Carlo Fortunato Pietro Ponti Sr. was an Italian film producer with more than 140 productions to his credit. He was the husband of international film star Sophia Loren. Ponti was born in Magenta, where his grandfather had been mayor of the city. Ponti studied law at the University of Milan, he joined his father's law firm in Milan and became involved in the film business through negotiating contracts. Ponti attempted to establish a film industry in Milan in 1940 and produced Mario Soldati's Piccolo Mondo Antico there, starring Alida Valli, in her first notable role; the film dealt with the Italian struggle against the Austrians for the inclusion of northeastern Italy into the Kingdom of Italy during the Risorgimento. The film was successful, because it was easy to see "the Austrians as Germans" during World War II; as a result, he was jailed for undermining relations with Nazi Germany. Ponti accepted an offer from Riccardo Gualino's Lux Film in Rome in 1941, where he produced a series of commercially successful films featuring the comedian Totò.
In 1954 he had his greatest artistic success with the production of Federico Fellini's La strada. However, Fellini denied Ponti's role in its success and said that "La Strada was made in spite of Ponti and De Laurentiis". Ponti produced Boccaccio'70 in 1962, Marriage Italian Style in 1964, Yesterday and Tomorrow in 1965, he produced his most popular and financially successful film, David Lean's Doctor Zhivago, in 1965. He subsequently produced three notable films with Michelangelo Antonioni, Blowup in 1966, Zabriskie Point in 1970 and The Passenger in 1974. In 1946, he married Giuliana Fiastri with whom he had a daughter, Guendalina, in 1951 and a son in 1953. While serving as a judge in a beauty contest in 1951, Ponti met a minor actress named Sofia Lazzaro, he subsequently cast her in films such as Anna. In 1952, his friend Goffredo Lombardo, head of production at Titanus, changed Lazzaro's name to Sophia Loren. Five years Ponti obtained a Mexican divorce from his first wife and married Sophia Loren by proxy.
Divorce was still forbidden in Italy, he was informed that were he to return there, he would be charged with bigamy, Loren would be charged with "concubinage". Ponti co-produced several films in Hollywood starring Loren, establishing her fame, although most were box-office failures. In 1960, he and Loren returned to Italy and when summoned to court, denied being married. In 1962, they had the marriage annulled, after which Ponti arranged with his first wife, that the three of them move to France and become French citizens. In 1965, Giuliana Ponti divorced her husband, allowing Ponti to marry Loren in 1966 in a civil wedding in Sèvres, they became French citizens after their application was approved by then-French President Georges Pompidou. Ponti and Loren had two children: Carlo Ponti Jr. Edoardo Ponti Their daughters-in-law are Sasha Alexander and Andrea Meszaros, they have four grandchildren. Loren remained married to Ponti until his death on 10 January 2007 of pulmonary complications; when asked in a November 2009 interview if she were likely to marry again, Loren replied "No, never again.
It would be impossible to love anyone else." Two unsuccessful attempts were made to kidnap Ponti in 1975, including one involving an attack on his car with gunfire. He was tried in absentia in 1979 for smuggling money and works of art abroad, fined 22 billion lire, sentenced to four years in prison. Ponti did not attend the hearing, he was cleared of the charges in 1990. Ponti owned works by, among others, Georges Braque, René Magritte, Salvador Dalí, Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth, Giorgio de Chirico and Canaletto, his collection was renowned for containing ten works by Francis Bacon. These included examples from his early Van Gogh series, self-portraits and pope paintings, which were publicised or lent to public exhibitions. In 1977 the Bacon paintings valued at an estimated $6.7 million, were seized and turned over by the Italian government to the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan. When Ponti reached a deal with the Italian government and was cleared of the charges brought against him in 1990, he regained possession of 230 confiscated paintings.
At some point, the collection is said to have been split between Loren. Over the years, several works have been sold privately. In 2006 two Bacon paintings, in the Ponti collection were exhibited in an exhibition at the Gagosian Gallery in London. One, a vertical composition of four self-portraits, had been sold to the American collector Steven A. Cohen. In 2007 another pope painting by Bacon, sold by Ponti in 1991, was sold in a private deal brokered by Acquavella Galleries in New York for more than £15 million; that same year, Study for Portrait II was consigned by Loren at Christie's. Ponti died in Geneva, from pulmonary complications on 10 January 2007, he was survived by Sophia Loren. His body rests in the family tomb in Lombardy. Carlo Ponti on IMDb
Il Postino: The Postman
Il Postino: The Postman is a 1994 Italian film directed by Michael Radford and Massimo Troisi. The film tells a fictional story in which the real life Chilean poet Pablo Neruda forms a relationship with a simple postman who learns to love poetry, it stars Philippe Noiret, Massimo Troisi, Maria Grazia Cucinotta. The screenplay was adapted by Anna Pavignano, Michael Radford, Furio Scarpelli, Giacomo Scarpelli, Massimo Troisi from the novel Ardiente paciencia by Antonio Skármeta. In 1983, Skármeta himself wrote and directed the film Ardiente paciencia, which he adapted to the novel of the same name in 1985. Writer/star Massimo Troisi postponed heart surgery; the day after filming was completed, he suffered a fatal heart attack. Set in the year 1950, Pablo Neruda, the famous Chilean poet, is exiled to a small island in Italy for political reasons, his wife accompanies him. On the island, a local, Mario Ruoppolo, is dissatisfied with being a fisherman, like his father. Mario is hired as a temporary postman, with Neruda as his only customer.
He uses his bicycle to hand deliver Neruda's mail. Though poorly educated, the postman befriends Neruda and becomes further influenced by Neruda's political views and poetry. Meanwhile, Mario falls in love with a beautiful young lady, Beatrice Russo, who works in her aunt's village cafe, he is shy with her. Mario asks Neruda if particular metaphors that he uses are suitable for his poems. Mario is able to express his love through poetry. Despite the aunt's strong disapproval of Mario, because of his sensual poetry, Beatrice responds favourably; the two are married. The priest refuses to allow Mario to have Neruda as his best man because of politics; this was. At the wedding, Neruda receives the welcome news that there is no longer a Chilean warrant for his arrest so he returns to Chile. Mario never gets any reply. Several months he receives a letter from Neruda. However, to his dismay, it is from his secretary, asking Mario to send Neruda's old belongings back to Chile. While there Mario comes upon an old phonograph and listens to the song he first heard when he met Neruda.
Moved, he makes recordings of all the beautiful sounds on the island onto a cassette including the heartbeat of his soon-to-be-born child. Five years Neruda finds Beatrice and her son, Pablito in the same old inn. From her, he discovers. Mario had been scheduled to recite a poem, she gives Neruda the recordings of village sounds. The film ends with Neruda walking on the beach where he used to talk with Mario, showing at the same time the communist gathering in which Mario was killed. Philippe Noiret – Pablo Neruda Massimo Troisi – Mario Ruoppolo Maria Grazia Cucinotta – Beatrice Russo Renato Scarpa – Telegrapher Linda Moretti – Donna Rosa Mariano Rigillo – Di Cosimo Anna Bonaiuto – Matilde Simona Caparrini – Elsa Morante Whereas the novel and the 1985 film were set in Chile, with Neruda living in his home at Isla Negra around 1970, Il Postino: The Postman moves the setting to Italy in about 1950; the film was filmed on the island of Procida, gulf of Naples. Corricella is the setting for some of the waterfront scenes in the movie.
In 1994 to promote the film, Miramax published The Postman: Music From The Miramax Motion Picture, which besides the film's score, composed by Luis Enríquez Bacalov, includes Neruda's poems recited by many celebrities. There are a total of 31 tracks. In 2002 CAM Original Soundtracks released a 17 track version of the score, mastered in Dolby Surround; the album won the Academy Award for Best Original Dramatic Score and the BAFTA Award for Best Film Music. For the 2010 opera based on the film see Daniel Catan; the film was well-received. Rotten Tomatoes reports, it received a score of 81 on Metacritic, based on 13 critic reviews. At the 68th Academy Awards, Il Postino: The Postman received one Academy Award; the film's score, composed by Luis Enríquez Bacalov, won the Academy Award for Best Music. The film was nominated for: Best Picture. Troisi received posthumous Academy Award nominations for Best Actor and Best Adapted Screenplay. Furthermore, producer Mario Cecchi Gori received a posthumous Academy Award nomination for Best Picture.
The film won the BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language. The film's score, composed by Luis Enríquez Bacalov, won the BAFTA Award for Best Film Music. Neruda A 2016 film Il Postino: The Postman on IMDb Il Postino: The Postman at Rotten Tomatoes
Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditors may seek relief from some or all of their debts. In most jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by a court order initiated by the debtor. Bankruptcy is not the only legal status that an insolvent person may have, the term bankruptcy is therefore not a synonym for insolvency. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, bankruptcy is limited to individuals. In the United States, bankruptcy is applied more broadly to formal insolvency proceedings. In France, the cognate French word banqueroute is used for cases of fraudulent bankruptcy, whereas the term faillite is used for bankruptcy in accordance with the law; the word bankruptcy is derived from Italian banca rotta, meaning "broken bench", which may stem from a widespread custom in the Republic of Genoa of breaking a moneychanger's bench or counter to signify their insolvency, or which may be only a figure of speech. In Ancient Greece, bankruptcy did not exist.
If a man owed and he could not pay, he and his wife, children or servants were forced into "debt slavery", until the creditor recouped losses through their physical labour. Many city-states in ancient Greece limited debt slavery to a period of five years. However, servants of the debtor could be retained beyond that deadline by the creditor and were forced to serve their new lord for a lifetime under harsher conditions. An exception to this rule was Athens; the Statute of Bankrupts of 1542 was the first statute under English law dealing with bankruptcy or insolvency. Bankruptcy is documented in East Asia. According to al-Maqrizi, the Yassa of Genghis Khan contained a provision that mandated the death penalty for anyone who became bankrupt three times. A failure of a nation to meet bond repayments has been seen on many occasions. Philip II of Spain had to declare four state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1575 and 1596. According to Kenneth S. Rogoff, "Although the development of international capital markets was quite limited prior to 1800, we catalog the various defaults of France, Prussia and the early Italian city-states.
At the edge of Europe, Egypt and Turkey have histories of chronic default as well." The principal focus of modern insolvency legislation and business debt restructuring practices no longer rests on the elimination of insolvent entities, but on the remodeling of the financial and organizational structure of debtors experiencing financial distress so as to permit the rehabilitation and continuation of the business. For private households, some argue that it is insufficient to dismiss debts after a certain period, it is important to assess the underlying problems and to minimize the risk of financial distress to re-occur. It has been stressed that debt advice, a supervised rehabilitation period, financial education and social help to find sources of income and to improve the management of household expenditures must be provided during this period of rehabilitation. In most EU Member States, debt discharge is conditioned by a partial payment obligation and by a number of requirements concerning the debtor's behavior.
In the United States, discharge is conditioned to a lesser extent. The spectrum is broad in the EU, with the UK coming closest to the US system; the Other Member States do not provide the option of a debt discharge. Spain, for example, passed a bankruptcy law in 2003 which provides for debt settlement plans that can result in a reduction of the debt or an extension of the payment period of maximally five years, but it does not foresee debt discharge. In the US, it is difficult to discharge federal or federally guaranteed student loan debt by filing bankruptcy. Unlike most other debts, those student loans may be discharged only if the person seeking discharge establishes specific grounds for discharge under the Brunner test, under which the court evaluates three factors: If required to repay the loan, the borrower cannot maintain a minimal standard of living. If a debtor proves all three elements, a court may permit only a partial discharge of the student loan. Student loan borrowers may benefit from restructuring their payments through a Chapter 13 bankruptcy repayment plan, but few qualify for discharge of part or all of their student loan debt.
Bankruptcy fraud is a white-collar crime. While difficult to generalize across jurisdictions, common criminal acts under bankruptcy statutes involve concealment of assets, concealment or destruction of documents, conflicts of interest, fraudulent claims, false statements or declarations, fee fixing or redistribution arrangements. Falsifications on bankruptcy forms constitute perjury. Multiple filings are not in and of themselves criminal, but they may violate provisions of bankruptcy law. In the U. S. bankruptcy fraud statutes are focused on the mental state of particular actions. Bankruptcy fraud is a federal crime in the United States. Bankruptcy fraud should be distinguished from strategic bankruptcy, not a criminal act since it creates a real bankruptcy state. Howeve
The Italians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula and its neighbouring insular territories. Most Italians share a common culture, ancestry or language. All Italian nationals are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence and may be distinguished from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and from ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula without Italian citizenship; the majority of Italian nationals are speakers of a regional variety thereof. However, many of them speak another regional or minority language native to Italy. In 2017, in addition to about 55 million Italians in Italy, Italian-speaking autonomous groups are found in neighbouring nations: a quarter million are in Switzerland, a large population is in France, the entire population of San Marino, there are smaller groups in Slovenia and Croatia in Istria and Dalmatia; because of the wide-ranging diaspora, about 5 million Italian citizens and nearly 80 million people of full or partial Italian ancestry live outside their own homeland, which include the 62.5% of Argentina's population, 1/3 of Uruguayans, 40% of Paraguayans, 15% of Brazilians, people in other parts of Europe bordering Italy, the Americas and the Middle East.
Italians have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and music and technology, cuisine, jurisprudence and business both abroad and worldwide. Furthermore, Italian people are known for their localism, both regionalist and municipalist; the Latin name Italia according to Strabo's Geographica was used by Greeks to indicate the southwestern tip of the Italian peninsula, corresponding to the current region of Calabria, from the strait of Messina to the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto. It most originates with Oscan Víteliú, meaning "land of young cattle"; the bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. The name was extended to include all the Italian peninsula south of the Rubicon, still by the end of the 1st century BC, to all of the peninsula and beyond. Latin Italicus as a substantive meaning "a man of Italy" is first recorded in Pliny the Elder, Letters 9.23.
The adjective italianus, from which are derived the Italian name of the Italians is medieval. The Italian peninsula was divided into a multitude of tribal or ethnic territory prior to the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. After a series of wars between Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, completed the conquest of the Italian peninsula by 218 BC; this period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily and Corsica. In 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean; the process of Italian unification, the associated Romanization, culminated in 88 BC, when, in the aftermath of the Social War, Rome granted its Italian allies full rights in Roman society, extending Roman citizenship to all Italic peoples.
From its inception, Rome was a republican city-state, but four famous civil conflicts destroyed the republic: Lucius Cornelius Sulla against Gaius Marius and his son, Julius Caesar against Pompey, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony and Octavian, Mark Antony against Octavian. Octavian, the final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Augustus created for the first time an administrative region called Italia with inhabitants called "Italicus populus", stretching from the Alps to Sicily: for this reason historians like Emilio Gentile called him Father of Italians. In the 1st century BC, Italia was still a collection of territories with different political statuses; some cities, called municipia, had some independence from Rome, while others, the coloniae, were founded by the Romans themselves. Around 7 BC, Augustus divided Italy into eleven regiones. During the Crisis of the Third Century the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasions, military anarchy and civil wars, hyperinflation.
In 284, emperor Diocletian restored political stability. The importance of Rome declined; the seats of the Caesars were Augusta Treverorum for Constantius Chlorus and Sirmium (on the Riv
Marco Vicario is an Italian film actor, film producer and director. He appeared in 23 films between 1950 and 1958, he wrote for 13 films, produced 12 and directed a further 11. He was born in Italy. Sette uomini d'oro The Sensual Man Wifemistress Machine Gun McCain Seven Times Seven Danza macabra Songs of Italy Rome 11:00 The Eternal Chain Redenzione Appointment for Murder Operation Mitra Cavalcade of Heroes Marco Vicario on IMDb Marco Vicario at AllMovie
Senate of the Republic (Italy)
The Senate of the Republic or Senate is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament. The two houses together form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately. Pursuant to Articles 57, 58, 59 of the Italian Constitution, the Senate has a variable number of members, of which 309 are elected from Italian constituencies, 6 from Italian citizens living abroad, a small number are senators for life, either appointed or ex officio, it was established in its current form on 8 May 1948, but existed during the Kingdom of Italy as Senato del Regno, itself a continuation of the Senato Subalpino of Sardinia established on 8 May 1848. Members of the Senate are styled Senator or The Honourable Senator and they meet at Palazzo Madama, Rome; the Senate consists of 315 elected members, as of 2018 six senators for life. The elected senators must be over 40 years of age and are elected by Italian citizens aged 25 or older; the Senate is elected on a regional basis. The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population.
However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley and Molise. The senators for life are composed of former Presidents of the Italian Republic who hold office ex officio, up to five citizens who are appointed by the President "for outstanding merits in the social, artistic or literary field"; the current life senators are: The current term of the Senate is five years, except for senators for life that hold their office for their lifetime. Until a Constitutional change on February 9, 1963, the Senate was elected for six-year terms; the Senate may be dissolved before the expiration of its normal term by the President of the Republic. In 2016, Italian Parliament passed a constitutional law that "effectively abolishes the Senate as an elected chamber and restricts its ability to veto legislation"; the law was rejected on December 2016 by a referendum, leaving the Senate unchanged. According to article 58 of the Italian constitution, people aged more than 25 years are enabled to vote for the Senate.
The electoral system is a parallel voting system, with 37% of seats allocated using first-past-the-post voting and 63% using proportional representation, allocated with the largest remainder method, with one round of voting. The 315 elected senators are elected in: 116 by plurality. A small, variable number of senators for life are members of the Senate. For Italian residents, each house members are elected by single ballots, including the constituency candidate and his/her supporting party lists. In each single-member constituency the deputy/senator is elected on a plurality basis, while the seats in multi-member constituencies will be allocated nationally. In order to be calculated in single-member constituency results, parties need to obtain at least 1% of the national vote. In order to receive seats in multi-member constituencies, parties need to obtain at least 3% of the national vote. Elects from multi-member constituencies will come from closed lists; the single voting paper, containing both first-past-the-post candidates and the party lists, shows the names of the candidates to single-member constituencies and, in close conjunction with them, the symbols of the linked lists for the proportional part, each one with a list of the relative candidates.
The voter can cast their vote in three different ways: Drawing a sign on the symbol of a list: in this case the vote extends to the candidate in the single-member constituency, supported by that list. Drawing a sign on the name of the candidate of the single-member constituency and another one on the symbol of one list that supports them: the result is the same as that described above. Drawing a sign only on the name of the candidate for the FPTP constituency, without indicating any list: in this case, the vote is valid for the candidate in the single-member constituency and automatically extended to the list that supports them; the current membership of the Senate of the Republic, following the latest political elections of 4 March 2018: Under the current Constitution, the Senate must hold its first sitting no than 20 days after a general election. That session, presided by the oldest senator, proceeds to elect the President of the Senate for the following parliamentary period. On the first two attempts at voting, an absolute majority of all senators is needed.
If this third round fails to produce a winner, a final ballot is held between the two senators with the highest votes in the previous ballot. In the case of a tie, the elder senator is deemed the winner. In addition to overseeing the business of the chamber and regulating debates, deciding whether motions a
Alfredo Bini was an Italian film producer. He produced 32 films between 1958 and 1979, he was born in Italy. The Law Is the Law Il bell'Antonio La Viaccia Accattone Mamma Roma Ro. Go. Pa. G; the Gospel According to St. Matthew El Greco The Hawks and the Sparrows Oedipus Rex Satyricon Corriere retrieved 18th Oct 2010 Alfredo Bini on IMDb Alfredo Bini at AllMovie