Vitis mustangensis known as the mustang grape, is a species of grape, native to the southern United States. Its range includes parts of Mississippi, Louisiana and Oklahoma; this woody species produces small clusters of hard green fruit that ripen into soft 3⁄4-inch dark purple berries in August–September. They on average contain four seeds; this variety of grape is recognized by the white velvet-like underside of the leaves, covers small trees, shrubs and other objects that it grows near. V. mustangensis is dioecious, with only female vines bearing fruit. The fruit can be irritating to the skin when picked or eaten, are mildly unpleasant to eat because of bitterness and high acidity content; the grape has a culinary use as jelly and grape juice, both of which are sweetened with sugar so as to be palatable. They can be baked into cobblers, as some early cookbooks in the region directed. Mustang grapes have been used to make mustang wine since before the Civil War; the fruit and leaves of Mustang Grapes may be used to dye wool.
Media related to Vitis mustangensis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Vitis mustangensis at Wikispecies Agie-horticulture.edu, Texas Native Shrubs — Vitis mustangensis Natives of Texas.com: Mustang Grape UTexas.edu: Image archive of Vitis mustangensis
Vitis ficifolia is a species of liana in the grape family native to the Asian temperate climate zone. It is found in mainland China, Japan and the Koreas
Vitis rupestris is a species of grape native to the United States, known by many common names including July, sand, beach, currant, ingar and mountain grape. It is used for breeding several French-American hybrids as well as many root stocks; the cultivar known as Rupestris St. George has been used in breeding and as a root stock; the natural distribution of Vitis rupestris is concentrated in the Ozark Hills of Missouri and Arkansas. The species is less common in scattered populations east as far as Pennsylvania and southwest into Oklahoma and Texas. There are a few reports of the species occurring in the San Francisco Bay area of California, but these are most escapes from cultivation. Vitis rupestris is a self-supporting bushy plant that does not grow in the shade, is found only on rocky riverbanks and streambanks. Much of its habitat has been destroyed due to damming of rivers and destruction of islands for navigation. Vitis rupestris has been listed as threatened or endangered by Indiana, Kentucky and Tennessee.
Known locations of wild Vitis rupestris are disappearing, which may threaten the future of this grape species. It is found hybridized in parts of its range with other Vitis species. Growth is tapering, much branched and climbing more than 4 to 8 feet; the roots are slender and deep and enable it to resist drought by spreading deep underground to find the water table. Wood is smooth and red when young, becoming cylindrical and finely striated when mature with dark colored bark that becomes darker with age. Wood is not hard. Buds are small, globose or conical. Tendrils or small and crimson colored with short internodes. Leaves are lanceolate with large stipules with crimson veins. Petiole are and broadly grooved throughout the length. Leaves are nearly always smooth. Width of the leaves is 3" to 4", sometimes 5". Clusters are small, sometimes shouldered. Rachis is light green. Flowers are fertile, stamens recurved and bent laterally with flowers producing abundant pollen. Fruits are 1/4" to 1/2" in diameter, round or flattened around the stem and doubled like two berries coalesced.
The berries are black with little bloom, skin is thin and tender and pulp is tender and melting. Pulp is colored crimson or violet and part clings to the skin; the berries bear 3 to 4 small seeds on clusters around 8" long. Germination is quick and fruit ripens early; the species is able to bear fruit on young shoots pushed out by 2 to 4 year old wood if last year's wood has been lost to winter damage. It propagates from cuttings, the pollen is prepotent in fertilizing and hybridizing with other Vitis species. Has great resistance to drought due to its deep roots penetrating the water table. Where it is unable to do this though it is subject to injury. Foliage is well adapted to resisting fungus and insect attacks, although favored by many grazing mammals. Attacked by anthracnose but with minimal injury, resistant to black rot, downy mildew and powdery mildew. Used in hybridizing with other species to produce disease resistant Hybrid grapes; the species was used extensively to produce varieties able to withstand Phylloxera on their own roots and withstand attacks of Downy mildew.
Breeders that used the species include T. V. Munson, Albert Seibel, Joannes Seyve and Elmer Swenson (indirectly via hybridizing existing varieties containing'Vitis rupestris'.'Vitis rupestris' contributes a large proportion of ancestries of'French hybrid' grapes such as Seyval, although it was overlooked in its homeland in favor of Vitis labrusca. A large proportion of modern European "PIWI" varieties categorized as Vitis vinifera contain a large'Vitis rupestris' background such as Solaris and Regent. Vitis rupestris Missouri Plants, Photos of Vitis rupestris
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants, called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots; the close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits; the term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms, monocots being the other.
The remaining angiosperms include magnoliids and what are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been or adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen. Members of the group have tricolpate pollen; these pollens have three or more pores set in furrows called colpi. In contrast, most of the other seed plants produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus; the name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists to avoid confusion with the dicots, a nonmonophyletic group. Numerous familiar plants are eudicots, including many common food plants and ornamentals; some common and familiar eudicots include members of the sunflower family such as the common dandelion, the forget-me-not and other members of its family, buttercup and macadamia. Most leafy trees of midlatitudes belong to eudicots, with notable exceptions being magnolias and tulip trees which belong to magnoliids, Ginkgo biloba, not an angiosperm.
The name "eudicots" is used in the APG system, of 1998, APG II system, of 2003, for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a monophyletic group, which includes most of the dicots. "Tricolpate" is a synonym for the "Eudicot" monophyletic group, the "true dicotyledons". The number of pollen grain furrows or pores helps classify the flowering plants, with eudicots having three colpi, other groups having one sulcus. Pollen apertures are any modification of the wall of the pollen grain; these modifications include thinning and pores, they serve as an exit for the pollen contents and allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. The elongated apertures/ furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi, along with pores, are a chief criterion for identifying the pollen classes; the eudicots can be divided into two groups: the basal eudicots and the core eudicots. Basal eudicot is an informal name for a paraphyletic group; the core eudicots are a monophyletic group.
A 2010 study suggested the core eudicots can be divided into two clades, Gunnerales and a clade called "Pentapetalae", comprising all the remaining core eudicots. The Pentapetalae can be divided into three clades: Dilleniales superrosids consisting of Saxifragales and rosids superasterids consisting of Santalales, Berberidopsidales and asteridsThis division of the eudicots is shown in the following cladogram: The following is a more detailed breakdown according to APG IV, showing within each clade and orders: clade Eudicots order Ranunculales order Proteales order Trochodendrales order Buxales clade Core eudicots order Gunnerales order Dilleniales clade Superrosids order Saxifragales clade Rosids order Vitales clade Fabids order Fabales order Rosales order Fagales order Cucurbitales order Oxalidales order Malpighiales order Celastrales order Zygophyllales clade Malvids order Geraniales order Myrtales order Crossosomatales order Picramniales order Malvales order Brassicales order Huerteales order Sapindales clade Superasterids order Berberidopsidales order Santalales order Caryophyllales clade Asterids order Cornales order Ericales clade Campanulids order Aquifoliales order Asterales order Escalloniales order Bruniales order Apiales order Dipsacales order Paracryphiales clade Lamiids order Solanales order Lamiales order Vahliales order Gentianales order Boraginales order Garryales order Metteniusales order Icacinales Eudicots at the Encyclopedia of Life Eudicots, Tree of Life Web Project Dicots Plant Life Forms
Vitis arizonica is a North American species of wild grape. It is a deciduous vine. Common names for the grape are Arizona grape, canyon grape, uva del monte. Vitis is Latin for vine, while arizonica' means from Arizona, it is found in California, Nevada, New Mexico, western Texas, southern Utah, Chihuahua, Coahuila and Tamaulipas. Within Arizona, Vitis arizonica is found except La Paz. Form: Vine General: Woody vine, sprawling or weakly climbing. Leaves: Winter deciduous. Flowers: Inflorescence a loose, open branched panicle, 2–10 cm long, emerging opposite the leaves. Fruits: Edible grapes, 8–10 mm thick, black; the canyon grape is a vigorously branching vine. Stems are slender, with significant tapering from base to apex. Developed leaves resemble a three-lobed heart shape and grow to an average of 4 inches long/wide. Leaves exhibit irregular toothed edge. Green flower buds develop in clusters, small flowers bloom in a whitish green hue. Globe or ovate shaped fruit are 1/3-3/8 in diameter. Fruit are clustered on red pedicels.
Vitis arizonica USDA Plants Profile for Vitis arizonica
Vitis flexuosa is a species of liana in the grape family. It has a large native range in Asian tropical and temperate climate zones; the vine is native to: East Asia in Taiwan. Southeast Asia in Laos and Vietnam. Malesia in the Philippines. Indian Subcontinent in the Indian states of Assam, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Flexuosol A is a stilbene tetramer found in V. flexuosa