In biology, a hybrid is the offspring resulting from combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, species or genera through sexual reproduction. Hybrids are not always intermediates between their parents, but can show hybrid vigour, sometimes growing larger or taller than either parent; the concept of a hybrid is interpreted differently in animal and plant breeding, where there is interest in the individual parentage. In genetics, attention is focused on the numbers of chromosomes. In taxonomy, a key question is how related the parent species are. Species are reproductively isolated by strong barriers to hybridisation, which include morphological differences, differing times of fertility, mating behaviors and cues, physiological rejection of sperm cells or the developing embryo; some act before fertilization and others after it. Similar barriers exist in plants, with differences in flowering times, pollen vectors, inhibition of pollen tube growth, somatoplastic sterility, cytoplasmic-genic male sterility and the structure of the chromosomes.
A few animal species and many plant species, are the result of hybrid speciation, including important crop plants such as wheat, where the number of chromosomes has been doubled. Human impact on the environment has resulted in an increase in the interbreeding between regional species, the proliferation of introduced species worldwide has resulted in an increase in hybridisation; this genetic mixing may threaten many species with extinction, while genetic erosion in crop plants may be damaging the gene pools of many species for future breeding. A form of intentional human-mediated hybridisation is the crossing of wild and domesticated species; this is common in modern agriculture. One such flower, Oenothera lamarckiana, was central to early genetics research into mutationism and polyploidy, it is more done in the livestock and pet trades. Human selective breeding of domesticated animals and plants has resulted is the development of distinct breeds. Hybrid humans existed in prehistory. For example and anatomically modern humans are thought to have interbred as as 40,000 years ago.
Mythological hybrids appear in human culture in forms as diverse as the Minotaur, blends of animals and mythical beasts such as centaurs and sphinxes, the Nephilim of the Biblical apocrypha described as the wicked sons of fallen angels and attractive women. The term hybrid is derived from Latin hybrida, used for crosses such as of a tame sow and a wild boar; the term came into popular use in English in the 19th century, though examples of its use have been found from the early 17th century. Conspicuous hybrids are popularly named with portmanteau words, starting in the 1920s with the breeding of tiger–lion hybrids. From the point of view of animal and plant breeders, there are several kinds of hybrid formed from crosses within a species, such as between different breeds. Single cross hybrids result from the cross between two true-breeding organisms which produces an F1 hybrid; the cross between two different homozygous lines produces an F1 hybrid, heterozygous. The F1 generation is phenotypically homogeneous, producing offspring that are all similar to each other.
Double cross hybrids result from the cross between two different F1 hybrids. Three-way cross hybrids result from the cross between an inbred line. Triple cross hybrids result from the crossing of two different three-way cross hybrids. Top cross hybrids result from the crossing of a top quality or pure-bred male and a lower quality female, intended to improve the quality of the offspring, on average. Population hybrids result from the crossing of plants or animals in one population with those of another population; these crosses between different breeds. In horticulture, the term stable hybrid is used to describe an annual plant that, if grown and bred in a small monoculture free of external pollen produces offspring that are "true to type" with respect to phenotype. Hybridisation can occur in the hybrid zones where the geographical ranges of species, subspecies, or distinct genetic lineages overlap. For example, the butterfly Limenitis arthemis has two major subspecies in North America, L. a. arthemis and L. a. astyanax.
The white admiral has a bright, white band on its wings, while the red-spotted purple has cooler blue-green shades. Hybridisation occurs between a narrow area across New England, southern Ontario, the Great Lakes, the "suture region", it is at these regions. Other hybrid zones have formed between described species of animals. From the point of view of genetics, several different kinds of hybrid can be distinguished. A genetic hybrid carries two different alleles of the same gene, where for instance one allele may code for a lighter coat colour than the other. A structural hybrid results from the fusion of gametes that have differing structure in at least one chromosome, as a result of structural abnormalities. A numerical hybrid results from the fusion of gamet
Vitis girdiana is as species of wild grape known as the desert wild grape and valley grape. It is native to southern California to Baja California in Mexico. Vitis girdiana is a woody vine with a coating of woolly hairs on new growth; the woolly leaves are heart-shaped to kidney-shaped with toothed edges and sometimes shallow lobes. The inflorescence is a panicle of unisexual flowers; the fruit is a spherical black grape not more than 8 millimeters wide. It grows in streambank habitat in hills and mountains of the region. Native American groups such as the Kumeyaay and Luiseño used the fruit for food; the Cahuilla used it fresh, cooked, or dried into raisins, made it into wine. Vitis girdiana
Agricultural Research Service
The Agricultural Research Service is the principal in-house research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture. ARS is one of four agencies in USDA's Research and Economics mission area. ARS is charged with extending the nation's scientific knowledge and solving agricultural problems through its four national program areas: nutrition, food safety and quality. ARS research focuses on solving problems affecting Americans every day; the ARS Headquarters is located in the Jamie L. Whitten Building on Independence Avenue in Washington, D. C. and the headquarters staff is located at the George Washington Carver Center in Beltsville, Maryland. For 2018, its budget was $1.2 billion. ARS conducts scientific research for the American public, their main focus is on research to develop solutions to agricultural problems and provide information access and dissemination to: ensure high quality, safe food and other agricultural products, assess the nutritional needs of Americans, sustain a competitive agricultural economy, enhance the natural resource base and the environment, provide economic opportunities to rural citizens and society as a whole.
ARS research complements the work of state colleges and universities, agricultural experiment stations, other federal and state agencies, the private sector. ARS research may focus on regional issues that have national implications, where there is a clear federal role. ARS provides information on its research results to USDA action and regulatory agencies and to several other federal regulatory agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. ARS disseminates much of its research results through scientific journals, technical publications, Agricultural Research magazine, other forums. Information is distributed through ARS's National Agricultural Library. ARS has more than 150 librarians and other information specialists who work at two NAL locations—the Abraham Lincoln Building in Beltsville, Maryland. C. NAL provides reference and information services, document delivery, interlibrary loan and interlibrary borrowing services to a variety of audiences.
ARS supports more than 2,000 scientists and post docs working on 690 research projects within 15 National Programs at more than 90 research locations. The ARS is divided into 5 geographic areas: Midwest Area, Northeast Area, Pacific West Area, Plains Area, Southeast Area. ARS has five major regional research centers: the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, California; the research centers focus on innovation in agricultural practices, pest control and nutrition among other things. Work at these facilities has given life to numerous products and technologies; the ARS offers the Culture Collection, the largest public collection of microorganisms in the world, containing 93,000 strains of bacteria and fungi. The ARS Culture Collection is housed at Northern Regional Research Laboratory ARS' Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, Maryland, is the world's largest agricultural research complex. ARS operates the U. S. Horticultural Research Laboratory in Fort Pierce and the U.
S. National Poultry Research Center in Athens, Georgia. ARS has six major human nutrition research centers that focus on solving a wide spectrum of human nutrition questions by providing authoritative, peer-reviewed, science-based evidence; the centers are located in Arkansas, Texas, North Dakota and California. ARS scientists at these centers study the role of food and dietary components in human health from conception to advanced age. Technology to produce lactose-free milk, ice cream and yogurt was developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service in 1985; the grape breeding program, which dates back to 1923, developed seedless grapes. The ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory in Winter Haven, Florida, is active in work to improve the taste of orange juice concentrate. ARS had a Toxoplasma gondii research program, which experimented on cats infected with the parasite, from 1982 until 2019. Cats were bred for the program and intentionally infected, kittens in the program were euthanized after research was completed.
Cats were fed raw cat and dog meat for the study, called "kitten cannibalism" by the White Coat Waste Project. A bipartisan bill to eliminate the practice was introduced into the House by Representatives Jimmy Panetta, Brian Mast, Elissa Slotkin, Will Hurd, with a companion bill introduced into the Senate by Jeff Merkley; the bills called the "Kittens In Traumatic Testing Ends Now Act of 2019", amend the Animal Welfare Act to limit USDA experimentation on cats. The bill has been referred to the Subcommittee on Livestock and Foreign Agriculture of the House Committee on Agriculture. While the bills have not passed, the USDA stated. Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations Agricultural Resource Management Survey Germplasm Resources Information Network Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging National Clonal Germplasm Repository National Agricultural Center and Hall of Fame U. S. Horticultural Research Laboratory National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research "Agricultural Research Service".
Archived from the original on October
Vitis californica, with common names California wild grape, Northern California grape, Pacific grape, is a wild grape species widespread across much of California as well as southwestern Oregon. The California wild grape thrives in damp areas, it climbs on other plants or covers the ground with twisted, woody ropes of vine covered in green leaves. In the fall the leaves turn many shades of yellow. Bunches of small and sour but edible purple grapes hang from the vines in autumn, which can be made into excellent jelly or juice; the grapes provide an important food source for a variety of wild animals birds, the foliage provides thick cover. The grapes are a common sight along the banks of the Sacramento River. ViticultureThe wild grape is strong and robust, viticulturists worldwide use it as rootstock for their wine grapes. In some areas where the plant is not native it has the capacity to become a noxious weed. Vitis californica is cultivated as an ornamental plant; the interesting shape and color of the leaves and the lush, trainable vines make this species an attractive garden plant.
This vine is used in native plant gardens, where once established it thrives without summer water. The cultivar'Roger's Red' turns brilliant red in fall and is a hybrid with a wine grape, Vitis vinifera Alicante Bouschet; the cultivar'Walker Ridge' turns yellow in the autumn. CalFlora Database: Vitis californica Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Vitis californica USDA Plants Profile: Vitis californica US Forest Service Fire Ecology U. C. Photos gallery — Vitis californica
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
Vitis amurensis, the Amur grape, is a species of grape native to the Asian continent. Its name comes from the Amur Valley in China, it is resistant to frost, but is not tolerant to drought. Selections vary, but as a species it has strong resistance to anthracnose and ripe rot, moderately strong resistance to downy mildew and powdery mildew. Vitis amurensis is a relic of pre-glacial subtropical vegetation of the Far East, it reaches the continental latitude Lake Kizi. Along the coast of the Sea of Japan to the north it reaches the mouth of the Muli river, the Amur region to the west - to the river Zeya, it grows in the forests of Manchuria, Amur Oblast, Primorsky Krai, North East China, Korea. Amur grapes are classified into three subspecies: V. amurensis var. amurensis V. amurensis var. dissecta V. amurensis var. yanshanensisIt is most common in the valleys of rivers and streams, in clearings, forest edges, the lower and middle slopes of mountains, where they climb to trees and spread along the ground.
It is the most stable type of grape growing in the Far Eastern taiga. Most grapes species are found in much warmer climates. Only the Amur grape can tolerate winter temperatures down to −45 °C, the root zone of the soil to −16 °C. Anthropogenic factors have adversely affected the number and status of the Amur grapes in their natural habitats, leading to a marked reduction in their range. A Liana with stem 5–10 cm in diameter and spreading to 15–18 m up to 20–25 meters. Tendrils capable of wrapping around things will entwine the branches of neighbouring plants or anything else they can use for support; the bark is dark and with vertical stripes on old shoots. Young shoots are green with a reddish hue, reddish-brown in autumn; the leaves vary in shape. They can be solid, three- or five-lobed, ovate or rounded, arched at the base; the size ranges from 9 to 25 cm with rounded-triangular serrate teeth. The surface of the leaves are glabrous above, densely covered with short bristles. In autumn the leaves turn bright colours - red, orange, brown.
The flowers are small, a nectar source for bees. They appear in the second week of May in its natural habitat; the Amur grape is dioecious, although hermaphrodite vines do occur rarely. Fruits of the Amur grape are spherical black or purple, sometimes dark blue berries ranging from acidic to sweet, with a diameter in the main to 12 mm, with a thick skin; the sugar content in the fruit reaches 22-23%. In their natural habitat they ripen in late September; the flesh is juicy, the berries are sour. The clusters can be comparable to the number of berries. In exceptional cases, the length of bunches up to 25 cm, with a weight of 250 grams. Amur grapes are used as an ornamental plant for vertical gardening, they are cultivated as far north as St. Petersburg in European Russia where they are planted, they are widely crossed with other grape species to produce cold hardy, early ripening wine and dessert grapes for cold climates. They tolerate urban conditions. Amur grapes require about 700 mm of rain a year, so do not perform well in dry climates typical of many wine regions unless irrigated.
They are well suited to wetter areas considered too cool and wet for grapes such as North West Europe, Northern Russia and the Pacific Northwest. They are resistant to disease, ripen early and are evolved to a short growing season and have some partial resistance to phylloxera, they can be eaten raw when ripe and are sweet but are made into wine, juice and jams and the leaves can be used in a salad. Amur grapes have a mild resistance to a few forms of mildew. Ripening capacity and growth rate of vines is high, the annual growth is about 2.5 meters. Amur grape seedlings bloom at about the fifth year; the plant can not tolerate excessive lime. Amur grapes respond positively to the introduction of acidic peat, they fruit best in full sun. Some grape varieties resulting from crossing other species with Amur grapes are:'Arctic','Buytur','Dawn of the North','Currants Michurin','Metal','Russian Concorde','North','Black North' and'Kurinka Russkaja' etc. - cultivated at present in northern vineyards. Some notable hybrids with V. amurensis ancestry grown in Western Europe are "Zarya severa", Severny and Rondo.
Samples of V. amurensis were made in the former USSR for studies into resistance to cold. Hybrid varieties from the cross V. amurensis x V.vinifera or V. labrusca x V. amurensis were obtained. The first crop of V. amurensis was during the Japanese occupation of Manchuria. In Jilin in northeast China, the Japanese created the first wineries producing wine from wild grapes V. amurensis. About 800 km to the south, the culture of the European vine is possible in the region of Beijing only if the vines are buried under a thick layer of earth in winter to protect them from extreme cold. Faced with this difficulty, the Japanese tried to take advantage of high resistance to cold of the wild vine in the region to produce wine. In 1936 the Changbaishan Winery Ltd was created and Tonghua Winery Ltd 1938. in the region of Jilin, west of Changbai Mountains near the North Korean border. The climate of this region can be characterized by long, cold winters and short, warm summers, with average January temperatures ranging from -14 to -20 °C.
At the time, the basement of Changbaishan produced 40 tons of wine. In 1954, the Beijing Botanical Garden tried hybridizations of V. amurensis grape with the European v