, subsequently Iraqi Government and U. S. forces appeared to be involved in heavy fighting, including helicopter gunship support. The opposing forces seem to be militants inside the city limits; this contradicted initial assessment that the hostile group was destroyed after the battle of 28 January, but independently verified information was not available at the time. The other account of the incident was presented in the newspaper articles by Patrick Cockburn and, working together, Dahr Jamail and Ali al-Fadhily. According to this version, at around 6 a.m. Hajj Sa'ad Sa'ad Nayif al-Hatemi, chief of the Hawatim Shia tribe, led a group of armed pilgrims from that tribe to a security checkpoint.

Security forces killed al-Hatemi, his wife, his driver. The pilgrims, who had walked alongside the car to the checkpoint attacked the security forces in retaliation. A local tribe, the Khaza'il, were shot at in the crossfire. Iraqi troops at the checkpoint reported al-Qaeda forces were attacking and more security forces arrived in response, surrounding the Hawatim; the Hawatim tried unsuccessfully to stop the fighting at this stage. Firing continued and a U. S. helicopter was shot down. U. S. aircraft bombarded the area until early the next morning. 120 Hawatim and local residents were killed. The group led by Ahmad al-Hassani was drawn into it. They, the Hawatim and the Khaza'il, are opposed to groups that make "the core of the Baghdad government"; the presence of Ahmad al-Hassani's group provided justification for a massacre of opponents to important groups in the Iraqi government. A radical Shiite cleric, Ayatollah Mahmud al-Hasani al-Sarkhi, was reported on 6 February 2007, to be calling for an independent inquiry into what "many in Iraq now regard as a'massacre' in which scores of women and children were killed."

The Speaker of the Iraqi Parliament, Mahmoud al-Mashhadani, accused the government of concealing the truth about the event. At least six Iraqi policemen and five Iraqi soldiers had died in the fighting along with the two American soldiers. Another 15 policemen and 15 soldiers were wounded. Another Iraqi military official put the death toll for Iraqi security forces at 25. U. S. and Iraqi troops captured 406 rebels in the fierce fighting around the city. The majority of the fighters were Iraqi, but Brigadier General Fadhil Barwari stated that the group included 30 Afghans and Saudis and one Sudanese fighter. Shi'ite political sources said the gunmen appeared to be both Sunnis and Shi'ites loyal to a heretical cleric called Ahmed Ismail Katte, linked to the militant group Ansar al-Sunna; the Iraqi army said it captured some 500 automatic rifles in addition to mortars, at least 40 machine guns, some Russian-made Katyusha rockets and anti-aircraft missiles. Information recovered from dead and captured fighters indicate they belonged to a renegade Shi'ite group which called themselves the Soldiers of Heaven and have been described as an apocalyptic religious cult.

The cult leader, Ahmed Ismail Katte

PFA Team of the Year (1980s)

The Professional Footballers' Association Team of the Year is an annual award given to a set of 55 footballers across the top four tiers of men's English football. Peter Shilton holds the most appearances in the PFA Team of the Year in the top division with 10 appearances. Steven Gerrard holds the most appearances in the PFA Team of the Year in the Premier League era with eight appearances; the award has been presented since the 1973–74 season and the shortlist is compiled by the members of the players' trade union, the Professional Footballers' Association, in January of every year, with the winners being voted for by the other players in their respective divisions. The award is regarded by players in the Football League as the highest accolade available to them, due to it being picked by their fellow professionals. Oxford United's Damian Batt, named in the Team of the Year for League Two in 2011, said he was "very pleased to be given such a prestigious award, it is something that I am proud of".

In 2014, a team for female players competing in the FA WSL was selected for the first time. Heading key: Pos. – Position. – Number of appearances in a PFA Team of the Year. Position key: GK – Goalkeeper. Players marked appeared in a first tier PFA Team of the Year more than once. Players marked appeared in a second tier PFA Team of the Year more than once. Players marked * appeared in a third tier PFA Team of the Year more than once. Players marked. Source Source Source Source Source Source Source Source Source Source PFA Team of the Year PFA Team of the Year PFA Team of the Year PFA Team of the Year The official website of the Professional Footballers' Association

Ralph J. Bunche Library

The Ralph J. Bunche Library the State Department Library, is the oldest federal government library in the United States; the library is located in room 3239 of the Harry S Truman Building. The library is a Federal depository library with a stated mission "to support the research needs of personnel of the Department of State." Among its resources, the library contains a large collection pertaining to foreign relations. This category includes books about their governments. S.. The library is not public, but will sometimes lend books to other libraries for public use through interlibrary loan. Source: Ralph J. Bunche Library History by Dan Clemmer accessed on Bunche Library I-net site, December 7, 2007 The first executive department to be established under the new Constitution of the United States was the United States Department of State. On a motion by James Madison, after extensive debate, the act setting up the Department of Foreign Affairs was passed and became law when it was signed by President George Washington on July 27, 1789.

On September 15, 1789, a bill was passed and approved by the President which changed the name to the Department of State and expanded its responsibilities. The library of the Department of State was provided for in the acts of July 27 and September 15, 1789, thus becoming the first federal library. Section Four of the law that created the Department declares that the United States Secretary of State will have custody and charge of all records and papers collected in the past years under the Continental Congress and the government under the Articles of Confederation; this collection of books, official gazettes, newspapers was the nucleus of the newly founded Department of State Library. As the first Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson and expanded the library collection to include statutes of the States and territories of the United States. In 1790 Jefferson estimated Library expenses for the year to be $4 each for 15 American newspapers, $200 to begin a collection of laws of the states, $25 for the purchase of foreign gazettes and subscriptions to American newspapers that would be sent to American representatives overseas.

In that same year, the Library became, by law, the office of record to receive laws, public documents, copyrights. During the War of 1812, the invading British burned the Capital, the White House, other government buildings including that which housed the State Department and its library on August 24, 1814. While Dolley Madison famously saved the Gilbert Stuart portrait of George Washington hanging in the White House, Secretary of State James Monroe can be credited with saving the Declaration of Independence and Constitution, housed at that time in the State Department's Library; as the British entered the Chesapeake, Secretary Monroe ordered Chief Clerk John Graham and Stephen Pleasonton to "take the best care of the books and papers of the office which might be in power." In addition to the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, official records of the Continental Congress and original laws and statutes were hid in hastily made linen bags, loaded onto carts and taken across the Chain Bridge into Virginia.

The rescued documents were first hidden in an unoccupied gristmill two miles upriver from Georgetown. Fearing the documents were still unsafe, Pleasonton hired horses and wagons from local farmhouses and transported them to Leesburg, where they were stored in an empty house, locked and in the safekeeping of Rev. Mr. Littlejohn, until the British retreated from Washington. Reporting to the Congress on November 14, 1814, Secretary Monroe said that "Every exertion was made, every means employed, for the removal of the books and papers of this office, to a place of safety. Many of the books belonging to the Library of the Department, as well as some letters on file of minor importance... were unavoidably left, shared the fate, it is presumed, of the building in which they were deposited." Although saved from fire, the Declaration of Independence did suffer in years to come from the unanticipated ill effects of exposure and handling. The most destructive action occurred in 1823 when the document was used to make a press copy as a master for making facsimile copies to distribute to members of Congress, the Supreme Court and others including the three surviving signers—John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John Carroll.

As a result of pressing, a large portion of the ink was lifted from the document. Over the years and folding of the document creased and broke the parchment, constant exposure to strong sunlight led to fading of the signatures to the extent that some could not be read. In 1876 the Declaration of Independence was displayed at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. On March 3, 1877, it was returned to the library where it was kept on view until 1894 when it was hermetically sealed in a locked steel cabinet in the library along with the original signed copy of the Constitution; the documents were not shown to anyone without the approval of the Secretary of State. On September 29, 1921, the Constit