Vittorio Belmondo is a former Italian racing driver. He entered 23 races in Maseratis and Alfa Romeos between 1934 and 1938, his best results being one victory, one second place and three third places.
Vittorio Belmondo is a former Italian racing driver. He entered 23 races in Maseratis and Alfa Romeos between 1934 and 1938, his best results being one victory, one second place and three third places.
|1934||August 26||Stelvio Hillclimb||Stelvio Pass||-||Alfa Romeo 8C||-||-|
|1935||April 28||XXVI° Targa Florio||Madonie||V Belmondo||Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Monza||none||7th|
|1935||July 21||I Circuito di Varese||Varese||V Belmondo||Alfa Romeo 8C 2300 Monza||none||1st|
|1936||April 5||Mille Miglia||-||-||Alfa Romeo 6C 2300 Pescara||"F. Balbis"||11th|
|1936||June 28||I° Circuito di Milano||Parco Sempione||-||Alfa Romeo Tipo B||-||DNF|
|1936||June 28||I° Circuito di Milano (Voiturette)||Parco Sempione||-||Maserati 4C||-||3rd|
|1936||August 2||X° Coppa Ciano||Montenero Circuit||-||Maserati||-||DNS|
|1936||August 23||III Prix de Berne||Bremgarten Circuit||-||Maserati 4CM||-||DNF|
|1936||September 6||II Coppa Edda Ciano||Lucca||-||Alfa Romeo||-||DNS|
|1936||September 7||II Coppa Edda Ciano (Voiturette)||Lucca||-||Maserati 4CM||-||2nd|
|1937||April 18||II° Gran Premio del Valentino / Circuito di Torino||Parco del Valentino||V. Belmondo||Maserati 4CM||none||DNS|
|1937||April 25||III° Grand Prix of Naples||Posillipo||Officine A Maserati||Maserati 6CM||Ettore Bianco||5th|
|1937||May 9||XI Gran Premio di Tripoli||Mellaha Lake||V. Belmondo||Maserati 4C(M)||none||NC|
|1937||May 23||XXVIII Targa Florio||Circuito del Parco della Favorita||-||Maserati||-||6th|
|1937||May 30||I Circuito della Superba||Genoa||-||Maserati 4CM||-||3rd|
|1937||June 13||Gran Premio di Firenze||Florence||-||Maserati 4CM||-||DNF|
|1937||June 20||II Circuito di Milano||Parco Sempione||-||Maserati||-||5th|
|1937||July 25||1937 German Grand Prix||Nürburgring||Graf Salvi del Pero||Alfa Romeo 8C-35||none||12th|
|1937||August 15||XIII Coppa Acerbo||Pescara||Graf Selvi del Pero||Alfa Romeo 8C-35||none||6th|
|1937||September 12||1937 Italian Grand Prix||Montenero Circuit||V. Belmondo||Alfa Romeo 8C-35||none||10th|
|1938||August 7||Coppa Ciano||Montenero Circuit||"R. Balestrero"||Alfa Romeo Tipo 308||none||4th|
|1938||August 14||XIV Coppa Acerbo||Pescara Circuit||-||Alfa Romeo Tipo 308||-||3rd|
|1938||September 11||1938 Italian Grand Prix||Autodromo Nazionale Monza||"R. Balestrero"||Alfa Romeo Tipo 308||none||NC|
The Targa Florio was an open road endurance automobile race held in the mountains of Sicily near the island's capital of Palermo. Founded in 1906, it was the oldest sports car racing event, part of the World Sportscar Championship between 1955 and 1973. While the first races consisted of a whole tour of the island, the track length in the race's last decades was limited to the 72 kilometres of the Circuito Piccolo delle Madonie, lapped 11 times. After 1973, it was a national sports car event until it was discontinued in 1977 due to safety concerns, it has since been run as a rallying event, is part of the Italian Rally Championship. The race was created in 1906 by the wealthy pioneer race driver and automobile enthusiast, Vincenzo Florio, who had started the Coppa Florio race in Brescia, Lombardy in 1900; the Targa claimed to be a worldly event not to be missed. Renowned artists, such as Alexandre Charpentier and Leonardo Bistolfi, were commissioned to design medals. A magazine was initiated, which aimed to enhance, with graphic and photographic reproductions of the race, the myth of the car and the typical character of modern life, speed.
One of the toughest competitions in Europe, the first Targa Florio covered 3 laps equalling 277 miles through multiple hairpin curves on treacherous mountain roads, at heights where severe changes in climate occurred. Alessandro Cagno won the inaugural 1906 race in nine hours. By the mid-1920s, the Targa Florio had become one of Europe's most important races, as neither the 24 Hours of Le Mans nor the Mille Miglia had been established yet. Grand Prix races were still isolated events, not a series like today's F1; the wins of Mercedes in the 1920s made a big impression in Germany that of German Christian Werner in 1924, as he was the first non-Italian winner since 1920. Rudolf Caracciola repeated. In 1926, Eliska Junkova, one of the great female drivers in Grand Prix motor racing history, became the first woman to compete in the race. In 1953, the FIA World Sportscar Championship was introduced; the Targa became part of it in 1955, when Mercedes had to win 1-2 with the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR in order to beat Ferrari for the title.
They had missed the first two of the 6 events, Buenos Aires and the 12 Hours of Sebring, where Ferrari, Jaguar and Porsche scored. Mercedes appeared at and won in the Mille Miglia pulled out of Le Mans as a sign of respect for the victims of the 1955 Le Mans disaster, but won the Tourist Trophy at Dundrod. Stirling Moss/Peter Collins and Juan Manuel Fangio/Karl Kling finished minutes ahead of the best Ferrari and secured the title. Several versions of the track were used, it started with a single lap of a 148 km circuit from 1906-1911 and 1931. From 1912 to 1914 a tour around the perimeter of Sicily was used, with a single lap of 975 kilometres, lengthened to 1,080 kilometres from 1948 to 1950; the 148 km "Grande" circuit was shortened twice, the first time to 108 km, the version used from 1919-1930, to the 72 km circuit used from 1932 to 1936 and 1951 to 1977. From 1951-1958, the long coastal island tour variant was used for a separate event called the Giro di Sicilia; the start and finish took place at Cerda.
The counter-clockwise lap lead from Caltavuturo and Collesano from an altitude over 600 metres down to sea level, where the cars raced from Campofelice di Roccella on the Buonfornello straight along the coast, a straight over 6 km longer than the Mulsanne Straight at the Circuit de la Sarthe in Le Mans. The longest version of the circuit went south through Caltavuturo through an extended route through elevation changes, swept through the nearby towns of Castellana and Sottana, twisting around mountains up to the town of Castelbuono and rejoined the most recent version of the track at Collesano; the second version of the track went south through Caltavuturo and took a shortcut starting right before Castellana to Collesano via the town of Polizzi Generosa. There was a closed circuit called Favorita Park used from 1937-1940; the challenge of the Targa was unprecedented in its difficulty and the driving experience of any of the course variants was unlike any other circuit in the world other than that of the Nurburgring in Germany.
The original Grande 148 km circuit had in the realm of 2,000 corners per lap, the 108 km Medio had about 1,300-1,400 corners per lap and the final iteration of the course, the 72 km Piccolo circuit had about 800-900 corners per lap. To put that in perspective, most purpose built circuits have between 12 and 18 corners, the longest purpose built circuit in the world, the 13-mile Nurburgring, has about 180 corners. So learning any of the Targa Florio courses was difficult and required, like most long circuits, at least 60 laps to learn the course- and unlike the purpose-built Nurburgring, the course had to be learned properly in public traffic, one lap would take about an hour to do in a road car- if there was little to no traffic. Like a rally event, the race cars were started one by one every 15 seconds for a time trial, as a start from a full grid was not possible on the tight and twisty roads. Although the public road circuit used for the Targa was challenging- it was a different kind of circuit and race from any other race on the sportscar calendar.
All of the circuit variations of the Targa had so many corners that lap speeds at the Targa n
The Coppa Acerbo was an automobile race held in Italy, named after Tito Acerbo, the brother of Giacomo Acerbo, a prominent fascist politician. Following Italy's defeat in World War II, the consequent demise of fascism, the race was renamed the Circuito di Pescara, in some years was referred to as the Pescara Grand Prix; the race was run between 1924 and 1961 and over the years was held to a variety of vehicle class regulations and durations. In 1957 the Pescara Grand Prix formed a round of the Formula One World Championship, a race which still holds the record as having the longest circuit length used for a Championship event; the Coppa Acerbo races were held over a 24–26 km circuit and ending at Pescara, on the Adriatic coast. The course layout featured an inland route through the Abruzzo hills, that passed through several villages, followed by a long, straight descent back to the coast, where a tight right-hand corner led on to a four-mile long straight running next to the sea; the pit and paddock complex was located at the end of this straight.
In an effort to slow competitor speeds past these pits the Pescara circuit became one of the first to have an artificial chicane installed, just before the pit lane. The Pescara circuit layout holds the record as the longest circuit to to host a Formula One World Championship event, with the Nürburgring Nordschleife coming second at about 23 km; the first Coppa Acerbo was staged in 1924 and was won by a then-unknown junior driver by the name of Enzo Ferrari to find fame as the creator of Ferrari and head of the Formula One team Scuderia Ferrari. The race was run for the top class of international competition, the only real limiting factor on vehicle specifications being the cars' ability to transmit power through the inadequate tyres of the day. Although never itself a Grande Epreuve, or a constituent of the European Championship, the Coppa Acerbo was considered one of the most prestigious races of its day; these early races were dominated by home-grown cars and drivers, Alfa Romeo in particular was unbeatable.
The Milanese manufacturer won seven of the first nine races. Alfa's domination of the race came to an end with the introduction of the 750 kg Grand Prix regulations in 1934, a race, marked by tragedy when Guy Moll, one of the most promising young drivers of the day, was killed. Germany's state-funded Silver Arrows of Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union would come to eclipse all their rivals for the subsequent five years. Although the race was again won by two Italian drivers during this time, including a second victory for Varzi, it was only when the organisers decided to run the Coppa to the 1.5 litre voiturette formula in 1939 that any other manufacturer could stand a realistic chance of winning. Fittingly it was Alfa Romeo, with their new 158 Alfetta car, that took the honours in this last competition before the outbreak of World War II. In 1939 a "Coppa Acerbo Song" was published. After WWII the race remained suspended for a year during post-war rebuilding; when it was run again in 1947 the name of the race was changed, because of its fascist connections, it became known as the Circuito di Pescara.
For the first three years the race was run for two-seater sports cars and was a minor constituent in the European racing calendar. However, in common with many race organisers around the continent, with the introduction of the Formula One World Championship in 1950 the race organisers saw their chance to return the Pescara event to its former position of prominence. Although, once again, not a World Championship event the race did attract many top-name teams and drivers over the following two years. Despite it being an Italian event, himself a former winner, Ferrari decided to withdraw his team from the 1950 event, but the Alfa Romeo and Talbot-Lago works teams did attend, along with many privateer and amateur racers; the 1950 race was won by future World Champion Juan Manuel Fangio driving for Alfa Romeo. The following year Ferrari did attend, the race was won by Fangio's Argentinian compatriot José Froilán González driving one of their 375 cars; when the World Championship switched to the slower Formula Two regulations, the organisers decided to abandon formula racing in favour of further sportscar events.
During this period endurance sportscar racing was as prestigious as the top open-wheel series, for 1952 the organisers changed the race's name, once again, to the 12 Ore di Pescara. The change of format did not hinder Ferrari's chances of victory and their cars and drivers took wins in both 1952 and 1953. Despite the success of the endurance format, when the Formula One engine capacity limit was raised to 2.5 litres from 1954 the Circuito di Pescara was switched back to single-seat rules. The 1954 event was won by one of the most iconic Formula One cars of all time, a Maserati 250F, driven by Luigi Musso; this was to be the last race for two years, as in 1955, as a result of the disaster at the 24 hours of Le Mans, the race was cancelled. Sportscars returned once more in 1956; the 1957 Pescara Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race, held on 18 August 1957, at the Pescara Circuit. The race was the seventh, penultimate round of the 1957 World Drivers' Championship; the race, the only Formula One World Championship race at the track, is best remembered for being held at the longest circuit to stage a Formula One World Championship Grand Prix.
It was the first of the two consecutive Italian races, after the subse
The Tripoli Grand Prix was a motor racing event first held in 1925 on a racing circuit outside Tripoli, the capital of what was Italian Tripolitania. It lasted until 1940. Motor racing was an popular sport in Italy and the colony was seeking methods to raise capital and promote tourism—tourists who, it was hoped, would decide to settle in Tripolitania, but despite the support of the colony's enthusiastic governor, General Emilio de Bono, some initial success, the events failed financially. Only personal intervention by General de Bono kept the 1929 event from being cancelled, 1930 was marred by a spartan field, little public interest, the death of Gastone Brilli-Peri in an accident. Initial enthusiasm and sponsorship had retreated, the fallout from Brilli-Peri's accident meant a 1931 running was impossible, the dream of a successful Tripoli Grand Prix might have ended there and then, but the president of Tripoli's auto club, Egidio Sforzini, was resilient. He decided to organize another Grand Prix, this time on a purpose built European style racing circuit.
Sufficient capital was raised from the Italian government's funding of a fair promoting the colony so as to make the venture possible, upon the circuit's completion the Grand Prix was scheduled for the spring of 1933. This new Mellaha Lake track was a 13.140 kilometer long affair situated in a salt basin between Tripoli, Suq al Jum'ah and Tajura and around the Mellaha Air Base. The track's most distinctive landmark was a brilliant white concrete tower situated across from a large frontstretch grandstand that could hold up to ten thousand people. Mellaha Lake was equipped with starting lights, an innovation, the additional amenities rivaled the best that continental European circuits had to offer. With Italy exerting further control over its North African holdings, including the appointment of Marshal of the Air Force Italo Balbo as Governor-General and the joining of Italian Cyrenaica and Italian Tripolitania into a single colony, the event gained more spectacle; the participants were treated like royalty, staying in luxury at the Hotel Uaddan with its casino and dinner theater and being entertained by Marshal Balbo at his palace.
All this led Dick Seaman to describe Mellaha Lake as the "Ascot of motor racing circuits", coupled with its substantial total prize, it is easy to see why the Tripoli Grand Prix became such a popular date on the calendar. From 1933 to 1938, the Grand Prix was run to the Formula Libre standard, meaning that no weight or engine restrictions were enforced on what was the fastest track in the world. In 1939 the Italians, tired of Germany's dominance, turned it into a Voiturette race for smaller, 1500cc cars, but so a specially-built Mercedes driven by Hermann Lang won. In 1940, with only the factory Alfa Romeo and Maserati teams plus some independents in attendance, Giuseppe Farina took his only major pre-war victory, it was a last and pyrrhic result for the Italians, because the Tripoli Grand Prix was never held again with the onset of World War II. The Grand Prix was held in conjunction with the Libyan state lottery and, in the case of the inaugural Mellaha Lake event, there have long been accusations of result fixing.
From October 1932 to 16 April 1933, the government sold 12 lire lottery tickets and, after taking their cut, they put up the rest as the prize for a special lottery based on the outcome of the race. Thirty attendance tickets were drawn at random eight days before the event and assigned to a corresponding race entry; the holder of the winner's entry would receive three million lire, second place two million, third one million. The story, first publicized in Alfred Neubauer's 1958 book Speed Was My Life, alleged that Tazio Nuvolari, Achille Varzi and Baconin Borzacchini, along with their respective ticket holders, conspired to decide the outcome of the race in order to split some seven and a half million lire together. Research suggests. Italian Libya Mellaha Air Base, the airbase, built inside the circuit. Mitiga International Airport Grand Prix History, Gran Premio di Tripoli Grand Prix History, Triumph: A Victor's Report
The Alfa Romeo 308 or 8C-308 is a Grand Prix racing car made for the 3 litre class in 1938, only four cars were produced modified from Tipo C with the engine mounted lower into the chassis and a slimmer body. The chassis was derived from the Tipo C and the engine from the 8C 2900; the 308 was engineered by Gioacchino Colombo under the control of Enzo Ferrari, in charge of Alfa's racing team, Alfa Corse. The car debuted at the Pau Grand Prix in 1938, where two cars were entered to race, one for Tazio Nuvolari and the other for Luigi Villoresi. Both drivers had to withdraw from competition, however Nuvolari had by set a lap record; the next race was the Tripoli Grand Prix. The new 312 and 316 were entered, but they had engine trouble during practice and Clemente Biondetti took the start at the wheel of the 308 held in reserve, he failed to finish. In this race, Eugenio Siena, driving a 312, was killed after hitting a wall. In the 1938 Mille Miglia, Clemente Biondetti and Carlo Pintacuda took the first two places.
Biondetti's car used a 300 bhp Tipo 308 engine, while Pintacuda's used a 225 bhp 2900B. In 1938 and 1939, Raymond Sommer won a couple of hillclimb competitions at La Turbie with 308. One of the cars was brought to Argentina where it gathered some success and victories in the hands of Óscar Alfredo Gálvez; the car that Gálvez used in Argentina is now in the Juan Manuel Fangio museum. One of the cars was sold to the US after World War II and Louis Durant drove it to 6th place in the 1946 Indianapolis 500. In 1948, Johnny Mauro drove the car to 8th place, it is the same car, used in the 1940 Indianapolis 500, Raymond Sommer's ex car. Overall Alfa Romeo's 3 litre formula cars were not a great success. Instead, the new car for the 1500 cc class, the 158 voiturette, designed in 1937 and first raced at the Coppa Ciano in August 1938, proved much more successful. 1938 Grand Prix Rio de Janeiro, Carlo Maria Pintacuda 1939 Circuit des Remparts - Angoulême, Raymond Sommer 1946 Grand Prix de Bourgogne, Jean-Pierre Wimille 1946 Grand Prix du Roussillon - Circuit des Platanes - Perpignan, Jean-Pierre Wimille 1947 Grand Prix de Rosario, Achille Varzi 1948 Grand Prix São Paulo, Jean-Pierre Wimille 1949 Buenos Aires Grand Prix, Óscar Alfredo Gálvez 1940 Chet Miller, 17th 1946 Louis Durant, 6th 1947 Walt Brown, 7th 1948 Johnny Mauro, 8th
The Autodromo Nazionale Monza is a historic race track located near the city of Monza, north of Milan, in Italy. Built in 1922, it is the world's third purpose-built motor racing circuit after those of Brooklands and Indianapolis; the circuit's biggest event is the Formula One Italian Grand Prix. With the exception of 1980, the race has been hosted there since the series's inception. Built in the Royal Villa of Monza park in a woodland setting, the site has three tracks – the 5.793-kilometre Grand Prix track, the 2.405-kilometre Junior track, a 4.250-kilometre high speed oval track with steep bankings, unused for many decades and is now decaying. The major features of the main Grand Prix track include the Curva Grande, the Curva di Lesmo, the Variante Ascari and the Curva Parabolica; the high speed curve, Curva Grande, is located after the Variante del Rettifilo, located at the end of the front straight or Rettifilo Tribune, is taken flat out by Formula One cars. Drivers are on full throttle for most of the lap due to its long straights and fast corners, is the scenario in which the open-wheeled Formula One cars show the raw speed of which they are capable: 372 kilometres per hour during the mid-2000s V10 engine formula, although in 2012 with the 2.4L V8 engines, top speeds in Formula One reached over 340 kilometres per hour.
The circuit is flat, but has a gradual gradient from the second Lesmos to the Variante Ascari. Due to the low aerodynamic profile needed, with its resulting low downforce, the grip is low. Since both maximum power and minimal drag are keys for speed on the straights, only competitors with enough power or aerodynamic efficiency at their disposal are able to challenge for the top places. In addition to Formula One, the circuit hosted the 1000 km Monza, endurance sports car race held as part of the World Sportscar Championship and the Le Mans Series. Monza featured the unique Race of Two Worlds events, which attempted to run Formula One and USAC National Championship cars against each other; the racetrack previously held rounds of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing, World Touring Car Championship, TCR International Series, Superbike World Championship, Formula Renault 3.5 Series and Auto GP. Monza hosts rounds of the Blancpain GT Series Endurance Cup, International GT Open and Euroformula Open Championship, as well as various local championships such as the TCR Italian Series, Italian GT Championship, Porsche Carrera Cup Italia and Italian F4 Championship.
The Monza circuit has been the site of many fatal accidents in the early years of the Formula One world championship, has claimed the lives of 52 drivers and 35 spectators. Track modifications have continuously occurred, to improve spectator safety and reduce curve speeds, but it is still criticised by the current drivers for its lack of run-off areas, most notoriously at the chicane that cuts the Variante della Roggia; the first track was built from May to July 1922 by 3,500 workers, financed by the Milan Automobile Club – which created the Società Incremento Automobilismo e Sport to run the track. The initial form was a 3.4 square kilometres site with 10 kilometres of macadamised road – comprising a 4.5 kilometres loop track, a 5.5 kilometres road track. The track was opened on 3 September 1922, with the maiden race the second Italian Grand Prix held on 10 September 1922. In 1928, the most serious Italian racing accident to date ended in the death of driver Emilio Materassi and 27 spectators at that year's Grand Prix.
The accident led to further Grand Prix races confinement to the high-speed loop until 1932. The 1933 race was marked by the deaths of three drivers and the Grand Prix layout was changed, with two chicanes added and the longer straights removed. There was major rebuilding in 1938–39, constructing new stands and entrances, resurfacing the track, moving portions of the track and adding two new bends; the resulting layout gave a Grand Prix lap of 6.300 kilometres, in use until 1954. The outbreak of World War II meant racing at the track was suspended until 1948 and parts of the circuit degraded due to the lack of maintenance. Monza was renovated over a period of two months at the beginning of 1948 and a Grand Prix was held on 17 October 1948. In 1954, work began to revamp the circuit, resulting in a 5.750 kilometres course, a new 4.250 kilometres high-speed oval with banked sopraelevata curves. The two circuits could be combined to re-create the former 10 kilometres long circuit, with cars running parallel on the main straight.
The track infrastructure was updated and improved to better accommodate the teams and spectators. The Automobile Club of Italy held 500-mile Race of Two Worlds exhibition competitions, intended to pit United States Auto Club IndyCars against European Formula One and sports cars; the races were held on the oval at the end of June in 1957 and 1958, with three 63 lap 267.67 kilometres heat races each year, races which colloquially became known as the Monzanapolis series. Concerns were raised among the European drivers that flat-out racing on the banking would be too dangerous, so only Ecurie Ecosse and Maserati represented European racing at the
Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits; as of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa, counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera. Located on the Gulf of Genoa in the Ligurian Sea, Genoa has been one of the most important ports on the Mediterranean: it is the busiest in Italy and in the Mediterranean Sea and twelfth-busiest in the European Union. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious impressive landmarks. Part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006 as Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli; the city's rich cultural history in art and cuisine allowed it to become the 2004 European Capital of Culture. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Andrea Doria, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, Renzo Piano and Grimaldo Canella, founder of the House of Grimaldi, among others.
Genoa, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of Northwest Italy, is one of the country's major economic centers. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, its solid financial sector dates back to the Middle Ages; the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the city's prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. Today a number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia, Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace, Mediterranean Shipping Company and Costa Cruises; the flag of Genoa is a red cross on a white field. The English Monarch paid an annual tribute to the Doge of Genoa for this privilege." The patron saint of Genoa was Saint Lawrence until at least 958, but the Genoese transferred their allegiance to Saint George at some point during the 11th or 12th century, most with the rising popularity of the military saint during the Crusades.
Genoa had a banner displaying a cross since at latest 1218 as early as 1113. But the cross banner was not associated with the saint. A depiction of this flag is shown in the Genoese annals under the year 1227; the Genoese flag with the red cross was used alongside this "Saint George's flag", from at least 1218, known as the insignia cruxata comunis Janue. The saint's flag was the city's main war flag, but the cross flag was used alongside it in the 1240s; the Saint George's flag remained the main flag of Genoa at least until the 1280s. The flag now known as the "St. George's Cross" seems to have replaced it as Genoa's main flag at some point during the 14th century; the Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms shows it, inscribed with the word iustiçia, described as: And the lord of this place has as his ensign a white pennant with a red cross. At the top it is inscribed in this manner; the city of Genoa covers an area of 243 square kilometres between the Ligurian Sea and the Apennine Mountains. The city stretches along the coast for about 30 kilometres from the neighbourhood of Voltri to Nervi, for 10 kilometres from the coast to the north along the valleys Polcevera and Bisagno.
The territory of Genoa is popularly divided into 5 main zones: the centre, the west, the east, the Polcevera and the Bisagno Valley. Genoa is adjacent to two popular Ligurian vacation spots: Portofino. In the metropolitan area of Genoa lies Aveto Natural Regional Park. Genoa has a humid subtropical climate in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than 40 millimetres of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as oceanic or Mediterranean; the average yearly temperature is around 19 °C during 13 °C at night. In the coldest months: December and February, the average temperature is 12 °C during the day and 6 °C at night. In the warmest months – July and August – the average temperature is 27.5 °C during the day and 21 °C at night. The daily temperature range is limited, with an average range of about 6 °C between high and low temperatures. Genoa sees significant moderation from the sea, in stark contrast to areas behind the Ligurian mountains such as Parma, where summers are hotter and winters are quite cold.
Annually, the average 2.9 of nights recorded temperatures of ≤0 °C. The coldest temperature recorded was −8 °C on the night of February 2012. Average annual number of days with temperatures of ≥30 °C is about 8, average four days in July and August. Average annual temperature of the sea is 17.5 °C, from 13 °C in the period January–March to 25 °C in August. In the period from June to October, the average sea temperature exceeds
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection