WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28,1892, in San Francisco, California, by the Scottish-American preservationist John Muir, in recent years, the club has gravitated toward green politics and especially toward bright green environmentalism. Recent focuses of the club include promoting green energy, mitigating global warming, in 2015 Sierra Club launched its activism platform AddUp. The Sierra Club does not set standards for or regulate alpinism, but it organizes wilderness courses, rock climbs, the Sierra Club is governed by a 15-member Board of Directors. Each year, five directors are elected to terms. A president is elected annually by the Board from among its members, the Executive Director runs the day-to-day operations of the group. Michael Brune, formerly of Rainforest Action Network, has served as the executive director since 2010. Pope stepped down amid discontent that the group had strayed from its core principles, Sierra Club members belong to statewide chapters and local groups.
National and local special-interest sections and task forces address particular issues, the national Sierra Club sets the organizations policy agenda. As early as 1889, Johnson had encouraged Muir to form an association to protect the Sierra Nevada. Others involved in the planning included artist William Keith, Willis Linn Jepson, Willard Drake Johnson, Joseph LeConte. The Sierra Clubs charter members elected Muir president, an office he held until his death in 1914, Muir escorted President Theodore Roosevelt through Yosemite in 1903, and two years the California legislature ceded Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove to the federal government. The Sierra Club won its first lobbying victory with the creation of the second national park. In the first decade of the 1900s, the Sierra Club became embroiled in the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir controversy that divided preservationists from resource management conservationists. In the late 19th century, the city of San Francisco was rapidly outgrowing its limited water supply, which depended on intermittent local springs and streams.
Gifford Pinchot, a supporter of public utilities and head of the US Forest Service. Muir appealed to his friend U. S. President Roosevelt and attorney William Edward Colby began a national campaign against the dam, attracting the support of many eastern conservationists. With the 1912 election of U. S. President Woodrow Wilson, the bill to dam Hetch Hetchy passed Congress in 1913, and so the Sierra Club lost its first major battle
Biella is a town and comune in the northern Italian region of Piedmont, the capital of the province of the same name, with a population of 45,016 as of 2014. It is located about 80 kilometres northeast of Turin and about 80 kilometres west-northwest of Milan, nearby natural and notable tourist attractions include the Zegna Viewpoint, the Bielmonte Ski Resort, Burcina Natural Reserve, and the moors to the south of town. The Sanctuary of Oropa is a site of religious pilgrimages, in 2003, the Sacred Mountain of Oropa was inserted by UNESCO in the World Heritage List. Biella is an important wool processing and textile centre, there is a small airport in the nearby comune of Cerrione. The first inhabitants of the area were Ligurians and Celts and this has been ascertained from archaeological finds, they lived near streams and lakes, at first as fishermen and hunters, and later, herders. In the late 1950s, Bronze Age—or, according to some, Iron Age—tools and necklaces, in the 10th century the town was inhabited by Alemanni and Franks, who built the first walls as a defense against barbarian invasions.
Bishop Ugucciones castle was destroyed in a revolt in 1377 that led to the subjection of Biella, along with its dependent comuni, in the 14th and 15th centuries the Visconti family competed with Savoy for the possession of the Biella region. In 1798 Biella was once occupied by the French, and after the battle of Marengo. The Congress of Vienna returned it to Savoy, in World War II Biella was the scene of armed resistance. In 1992, the new province of Biella was formed, separating the territory from the sector of the province of Vercelli. Since 1999/2000, a worse crisis in the sector forced many local wool mills to close, since they could not compete with the prices of imported fabrics. The main one, Biella San Paolo railway station, opened in 1856, is the junction of the Biella–Novara, a second railway station, Biella Chiavazza, is in the district of Chiavazza, a short distance along the line towards Novara. Biella-Cerrione Airport in Cerrione serves Biella
Alaska is a U. S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas–the southern parts of the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area, the 3rd least populous, approximately half of Alaskas residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaskas economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy. The United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30,1867, the area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11,1912. It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3,1959, the name Alaska was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the peninsula. It was derived from an Aleut, or Unangam idiom, which refers to the mainland of Alaska. Literally, it means object to which the action of the sea is directed, Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere.
Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America and it is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use, Alaska is not part of the contiguous U. S. often called the Lower 48. The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system. Alaskas territorial waters touch Russias territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island, Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the area of the next three largest states, Texas and Montana. It is larger than the area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. Also referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States, as such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase.
The region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest and it contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, and Ketchikan, at one time Alaskas largest city. The Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital transportation link throughout the area. The Interior is the largest region of Alaska, much of it is uninhabited wilderness, Fairbanks is the only large city in the region
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The Himalayan range has the Earths highest peaks, including the highest, the Himalayas include over a hundred mountains exceeding 7,200 metres in elevation. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia – Aconcagua, in the Andes – is 6,961 metres tall. The Himalayas are spread across five countries, India, China, the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges, on the north by the Tibetan Plateau, and on the south by the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Some of the major rivers, the Indus, the Ganges, and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, rise in the Himalayas. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of South Asia, many Himalayan peaks are sacred in Hinduism and Buddhism. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate and its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river.
Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the bend of the Tsangpo river. The range varies in width from 400 kilometres in the west to 150 kilometres in the east, the name of the range derives from the Sanskrit Himā-laya, from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the Himalaya Mountains, usually shortened to the Himalayas, they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinsons poetry and Henry David Thoreaus essays. The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or The Land of Snow in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu, the flora and fauna of the Himalayas vary with climate, rainfall and soils. The climate ranges from tropical at the base of the mountains to permanent ice, the amount of yearly rainfall increases from west to east along the southern front of the range. This diversity of altitude and soil conditions combined with the high snow line supports a variety of distinct plant. The extremes of high altitude combined with extreme cold favor extremophile organisms, the unique floral and faunal wealth of the Himalayas is undergoing structural and compositional changes due to climate change.
The increase in temperature is shifting various species to higher elevations, the oak forest is being invaded by pine forests in the Garhwal Himalayan region. There are reports of early flowering and fruiting in some species, especially rhododendron, apple. The highest known tree species in the Himalayas is Juniperus tibetica located at 4,900 metres in Southeastern Tibet, the Himalayan range is one of the youngest mountain ranges on the planet and consists mostly of uplifted sedimentary and metamorphic rock
Kurt Diemberger is an Austrian mountaineer and author of several books. He is the living person who has made the first ascents on two mountains over 8,000 metres, of Broad Peak in 1957 and of Dhaulagiri in 1960. Diemberger attended university in Vienna, where he obtained two degrees, together with Hermann Buhl, he is one of two mountaineers who have successfully made the first ascents on two mountains over 8,000 metres. In 1957, Diemberger was the last person to see Hermann Buhl alive before he fell through a cornice on Chogolisa and this attempt to climb Chogolisa was illegal and subsequently Diemberger was banned from entering Pakistan for an extended period of time. Diemberger was one of two survivors in the 1986 K2 Disaster. On August 4,1986, Diemberger and Julie Tullis reached the summit of K2 very late in the day, shortly after starting their descent, Tullis fell and dragged Diemberger down with her. Fortunately, they somehow stopped from going over the edge and spent the night above 8,000 metres and they managed to reach Camp IV the next day, where they were forced to share two tents with six other climbers after their tent had collapsed from hurricane force winds.
Tullis died that night, possibly from high altitude cerebral edema, both climbers suffered severe frostbite during the descent and had to have amputations. Diemberger is still active in the world and works on film projects with his daughter. Diemberger has written the books, The Endless Knot, K2, Mountain of Dreams. Translated into English by Audrey Salkeld, ISBN 0-89886-300-7 Summits and secrets,1991. Translated into English by Hugh Merrick, ISBN 0-89886-307-4 Spirits of the Air,1994 ISBN 0-89886-408-9 K2, Challenging the Sky,1997 ISBN 0-89886-518-2 The Kurt Diemberger Omnibus,1999 ISBN 1-898573-26-3 K2. Traum und Schicksal,2001 ISBN 3-7654-3755-7 Eight-thousander List of 20th-century summiters of Mount Everest Team Member of the Austrian OEAV Karakoram Expedition 1957
Mont Blanc or Monte Bianco, both meaning White Mountain, is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of Russia after the Caucasus peaks. It rises 4,808 m above sea level and is ranked 11th in the world in topographic prominence, the mountain lies in a range called the Graian Alps, between the regions of Aosta Valley and Savoie and Haute-Savoie, France. The location of the summit is on the line between the valleys of Ferret and Veny in Italy and the valleys of Montjoie, and Arve in France. The Mont Blanc massif is popular for mountaineering, skiing, the three towns and their communes which surround Mont Blanc are Courmayeur in Aosta Valley and Saint-Gervais-les-Bains and Chamonix in Haute-Savoie, France. The latter town was the site of the first Winter Olympics, a cable car ascends and crosses the mountain range from Courmayeur to Chamonix, through the Col du Géant. The 11.6 km Mont Blanc Tunnel, constructed between 1957 and 1965, runs beneath the mountain and is a major transport route.
The first recorded ascent of Mont Blanc was on 8 August 1786 by Jacques Balmat and this climb, initiated by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, who gave a reward for the successful ascent, traditionally marks the start of modern mountaineering. The first woman to reach the summit was Marie Paradis in 1808, nowadays the summit is ascended by an average of 20,000 mountaineer-tourists each year. It could be considered an easy, yet arduous, ascent for someone who is well-trained and acclimatized to the altitude, from lAiguille du Midi, Mont Blanc seems quite close, being 1,000 m higher. Some routes require knowledge of mountaineering, a guide. All routes are long and arduous, involving delicate passages and the hazard of rock-fall or avalanche, climbers may suffer altitude sickness, occasionally life threatening, particularly if they do not acclimatize to it. Since the French Revolution, the issue of the ownership of the summit has been debated, from 1416 to 1792, the entire mountain was within the Duchy of Savoy.
In 1723 the Duke of Savoy, Victor Amadeus II, acquired the Kingdom of Sardinia, the resulting state of Sardinia was to become preeminent in the Italian unification. In September 1792, the French revolutionary Army of the Alps under Anne-Pierre de Montesquiou-Fézensac seized Savoy without much resistance, in a treaty of 15 May 1796, Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia was forced to cede Savoy and Nice to France. This act further states that the border should be visible from the town of Chamonix, neither the peak of the Mont Blanc is visible from Courmayeur nor the peak of the Mont Blanc de Courmayeur is visible from Chamonix because part of the mountains lower down obscure them. After the Napoleonic Wars, the Congress of Vienna restored the King of Sardinia in Savoy and Piedmont, his traditional territories, forty-five years later, after the Second Italian War of Independence, it was replaced by a new legal act. This act was signed in Turin on 24 March 1860 by Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy, a demarcation agreement, signed on 7 March 1861, defined the new border.
With the formation of Italy, for the first time Mont Blanc was located on the border of France, the 1860 act and attached maps are still legally valid for both the French and Italian governments
Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography. The light-sensitive emulsion of silver salts was coated on a plate, typically thinner than common window glass. Glass plates were far superior to film for research-quality imaging because they were stable and less likely to bend or distort. Early plates used the wet collodion process, the wet plate process was replaced late in the 19th century by gelatin dry plates. Glass plate photographic material largely faded from the market in the early years of the 20th century, as more convenient. Workshops on the use of glass plate photography as a medium or for artistic use are still being conducted. A number of observatories, including Harvard College and Sonneberg, maintain large archives of photographic plates, many solar system objects were discovered by using photographic plates, superseding earlier visual methods. Discovery of minor planets using photographic plates was pioneered by Max Wolf beginning with his discovery of 323 Brucia in 1891, the first natural satellite discovered using photographic plates was Phoebe in 1898.
Glass-backed plates, rather than film, were used in astronomy because they do not shrink or deform noticeably in the development process or under environmental changes. Photographic plates were an important tool in early high-energy physics, Photographic emulsions were originally coated on thin glass plates for imaging with electron microscopes, which provided a more rigid and flatter plane compared to plastic films. Beginning in the 1970s, high-contrast, fine grain emulsions coated on thicker plastic films manufactured by Kodak and these films have largely been replaced by digitally imaging technologies. The earliest flexible films of the late 1880s were sold for use in medium-format cameras. The plastic was not of high optical quality and tended to curl. Initially, a transparent plastic base was more expensive to produce than glass, quality was eventually improved, manufacturing costs came down, and most amateurs gladly abandoned plates for films. After large-format high quality cut films for professional photographers were introduced in the late 1910s, CCD cameras have several advantages over glass plates, including high efficiency, linear light response, and simplified image acquisition and processing.
The manufacture of plates has been discontinued by Kodak, Agfa. In the realm of traditional photography, a number of historical process enthusiasts make their own wet or dry plates from raw materials. Several institutions have established archives to preserve photographic plates and prevent their valuable historical information from being lost, the emulsion on the plate can deteriorate
Ideally the pack saddle rests on a saddle blanket or saddle pad to spread the weight of the saddle and its burden on the pack animals back. The underside of the saddle is designed to conform well to the shape of the pack animals back. The flexible bars on this packsaddle adjust to a horses back, there are several styles of pack saddles. The cross buck style has crossed wooden bars to attach sling ropes, the army style of pack saddle has two large metal hooks each side for hanging pack bags or crates. The Decker style has two rings for tying sling ropes, the modern pack saddle is usually not intended to support a human rider. The upper side of the pack saddle resembles a rack to let its load rest on and be tied on with ropes, one historical exception was a pack saddle used in feudal Japan by non-samurai class commoners who were not allowed to use riding saddles for transportation. Backpacking with animals Packhorse Saddle SCR-203 pack radio Trail riding Media related to Pack saddles at Wikimedia Commons
Ansel Easton Adams was an American photographer and environmentalist. His black and white photographs of the American West, especially Yosemite National Park, have been widely reproduced on calendars, books. Adams and Fred Archer developed the Zone System as a way to determine proper exposure, the resulting clarity and depth characterized his photographs. He primarily used large-format cameras because their high resolution helped ensure sharpness in his images, Adams founded the photography group known as Group f/64, along with fellow photographers Willard Van Dyke and Edward Weston. Adams was born in the Western Addition of San Francisco, California and he was named after his uncle, Ansel Easton. His mothers family came from Baltimore, where his grandfather had a successful freight-hauling business but lost his wealth investing in failed mining. The Adams family came from New England, having migrated from Northern Ireland in the early 18th century and his paternal grandfather founded and built a prosperous lumber business which his father ran, though his fathers natural talents lay more with sciences than with business.
Later in life, Adams condemned that very same industry for cutting many of the great redwood forests. In 1907, his family moved 2 miles west to a new home near the Seacliff neighbourhood, the home had a splendid view of the Golden Gate and the Marin Headlands. San Francisco was devastated by the April 18,1906 San Francisco earthquake, the four year-old Ansel Adams was uninjured in the initial shaking but was tossed face-first into a garden wall during an aftershock three hours later and scarring his nose. Among his earliest memories was watching the smoke from the fire that destroyed much of the city a few miles to the east. A doctor recommended that his nose be reset once he reached maturity, Adams was a hyperactive child and prone to frequent sickness and hypochondria. He had few friends, but his home and surroundings on the heights facing the Golden Gate provided ample childhood activities. His father bought a telescope, and they enthusiastically shared the hobby of amateur astronomy. His father went on to serve as the paid secretary-treasurer of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific from 1925 to 1950, Ansels fathers business suffered great financial losses after the death of Ansels grandfather and the aftermath of the Panic of 1907.
By 1912, the standard of living had dropped sharply. Ansel was dismissed from several schools for being restless and inattentive. Adams was educated by tutors, his aunt Mary
The term mountaineering describes the sport of mountain climbing, including ski mountaineering. Hiking in the mountains can be a form of mountaineering when it involves scrambling, or short stretches of the more basic grades of rock climbing. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety, mountaineering is often called Alpinism, especially in European languages, which implies climbing with difficulty such high and often snow and ice-covered mountains as the Alps. A mountaineer with such great skill is called an Alpinist, many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they often regarded as sacred due to their proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a team, using ladders. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, in 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains.
During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, in 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. By the early 19th century many of the peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812. In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc and this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, in the early years of the golden age, scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and this ascent is generally regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age.
By this point the sport of mountaineering had largely reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides, mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James, though lower than Pikes Peak, the heavily glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842, pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Heavily glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th, in 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Mount Mckinley, the tallest peak in North America was successfully climbed by Hudson Stuck, Mount Logan, the tallest peak in Canada was first summitted by a half dozen climbers in 1925 in an expedition that took more than two months.
In 1879-1880 the exploration of the highest Andes in South America began when English mountaineer Edward Whymper climbed Chimborazo, the summit of Aconcagua was finally reached on January 14,1897 by Swiss mountaineer Matthias Zurbriggen during an expedition led by Edward FitzGerald that began in December 1896. The Andes of Bolivia were first explored by Sir William Martin Conway in 1898 and it took until the late 19th century for European explorers to penetrate Africa