Capetian House of Anjou
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty. It is one of three separate royal houses referred to meaning "from Anjou" in France. Founded by Charles I of Naples, the youngest son of Louis VIII of France, the Capetian king first ruled the Kingdom of Sicily during the 13th century; the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him out of the island of Sicily, leaving him with the southern half of the Italian Peninsula — the Kingdom of Naples. The house and its various branches would go on to influence much of the history of Southern and Central Europe during the Middle Ages, until becoming defunct in 1435; the House ruled the counties of Anjou, Touraine and Forcalquier, the principalities of Achaea and Taranto, the kingdoms of Sicily, Hungary, Croatia and Poland. A younger son of House of Capet king Louis VIII of France the Lion, Charles was first given a noble title by his brother Louis IX of France who succeeded to the French throne in 1226.
Charles was named Count of Maine. Charles married the heiress of the County of Provence named Beatrice of Provence, she was a member of the House of Barcelona. After fighting in the Seventh Crusade, Charles was offered by Pope Clement IV the Kingdom of Sicily — which at the time included not only the island of Sicily but the southern half of the Italian Peninsula; the reason for Charles being offered the kingdom was because of a conflict between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, the latter of whom were represented by the ruling House of Hohenstaufen. It was at the Battle of Benevento that the Guelph Capetians gained the Sicilian kingdom from the Ghibelline Swabians, this was cemented after victory at Tagliacozzo. In keeping with the political landscape of the period, Charles is described by scholars as shrewd and ambitious, he signed the Treaty of Viterbo in 1267 with Baldwin II of Courtenay and William II of Villehardouin, the political alliance gave many of the rights of the Latin Empire to Charles and a marriage alliance for his daughter Beatrice of Sicily.
The Byzantines had taken back the city of Constantinople in 1261 and this was a plan to take it back from Michael VIII Palaiologos. It recognised Charles' possession of Corfu and cities in the Balkans such as Durazzo, as well as giving him suzerainty over the Principality of Achaea and sovereignty of the Aegean islands aside from those held by the Republic of Venice. For a while Charles was preoccupied helping his French brother in the unsuccessful Eighth Crusade on Tunis. After this he once again focused on Constantinople, but his fleet was wrecked in a freak storm off the coast of Trapani. With the elevation of Pope Gregory X, there was a truce between Charles and Michael in the form of the Council of Lyons, as Christians focused on improving ecumenical relations, with hopes of regaining the Kingdom of Jerusalem back from the Muslims. Charles had solidified his rule over Durazzo by 1272, creating a small Kingdom of Albania for himself, out of Despotate of Epirus territory. Charles was driven out of Sicily in 1282, but his successors ruled Naples until 1435.
This House of Anjou included the branches of Anjou-Hungary, which ruled Hungary and Poland, Anjou-Taranto, which ruled the remnants of the Latin Empire and Anjou-Durazzo, which ruled Naples and Hungary. The senior line of the House of Anjou-Durazzo became extinct in the male line with the death of King Ladislaus of Naples in 1414, extinct with the death of his sister Joanna II in 1435. During Middle Ages, there were the House of Capet. Charles I, founder of the House of Anjou-Sicily, with his first wife, Beatrice of Provence fathered his eldest son, Charles II of Naples. In 1270, Charles II married Mary of Hungary, daughter of Stephen V of Hungary and Elizabeth the Cuman, they had fourteen children which provided the House of Anjou-Sicily with a secure position in Naples. The childless Ladislaus IV of Hungary, was succeeded by Andrew III as King of Hungary, he was the son of Stephen the Posthumous, considered by Stephen's much older half-brothers a bastard son of infidelity. For this reason, after the death of Ladislaus IV. some of the Árpád dynasty's cognates sought the family as extinct.
In Naples, Charles Martel of Anjou, the eldest son of Mary of Hungary announced his claim to the Hungarian crown, backed by his mother, the pope. He started to style himself king of Hungary, but he never managed to gain enough support from the Hungarian magnates to realize his claim. With Andrew III's childless death, the "last golden branch" of the tree of King Saint Stephen's family ended; the Hungarian diet was determined to keep the blood of Saint Stephen on the throne in the maternal line at least. In the upcoming years, a civil war followed between various claimants to the throne. After the short period of rule of Wenceslaus of Bohemia, Otto of Bavaria the civil war ended with Charles Robert's victory, the son of Charles Martel of Anjou, but he was forced to continue fighting against the powerful Hungarian l
College of Cardinals
The College of Cardinals styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church. Its membership is 222, as of 14 March 2019. Cardinals are appointed by the Pope for life. Changes in life expectancy account for the increases in the size of the College. Since the emergence of the College of Cardinals in the Early Middle Ages, the size of the body has been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, the College itself; the total number of cardinals from 1099 to 1986 has been about 2,900, nearly half of whom were created after 1655. See also: External cardinal § HistoryThe word cardinal is derived from the Latin cardo, meaning "hinge"; the office of cardinal as it is known today evolved during the first millennium from the clergy of Rome. "The first time that the term cardinal appears in the Liber Pontificalis is in the biography of Pope Stephen III when in the Roman Synod of 769, it was decided that the Roman pontiff should be elected from among the deacons and cardinal priests."In 845 the Council of Meaux "required Bishops to establish Cardinal titles or parishes in their towns and outlining districts".
At the same time, the popes began referring to the cardinal priests of Rome to serves as legates and delegates within Rome at ceremonies, councils, etc. as well as abroad on diplomatic missions and councils. Those who were assigned to the latter roles were given the titles of Legatus a latere and Missus Specialis. During the pontificate of Stephen V, the three classes of the College that are present today began to form. Stephen decreed that all cardinal-bishops were bound to sing Mass on rotation at the high altar at St. Peter's Basilica, one per Sunday; the first class to form was that of the cardinal-deacons, direct theological descendants of the original seven ordained in Acts 6, followed by the cardinal-priests, the cardinal-bishops. The College played an integral part in various reforms within the Church as well, as early as the pontificate of Pope Leo IX. In the 12th century, the Third Lateran Council declared that only Cardinals could assume the papacy, a requirement that has since lapsed.
In 1130, under Urban II, all the classes were permitted to take part in papal elections. From the 13th to 15th centuries, the size of the College of Cardinals never exceeded thirty, although there were more than thirty parishes and diaconal districts which could have a titular holder. In the ensuing century, increasing the size of the College became a method for the pope to raise funds for construction or war, cultivate European alliances, dilute the strength of the College as a spiritual and political counterweight to papal supremacy; the conclave capitulation of the papal conclave, 1352 limited the size of the College to twenty, decreed that no new cardinals could be created until the size of the College had dropped to 16. By the end of the 14th century, the practice of Italian cardinals had ceased. Between the 14th century and 17th century, there was much struggle for the College between the cardinals of the day and the reigning popes; the most effective way for a pope to increase his power was to increase the number of cardinals, promoting those who had nominated him.
Those cardinals in power saw these actions as an attempt to weaken their influence. The Council of Basel limited the size of the College to twenty-four, as did the capitulation of the papal conclave, 1464; the capitulations of the 1484 and 1513 conclaves contained the same restriction. The capitulation of the papal conclave, 1492 is known to have contained some restriction on the creation of new cardinals; the Fifth Council of the Lateran, despite its lengthy regulation of the lives of cardinals, did not speak to the size of the College. In 1517, Pope Leo X added another thirty-one cardinals, bringing the total to sixty-five so that he could have a supportive majority in the College of Cardinals. Paul IV brought the total to seventy, his immediate successor, Pope Pius IV, raised the limit to seventy-six. Although Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor sought a limit of 26 and complained about the size and quality of the College to his legates to the Council of Trent, some French attendees advocated a limit of 24, that Council did not prescribe a limit to the size of the College.
By the papacy of Sixtus V, the number was set at seventy on 3 December 1586, divided among fourteen cardinal-deacons, fifty cardinal-priests, six cardinal-bishops. Popes respected that limit until Pope John XXIII increased the number of cardinals several times to a high of 88 in January 1961 and Pope Paul VI continued this expansion, reaching 134 at his third consistory in April 1969; the size of the College lost its significance when Paul decided to allow only cardinals under the age of 80 to vote in a conclave from 1971 onward. In 1975, Paul set the maximum number of those under 80, the cardinal electors, at 120, his next consistory in 1976 brought the number of cardinal electors to its full complement of 120. All three of Paul's successors have at times exceeded the 120 maximum. Pope John Paul II reiterated the 120 maximum in 1996, yet his appointments to the College resulted in more than 120 cardinal electors on 4 of his
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany throughout the 12th to 18th centuries. From an autocracy in Carolingian times the title by the 13th century evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors. Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became de-facto hereditary holders of the title, notably the Ottonians and the Salians. Following the late medieval crisis of government, the Habsburgs kept possession of the title without interruption from 1440–1740; the final emperors were from the House of Lorraine, from 1765–1806. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved after the defeat at Austerlitz by emperor Francis II, who continued to rule as Austrian emperor; the Holy Roman Emperor was perceived to rule by divine right, though he contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares among other Catholic monarchs.
In practice, a Holy Roman Emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances, including marriage alliances, made him. There was never a Holy Roman Empress regnant, though women such as Theophanu and Maria Theresa of Austria served as de facto Empresses regnant. Throughout its history, the position was viewed as a defender of the Roman Catholic faith; until the Reformation, the Emperor elect was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was the last to be crowned by the Pope in 1530. After the Reformation, the elected Emperor always was a Roman Catholic. There were short periods in history when the electoral college was dominated by Protestants, the electors voted in their own political interest. From the time of Constantine I, the Roman emperors had, with few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity; the reign of Constantine established a precedent for the position of the Christian emperor in the Church.
Emperors considered themselves responsible to the gods for the spiritual health of their subjects, after Constantine they had a duty to help the Church define orthodoxy and maintain orthodoxy. The emperor's role was to enforce doctrine, root out heresy, uphold ecclesiastical unity. Both the title and connection between Emperor and Church continued in the Eastern Roman Empire throughout the medieval period; the ecumenical councils of the 5th to 8th centuries were convoked by the Eastern Roman Emperors. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor became defunct after the death of Julius Nepos in 480, although the rulers of the barbarian kingdoms continued to recognize the Eastern Emperor at least nominally well into the 6th century. From the western perspective, the interregnum in the Roman Empire spanned the 8th centuries; the title of Emperor was revived in 800, when Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III. The title of Emperor in the West implied recognition by the pope; as the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages and emperors came into conflict over church administration.
The best-known and most bitter conflict was that known as the investiture controversy, fought during the 11th century between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII. After the coronation of Charlemagne, his successors maintained the title until the death of Berengar I of Italy in 924; the comparatively brief interregnum between 924 and the coronation of Otto the Great in 962 is taken as marking the transition from the Frankish Empire to the Holy Roman Empire. Under the Ottonians, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. Since 911, the various German princes had elected the King of the Germans from among their peers; the King of the Germans would be crowned as emperor following the precedent set by Charlemagne, during the period of 962–1530. Charles V was the last emperor to be crowned by the pope, his successor, Ferdinand I adopted the title of "Emperor elect" in 1558; the final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empire's final dissolution.
The term sacrum in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa. The standard designation of the Holy Roman Emperor was "August Emperor of the Romans"; when Charlemagne was crowned in 800, he was styled as "most serene Augustus, crowned by God and pacific emperor, governing the Roman Empire," thus constituting the elements of "Holy" and "Roman" in the imperial title. The word Roman was a reflection of the principle of translatio imperii that regarded the Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, despite the continued existence of the Eastern Roman Empire. In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, that of German Emperor on the other; the English term "Holy Roman Emperor" is a modern shorthand for "emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" not corresponding to the historical style or title, i.e. the adjective "holy" is not intended as modifying "emperor".
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick I known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152, he was crowned King of Italy on 24 April 1155 in Pavia and emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155 in Rome. Two years the term sacrum first appeared in a document in connection with his empire, he was formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. He was named Barbarossa by the northern Italian cities which he attempted to rule: Barbarossa means "red beard" in Italian. Before his imperial election, Frederick was by inheritance Duke of Swabia, he was the son of Duke Frederick II of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and Judith, daughter of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, from the rival House of Welf. Frederick, descended from the two leading families in Germany, making him an acceptable choice for the Empire's prince-electors. Historians consider him among the Holy Roman Empire's greatest medieval emperors.
He combined qualities that made him appear superhuman to his contemporaries: his longevity, his ambition, his extraordinary skills at organization, his battlefield acumen and his political perspicacity. His contributions to Central European society and culture include the reestablishment of the Corpus Juris Civilis, or the Roman rule of law, which counterbalanced the papal power that dominated the German states since the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy. Frederick died in 1190 in Asia Minor while leading an army in the Third Crusade. Frederick was born in 1122. In 1147 he became Duke of the southern German region of Swabia, shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanied by his uncle, the German king Conrad III, on the Second Crusade; the expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king. When Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Both asserted afterwards that Conrad had, in full possession of his mental powers, handed the royal insignia to Frederick and indicated that Frederick, rather than Conrad's own six-year-old son, the future Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, succeed him as king.
Frederick energetically pursued the crown and at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 the kingdom's princely electors designated him as the next German king. He was crowned King of the Romans at Aachen several days on 9 March 1152. Frederick's father was from the Hohenstaufen family, his mother was from the Welf family, the two most powerful families in Germany; the Hohenstaufens were called Ghibellines, which derives from the Italianized name for Waiblingen castle, the family seat in Swabia. The reigns of Henry IV and Henry V left the status of the German empire in disarray, its power waning under the weight of the Investiture controversy. For a quarter of a century following the death of Henry V in 1125, the German monarchy was a nominal title with no real power; the king was chosen by the princes, was given no resources outside those of his own duchy, he was prevented from exercising any real authority or leadership in the realm. The royal title was furthermore passed from one family to another to preclude the development of any dynastic interest in the German crown.
When Frederick I of Hohenstaufen was chosen as king in 1152, royal power had been in effective abeyance for over twenty-five years, to a considerable degree for more than eighty years. The only real claim to wealth lay in the rich cities of northern Italy, which were still within the nominal control of the German king; the Salian line had died out with the death of Henry V in 1125. The German princes refused to give the crown to his nephew, the duke of Swabia, for fear he would try to regain the imperial power held by Henry V. Instead, they chose Lothair III, who found himself embroiled in a long-running dispute with the Hohenstaufens, who married into the Welfs. One of the Hohenstaufens gained the throne as Conrad III of Germany; when Frederick Barbarossa succeeded his uncle in 1152, there seemed to be excellent prospects for ending the feud, since he was a Welf on his mother's side. The Welf duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, would not be appeased, remaining an implacable enemy of the Hohenstaufen monarchy.
Barbarossa had the duchies of Swabia and Franconia, the force of his own personality, little else to construct an empire. The Germany that Frederick tried to unite was a patchwork of more than 1600 individual states, each with its own prince. A few of these, such as Bavaria and Saxony, were large. Many were too small to pinpoint on a map; the titles afforded to the German king were "Caesar", "Augustus", "Emperor of the Romans". By the time Frederick would assume these, they were little more than propaganda slogans with little other meaning. Frederick was a pragmatist. Unlike Henry II of England, Frederick did not attempt to end medieval feudalism, but rather tried to restore it, though this was beyond his ability; the great players in the German civil war had been the Pope, Emperor and the Guelfs, but none of these had emerged as the winner. Eager to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto I the Great, the new king saw that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy.
Issuing a general order for peace, he
1280–81 papal election
The papal election of 1280–81 elected Simon de Brion, who took the name Pope Martin IV, as the successor to Pope Nicholas III. The protracted election is unique due to the violent removal of two cardinals—Matteo Orsini and Giordano Orsini—by the magistrates of Viterbo on the charges that they were "impeding" the election. Only a decade earlier, the magistrates of Viterbo had intervened in the papal election, 1268–1271 by removing the roof tiles of the Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo to speed up another deadlocked contest; the expulsion of the Orsini and the subsequent election of Simon was due to the influence of Charles I of Naples. The previous meeting of the cardinals, the papal election, 1277, had dragged on for six months as the six cardinal electors, were evenly divided between the Roman and Angevin factions; the aged Giovanni Gaetano Orsini was elected Pope Nicholas III, to the dissatisfaction of Charles I of Naples, whom the three French cardinals supported. Pope Clement IV had crowned Charles I the King of Naples and Sicily, but had failed to sufficiently stack the College of Cardinals with like-minded cardinals.
Following Clement's death, the papal election, 1268–1271, was the longest in the history of the Roman Catholic Church electing outsider Teobaldo Visconti as Pope Gregory X, who concerned his papacy with little more than the advocacy of the Crusades. Although Gregory X had issued a papal bull Ubi Periculum, mandating the stricture of the papal conclave to accelerate disputed papal elections, the bull was not in force at the time of this election, having been suspended by Pope Adrian V and revoked by Pope John XXI. From the start of the conclave, the anti-Angevin faction—mostly created cardinals by Nicholas III, who controlled many key positions in the College and included three Orsini cardinals, had consolidated themselves as an unbreakable voting block; the breakthrough in the deadlock came when Charles I replaced Orso Orsini, the podestà of Viterbo, with Riccardello Annibaldi, who proceeded to burst into the election and arrest and remove the Orsini cardinals, allowing the pro-Angevin faction and the Aldobrandeschi partisans to push through the election of Simon de Brion, the favored candidate of Charles, as Pope Martin IV.
Giordano, the leader of the anti-French faction, his nephew Matteo, were imprisoned, actions that ensured that the new French pope would find no welcome in returning to Rome. In fact, Martin IV never set foot in Rome during his papacy of forty-nine months; the imprisonment of the cardinals caused an interdict to be placed on the city of Viterbo. As a result of the interdict, of the hostility of the city of Rome to a pontiff favorable to the Angevins, Martin IV was compelled to move the Roman Curia to Orvieto, where he was crowned on March 23, 1281. Among the first acts of Martin IV were to remove from prominent positions the Orsini cardinal-nephews of his predecessor, Nicholas III, to replace them with French and pro-French candidates. Martin IV remained dependent on Charles throughout his papacy; the latter act resulted in the undoing of the fragile union of East and West brokered at the Council of Lyons in 1274. Martin IV's support of Charles continued after the Sicilian Vespers, when Martin IV excommunicated Peter III of Aragon elected by the Sicilians as king, further declared null his kingship in Aragon and ordered a crusade against him, which resulted in the ensuing War of the Sicilian Vespers.
The first seven cardinals appointed by Martin IV were French, but the fact that Martin IV's death coincided with that of Charles I began to weaken the French influence. R. Sternfeld, "Das Konklave von 1280 und die Wahl Martins IV." Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 21, pp. 1–53. Philippe Levillain, ed.. 2002. The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92228-3. Williams, George L. 2004. Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-2071-5
Pope Nicholas III
Pope Nicholas III, born Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, was Pope from 25 November 1277 to his death in 1280. He was a Roman nobleman who had served under eight popes, been made Cardinal-Deacon of St. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano by Pope Innocent IV, protector of the Franciscans by Pope Alexander IV, inquisitor-general by Pope Urban IV, succeeded Pope John XXI after a six-month vacancy in the Holy See resolved in the papal election of 1277 through family influence; the future pope, Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, was born in Rome, a member of the prominent Orsini family of Italy, the eldest son of Roman nobleman Matteo Rosso Orsini by his first wife, Perna Caetani. His father was Lord of Vicovaro, Bardella, Roccagiovine, Fornello, Castel Sant'Angelo di Tivoli, Civitella, San Polo and Castelfoglia, of Nerola from 1235, his brother Giordano was named Cardinal Deacon of San Eustachio by Nicholas III on 12 March 1278. His brother Gentile became Lord of Mugnano, Penna and Pitigliano. Another brother, Matteo Rosso of Montegiordano, was Senator of Rome in 1279, War Captain of Todi, Podestà of Siena in 1281.
There were two sisters. The Orsini family had produced several popes: Stephen II, Paul I and Celestine III, he did not, as some scholars used to think, study at Paris --. His career shows no indication that he was a theologian, he never became a priest, until he became pope in 1277. Giovanni Gaetano Orsini was one of a dozen men created a Cardinal by Pope Innocent IV in his first Consistory for the creation of cardinals, on Saturday, May 28, 1244, was assigned the Deaconry of San Nicola in Carcere, he was a Canon and Prebendary of York, of Soissons and Laon In the summer of 1244, he was one of five cardinals who fled to Genoa with Pope Innocent IV. He was at Lyons, was present in June and July for the Ecumenical Council of Lyons. Cardinal Orsini and the Curia did not return to Italy until May 1251—after the death of Emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen. After spending the summer in Genoa and Brescia, they reached Perugia in November 1251, where the Papal Court resided continuously until April 1253.
The Curia returned to Rome in mid-October, where Pope and Curia resided continually until the end of April, 1254. In May they went on pilgrimage to Assisi visited Anagni, where the Court stayed from June until the second week in October, when they went off in pursuit of Manfred, the claimant to the Hohenstaufen imperial crown. At the beginning of December, the Battle of Foggia took place, the papal army was routed. Innocent IV died in Naples, where he had taken refuge, on 7 December 1254, the meeting to elect his successor was therefore held in Naples in the palace in which he had died. Voting began on Friday, 11 December, with ten of the twelve cardinals present, but no candidate received the required votes, but on Saturday, 12 December, Cardinal Rinaldo dei Conti di Segni, the nephew of Pope Gregory IX, who had a reputation of a conciliator, was elected pope. He chose to be called Alexander IV and was crowned on Sunday, December 20, 1254, in the Cathedral of Naples; as for Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, in his first eleven and a half years as a cardinal, he had only spent six months in the city of Rome.
A peripatetic Curia had its disadvantages. Pope Alexander IV and the Curia continued to live in Naples, until the first week of June 1255 when they returned to Anagni, it was not until mid-November that the Pope was back in Rome. There the Curia stayed until the end of May, 1256, when it was off to Anagni for the summer, until the beginning of December; the problem was that Rome was in the hands of Senator Brancaleone degli Andalo, Count of Casalecchio, since 1252, the Ghibbelines and Alexander was driven out by unruly mobs. Rome was home again until the end of 1257, until the summer vacation at Viterbo began; the vacation lasted until the end of 1258, when the Court visited Anagni again. The Pope was able to reside at the Lateran until the first week of May, 1261, when the Court was off to Viterbo again. Alexander IV died at Viterbo on 25 May 1261. A total of nineteen months was spent in Rome, out of a total of seventy-eight months. Alexander had created no new cardinals, so the Electoral meeting following his death had only eight participants.
The Election was a long-drawn-out one, lasting from 25 May to 29 August 1261. Unable to agree on one of themselves, the Cardinals chose Jacques Pantaléon, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, since 1255, was Papal Legate with the Crusade in the Holy Land, he became Pope Urban IV, was crowned at Viterbo on 4 September 1261. Cardinal Orsini was named General Inquisitor by Urban IV on November 2, 1262, the first known Grand Inquisitor. Cardinal Orsini attended the first Conclave of 1268-1271, was one of the cardinals who signed the letter of complaint against the authorities and people of Viterbo for their treatment of the cardinals and the Curia, he was one of the six cardinals who were chosen by the rest of the Sacred College on September 1, 1271, to select a compromise candidate for election as pope. He was therefore instrumental in bringing to the papal throne the Archdeacon of Liège, Teobaldo Visconti, not a cardinal, and, not in Italy, but in the Holy Land on crusade, he traveled with the Curia to France in 1273, was present at the Ecumenical Council of Lyons.
He was not one of the cardinals in the suite of Pope Gregory X w
Pope Urban IV
Pope Urban IV, born Jacques Pantaléon, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 August 1261 to his death in 1264. He was not a cardinal. Urban IV was the son of a cobbler of France, he studied theology and common law in Paris and was appointed a canon of Laon and Archdeacon of Liège. At the First Council of Lyon he attracted the attention of Pope Innocent IV, who sent him on two missions in Germany. One of the missions was to negotiate the Treaty of Christburg between the pagan Prussians and the Teutonic Knights, he became Bishop of Verdun in 1253. In 1255, Pope Alexander IV made him Patriarch of Jerusalem, he had returned from Jerusalem, in dire straits, was at Viterbo seeking help for the oppressed Christians in the East when Alexander IV died. After a three-month vacancy, Pantaléon was chosen by the eight cardinals of the Sacred College to succeed him in a papal election that concluded on 29 August 1261, he chose the regnal name of Urban IV. A fortnight before Urban IV's election, the Latin Empire of Constantinople, founded during the ill-fated Fourth Crusade against the Byzantines, was abolished after the re-capture of the city by the Byzantines led by general Michael VIII Palaiologos.
Urban IV endeavoured without success to stir up a crusade to restore the Latin Empire. Urban initiated construction of the Basilica of St. Urbain, Troyes, in 1262; the festival of Corpus Christi was instituted by Urban IV on August 11, 1264, with the publication of the papal bull Transiturus. Urban asked Thomas Aquinas, the Dominican theologian, to write the texts for the Mass and Office of the feast; this included such famous hymns as the Pange lingua, Tantum ergo, Panis angelicus. The Pope became involved in the affairs of Denmark. Jakob Erlandsen, Archbishop of Lund, wanted to make the Danish Church independent of the Royal power - which put him in direct confrontation with the Dowager Queen Margaret Sambiria, acting as regent for her son, King Eric V of Denmark; the Queen imprisoned the Archbishop. Both sides tried to get the Pope's support; the Pope agreed to several items that the Queen wanted - he issued a dispensation to alter the terms of the Danish succession that would permit women to inherit the Danish throne.
However, the main issues remained unsolved by Urban's death, with the case continuing at the papal court in Rome and the exiled Archbishop Erlandsen coming to Italy to pursue it in person. In fact, the convoluted affairs of distant Denmark were of only a minor concern to the Pope, it was Italy which commanded Urban IV's near full attention: the long confrontation with the late Hohenstaufen German Emperor Frederick II had not been pressed during the mild pontificate of Alexander IV, during which it devolved into inter-urban struggles between nominally pro-Imperial Ghibellines and more nominally pro-papal Guelf factions. Frederick II's heir Manfred was immersed in these struggles. Urban IV's military captain was the condottiere Azzo d'Este, nominally at the head of a loose league of cities that included Mantua and Ferrara. Any Hohenstaufen in Sicily was bound to have claims over the cities of Lombardy, as a check to Manfred, Urban IV introduced Charles of Anjou into the equation to place the crown of the Kingdom of Sicily in the hands of a monarch amenable to papal control.
Charles was Count of Provence by right of his wife, maintaining a rich base for projecting what would be an expensive Italian war. For two years Urban IV negotiated with Manfred regarding whether Manfred would aid the Latins in regaining Constantinople in return for papal confirmation of the Hohenstaufen rights in the realm. Meanwhile, the papal pact solidified with Charles a promise of papal ships and men, produced by a crusading tithe, Charles's promise not to lay claims on Imperial lands in northern Italy, nor in the Papal States. Charles promised to restore the annual census or feudal tribute due the Pope as overlord, some 10,000 ounces of gold being agreed upon, while the Pope would work to block Conradin from election as King of the Germans. Before the arrival in Italy of his candidate Charles, Urban IV died at Perugia on 2 October 1264, his successor was Pope Clement IV, who took up the papal side of the arrangement. There is a story that the pope's death was related to Great Comet of 1264 which he fell sick at sometime near the arrival of the comet and he died when the comet disappeared.
Tannhäuser, a prominent German Minnesänger and poet, was a contemporary of Pope Urban IV—the pope died in 1264, the Minnesänger died shortly after 1265. Two centuries the pope became a major character in a legend which grew up about the Minnesänger, first attested in 1430 and propagated in ballads from 1450; the legendary account makes Tannhäuser a knight and poet who found the Venusberg, the subterranean home of Venus, spent a year there worshipping the goddess. After leaving the Venusberg, Tannhäuser is filled with remorse and travels to Rome to ask Pope Urban IV if it is possible to be absolved of his sins. Urban replies that forgiveness is as impossible as it would be for his papal staff to send forth green leaves. Three days after Tannhäuser's departure Urban's staff begins to grow new leaves. There is no historical evidence for the events in the legend. List of popes David Abulafia, 1988. Frederick II, pp 413ff. Richard, Jean; the Crusades: c. 1071 – c. 1291. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-5