Toulon is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-dAzur region, Toulon is the capital of the Var department, the Commune of Toulon has a population of 165,514 people, making it the fifteenth-largest city in France. It is the centre of an area with 559,421 inhabitants. Toulon is the fourth-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast after Marseille, Toulon is an important centre for naval construction, wine making, and the manufacture of aeronautical equipment, maps, tobacco, printing and electronic equipment. The military port of Toulon is the naval centre on Frances Mediterranean coast, home of the French Navy aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle. The French Mediterranean Fleet is based in Toulon, archaeological excavations, such as those at the Cosquer Cave near Marseilles, show that the coast of Provence was inhabited since at least the Paleolithic era. The Ligurians settled in the beginning in the 4th century BC.
In the 2nd century BC, the residents of Massalia called upon the Romans to help pacify the region. The Romans defeated the Ligurians and began to start their own colonies along the coast, Toulon harbour became a shelter for trading ships, and the name of the town gradually changed from Telo to Tholon and Toulon. Toulon was Christianized in the 5th century, and the first cathedral built and Gratianus of Toulon, according to the Gallia Christiana, were the first bishops of Toulon, but Louis Duchesne gives Augustalis as the first historical bishop. He assisted at councils in 441 and 442 and signed in 449 and 450 the letters addressed to Pope Leo I from the province of Arles, a Saint Cyprian and biographer of St. Cæsarius of Arles, is mentioned as a Bishop of Toulon. His episcopate, begun in 524, had not come to an end in 541, in 1095, a new cathedral was built in the city by Count Gilbert of Provence. As barbarians invaded the region and Roman power crumbled, the town was attacked by pirates. In 1486 Provence became part of France and his Italian campaign failed, and 1497, the rulers of Genoa, who controlled commerce on that part of the Mediterranean, blockaded the new port.
However, a few months the commander of the new fort sold it to the commander of an Army of the Holy Roman Empire, in 1543, Francis I found a surprising new ally in his battle against the Holy Roman Empire. He invited the fleet of Ottoman Admiral Barbarossa to Toulon as part of the Franco-Ottoman alliance, the residents were forced to leave, and the Ottoman sailors occupied the town for the winter. This fleet carried aboard an army of 8,000 infantry and 800 cavalry and its baggage under Thomas of Savoy, king Louis XIV was determined to make France a major sea power. In 1660, his Minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert ordered Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban to build a new arsenal and to fortify the town
Non-FIFA international football
FIFA is the international governing body of association football, charged with overseeing football globally and with running international representative matches. However, some international football takes place outside its ratification and this often consists of matches involving sub-national entities such as islands, colonies or autonomous regions. Representative matches occur involving states with limited international recognition who are unable to qualify for FIFA membership, there are a limited number of states whose representative teams are not affiliated to FIFA. Historically, a number of competitions occurred outside of FIFAs auspices, broadly-speaking, there are five categories of Non-FIFA national team, The first, and most common, are teams which represent the regional associations of established footballing nations. These oversee local football in their regions, and are part of a network of associations that contribute to the national association as a whole. A good example of this would be Jersey, whose members are members of the FA.
These regional associations often enter representative teams into international non-FIFA matches, a second category encompasses regions of larger nations which have a history of autonomy. They may have achieved a degree of autonomy, or be seeking it. However, it is necessary to distinguish Basque Country from the others, as it represents all Basque Country, some unrecognised states may have national teams. Some established members of UEFA once fell into this category, such as the Faroe Islands, current non-FIFA heavyweights Northern Cyprus are the best example of this category of non-FIFA football team. Also included are the sides of the Spanish autonomous regions. The third group of teams features representative sides drawn from ethnic groups that have yet to gain significant control over a home state, the Sami people of Lapland live in a distinct area of northern Scandinavia, yet fall under the control of four states. Nevertheless, they have organised an association, and a representative team.
Similarly, the Romani people have been strewn across Europe for centuries, has a fledgling footballing organisation to represent them in international competition, other stateless nations, such as the Palestinians who, despite having no recognised state, have been welcomed into FIFA and the AFC. Also the Esperanto Football Team has been set up to represent the community of Esperanto speakers. Nine sovereign states are not affiliated to FIFA, the United Kingdom is represented through its four constituent countries, and the other eight countries have or have had national teams that have played matches outside of FIFA. Another group of teams is composed by ethnic minorities in a state, NF-Board New Federations Board, a football association established in 2003. It is made up of teams that represent nations that are not recognized as sovereign states, the NF-Board organises the VIVA World Cup and the UNPO Cup
Tibet national football team
The Tibet national football team is a football team controlled by the Tibetan National Football Association, an organization of exiled Tibetans. Its current team manager is Kelsang Dhondup, many of the players are in exile and are represented by the Tibetan Government in Exile. The team is part of neither FIFA nor the AFC and does not participate in international tournaments, the TNFA was founded in 2001 and its goal is to gain an official status. The first international game the team played was against Greenland, which place in Denmark. The team was followed by a film crew, during the process of forming the team, the match. The documentary was named The Forbidden Team, to form the team, a selective tournament was held in Dehradun, India. It featured all the various Tibetan football teams around India, after the team was selected, Team Tibet headed to Dharamsala to begin their practice sessions where Jens Espense was hired by the Tibetan Football Association to coach the team for the match. He had only a month to get them conditioned and ready to play, the pitch was in horrible condition and only half of it could be used as it was located on a public road.
During practice, Karma Nyodup was working to get all documentation done for the flight to Greenland, numbers of players were soon dropped due to improper travel documents. After a month had passed, the team flew to Denmark for their first international game and he was advocating Tibet when the Chinese government raised their cause for concern. China did not want this match to happen as they believed Tibet belonged to China and it threatened to cut off all its trade with Denmark if the match went on as planned. Denmark however, did not back down and allowed the game to take place, on 30 June 2001 the Tibetan National Football Team played its first international match where it lost 1-4 against Greenland. The 2006 FIFI Wild Cup took place in Hamburg, the first match they played was against St. Pauli on 30 May 2006. The second and final match of Tibet in this tournament was against Gibraltar on 31 May 2006, during the ELF Cup Tibet did not win any games and they suffered their biggest defeat. The first game was against Tajikistan on 19 November 2006 where they lost 3-0, on 20 November, Tibet played the Crimean Tatars, which they lost 1-0.
Finally on 21 November the biggest loss came when Tibet played Northern Cyprus, the Tibetan National Football Association was founded in 2001, soon after the authorization was delivered by the Kashag, and registration under Indian law. Jetsun Pema, the sister of the 14th Dalai Lama is the president of the association, Thupten Dorjee the secretary, the association is now organizing the Gyalyum Chenmo Memorial Gold Cup GCMGC football tournament which existed already in the 80s. In 2003, the 17th Karmapa was the chief guest on the first day of the tournament which took place at the Tibetan Childrens Village in Dharamsala, mr. Shrikant Baldi, Deputy Commissioner of Kangra, was the chief guest in 2004 for the tournament
Verona is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, with approximately 265,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region. It is the second largest city municipality in the region and the third largest in northeast Italy, the metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1,426 km2 and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants. Three of Shakespeares plays are set in Verona and Juliet, The Two Gentlemen of Verona and it is unknown if Shakespeare ever visited Verona or Italy at all, but his plays have lured many visitors to Verona and surrounding cities many times over. The city has been awarded World Heritage Site status by UNESCO because of its structure and architecture. According to a theory that considers the geographical position of the city, Verona is short for Versus Romae which means In the direction of Rome because as italian people say All roads lead to Rome. The exclamation Vae Romae if understood in Latin means Alas Rome, in fact, to express distress or denounce a disgrace ancient Romans used the Latin interjection vae.
So, you explain the famous poem by William Shakespeare There is no world without Verona walls, But purgatory, torture. Hence-banished is banishd from the world, And worlds exile is death, the writer would express a Roman concept through its character named Romeo, a name that invokes Rome, according to which the city of Verona was a boundary between the Roman world and barbaric one. Verona was a place of passage and to horses, for those who wanted to go and had walked the Via Claudia Augusta. So the expression Vae Romae Alas Rome would indicate spirit of the place, another theory is that it is connected to the river. Vera was a name of the river Adige before the adoption of the current name, as in many similar instances in Europe the name of the town is formed with the addition of suffix -ona which means settlement over. The city was sometimes known as Welsch-Bern in German. The precise details of Veronas early history remain a mystery, one theory is it was a city of the Euganei, who were obliged to give it up to the Cenomani.
With the conquest of the Valley of the Po the Veronese territory became Roman, Verona became a Roman colonia in 89 BC, and a municipium in 49 BC when its citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe Poblilia or Publicia. The city became important because it was at the intersection of several roads, stilicho defeated Alaric and his Visigoths here in 403. But, after Verona was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 489, theoderic the Great was said to have built a palace there. It remained under the power of the Goths throughout the Gothic War, except for a day in 541. The defections that took place among the Byzantine generals with regard to the booty made it possible for the Goths to regain possession of the city, in 552 Valerian vainly endeavored to enter the city, but it was only when they were fully overthrown that the Goths surrendered it
Padania is an alternative name for the Po Valley, a major plain in the north of Italy. Since then, it has carried strong political connotations, the adjective padano, derived from Padus, the Latin name of the Po river, was first used in the 19th century. In its true sense, Padania refers to the valley of the Po river. The ancient Regio XI has been referred to as Regio XI Transpadana in academic literature only in recent centuries. The term Padania has been used mainly as a denomination as the terms Pianura Padana or Val Padana are the standard denominations in geography textbooks. The term was used in these terms until the Giovanni Agnelli Foundation re-launched it in 1992 through the volume La Padania, una regione italiana in Europa. Since the 1960s, journalist Gianni Brera had used the term Padania to indicate the area that at the time of Cato the Elder corresponded to Cisalpine Gaul. In 1990 Gianfranco Miglio, a political scientist who would be elected senator for Lega Nord in 1992 and 1994, wrote a book in which he described a draft constitutional reform.
In 1993 Robert D. Stefano Galli, a political scientist close to the Northern League and columnist for Il Giornale, Northern Leagues definition of Padanias boundaries is similar to Robert D. Putnams civic North, which includes the central Italian regions of Tuscany and Umbria. According to the author, these share similar patterns of civil society, citizenship. Gilberto Oneto, a student of Miglio, has researched northern traditions and linguist Sergio Salvi has defended the concept of Padania. Angelo Panebianco, a political scientist, once explained that, even though a Padanian nation does not exist yet, the first politician to consistently use the term Padania was Guido Fanti, a leading member of the Italian Communist Party who was President of Emilia-Romagna from 1970 to 1976. In an interview with La Stampa in 1975, Fanti proposed the creation of Padania in order to go over centralism, since 1991, Lega Nord has promoted either secession or larger autonomy for Padania, and has created a flag and a national anthem to this effect.
In 1996, the Federal Republic of Padania was proclaimed, subsequently, in 1997, Lega Nord created an unofficial Padanian parliament in Mantua and organised elections for it. Lega Nord chose a national anthem, the Va, pensiero chorus from Giuseppe Verdis Nabucco, the 11 regions forming Padania, according to the party, are listed below, The Sun of the Alps is the unofficial flag of Padania and the symbol of the Padanian nationalism. The flag has a stylized sun on a white background. It resembles ancient ornaments which are found in the art and culture of the area, the flag was created in the 1990s and was adopted by Lega Nord upon their declaration of Padanian independence. In its previous version, the flag included a red St Georges Cross, while support for a federal system, as opposed to a centrally administered state, receives widespread consensus within Padania, support for independence is less favoured
The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the sun remains visible at the local midnight. Around the summer solstice the sun is visible for the full 24 hours, the number of days per year with potential midnight sun increases the farther towards either pole one goes. A quarter of Finlands territory lies north of the Arctic Circle, in Svalbard, the northernmost inhabited region of Europe, there is no sunset from approximately 19 April to 23 August. The extreme sites are the poles, where the sun can be visible for half the year. The opposite phenomenon, polar night, occurs in winter, when the sun stays below the horizon throughout the day, since the axial tilt of the Earth is considerable, the sun does not set at high latitudes in local summer. The duration of sunlight increases from one day during the solstice at the polar circle, to several weeks only 100 km closer to the pole. At extreme latitudes, the sun is usually referred to as polar day.
At the poles themselves, the sun rises and sets only once each year, for example, Iceland is known for its midnight sun, even though most of it is slightly south of the Arctic Circle. For the same reasons, the period of sunlight at the poles is slightly longer than six months, even the northern extremities of Scotland experience twilight in the northern sky at around the summer solstice. Observers at heights appreciably above sea level can experience extended periods of midnight sun as a result of the dip of the horizon viewed from altitude, the term midnight sun refers to the consecutive 24-hour periods of sunlight experienced north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle. Other phenomena are sometimes referred to as midnight sun, but they are caused by time zones, for instance, in Fairbanks, which is south of the Arctic Circle, the sun sets at 12,47 am at the summer solstice. This is because Fairbanks is 51 minutes ahead of its time zone. This means that solar culmination occurs at about 1,51 pm instead of at 12 noon, if a precise moment for the genuine midnight sun is required, the observers longitude, the local civil time and the equation of time must be taken into account.
The moment of the suns closest approach to the horizon coincides with its due north at the observers position. These two effects must be added, the equation of time must be added, a positive value on a given date means that the sun is running slightly ahead of its average position, so the value must be subtracted. The equation of time at that date is -2.0 minutes, the suns lowest elevation occurs 120 -103.2 +2.0 minutes after midnight, at 00.19 Central European Summer time. On other nearby dates the only thing different is the equation of time, the suns altitude remains within half a degree of the minimum of about 5 degrees for about 45 minutes either side of this time. The midnight sun is visible at the Arctic Circle from 12 June until 1 July and this period extends as one travels north, At Cape Nordkinn, the northernmost point of Continental Europe, the midnight sun lasts approximately from 14 May to 29 July
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region by the Iraqi constitution, is located in the north of Iraq and constitutes the countrys only autonomous region. The region is governed by the Kurdistan Regional Government, with the capital being Erbil. Kurdistan is a democracy with its own regional Parliament that consists of 111 seats. Masoud Barzani, who was elected as president in 2005, was re-elected in 2009. In August 2013 the parliament extended his presidency for two years. His presidency concluded on 19 August 2015 after the parties failed to reach an agreement over extending his term. The new Constitution of Iraq defines the Kurdistan Region as an entity of Iraq. The four governorates of Duhok, Hawler and Halabja comprise around 41,710 square kilometres and have a population of 5.5 million. In 2014, during the 2014 Iraq Crisis, Iraqi Kurdistans forces took much of the disputed territories of Northern Iraq. The establishment of the Kurdistan Region dates back to the March 1970 autonomy agreement between the Kurdish opposition and the Iraqi government after years of heavy fighting, the 1980–88 Iran–Iraq War, especially the Iraqi Armys Al-Anfal Campaign, devastated the population and environment of Iraqi Kurdistan.
As Kurds continued to fight government troops, Iraqi forces finally left Kurdistan in October 1991, in 1992, the major political parties in the region, the Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, established the semi-autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government. The 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent political changes led to the ratification of a new constitution in 2005, the name Kurdistan literally means Land of the Kurds. The suffix -stan is Iranian for place of or country, in English translations of the Constitution of Iraq, it is called Kurdistan, four times in the phrase region of Kurdistan and once in the phrase Kurdistan region. The regional government calls it the Kurdistan Region, the full name of the government is the Kurdistan Regional Government, abbreviated KRG. Kurds refer to the region as Başûrê Kurdistanê or Başûrî Kurdistan, during the Baath Party administration in the 1970s and 1980s, the region was called the Kurdish Autonomous Region. The Kurdistan Region is largely mountainous, with the highest point being a 3,611 m point known locally as Cheekha Dar, the mountains are part of the larger Zagros mountain range which extends into Iran.
There are many rivers running through the region, which is distinguished by its fertile lands, plentiful water, the Great Zab and the Little Zab flow from the east to the west in the region. The Tigris river enters Iraqi Kurdistan from Turkish Kurdistan, the mountainous nature of Iraqi Kurdistan, the difference of temperatures in its various parts, and its wealth of waters make it a land of agriculture and tourism
A walkover or W. O. is the awarding of a victory to a contestant because there are no other contestants, or because the other contestants have been disqualified or have forfeited. The term can apply in sport but can apply to elections. The word is used generally by extension, particularly in politics. The strict and extended meanings of walkover as a word are both found from 1829. The word originates from horseracing in the United Kingdom, where an entrant in a race run under Jockey Club rules has at least to walk over the course before being awarded victory. This outcome was quite common at a time there was no guaranteed prize money for horses finishing second or third so there was no incentive to run a horse in a race it could not win. The term is used in tennis, in reference to a players unopposed victory as a result of the opponents failing to start the match for any reason. The only Olympic Games walkover for a medal was at the 1908 Summer Olympics. The only time it has happened at the FIFA World Cup was in the 1938 edition, after the England team declined to take Austrias entry, FIFA gave Sweden a walkover. A walkover is usually the sign of a strong mandate or unanimous support.
It can, however, be interpreted by critics of the faction the walkover is awarded to as a sign of electoral fraud or gerrymandering to prevent other candidates from participating. The circumstances of such an interpretation are usually controversial, walkovers can thus often be a sign of an illiberal democracy. Many liberal democracies in history, including the United States, have had uncontested elections because support for one candidate was so strong. In the 1820 election, James Monroe ran unopposed, though New Hampshire elector William Plumer cast a vote for John Quincy Adams as a symbolic measure, walkovers are called acclamation in Canada. Other multi-party systems that have held uncontested presidential elections include Germany, Ireland, Iceland, running without opponents is not always a guarantee of winning. Many elections require that the winner has not only the most votes of all candidates but a fraction of all votes cast. In this case electors may be able to cast a vote or none of the above vote, spoil their papers.
In such cases, the members of the body usually appoint someone to the vacant seat
A visa is a conditional authorization granted by a country to a foreigner, allowing them to enter and temporarily remain within, or to leave that country. Visas are associated with the request for permission to enter a country and thus are, in countries, distinct from actual formal permission for an alien to enter. In each instance, a visa is subject to permission by an immigration official at the time of actual entry. A visa is most commonly a sticker endorsed in the applicants passport or other travel document, some countries do not require visas for short visits. Some countries require that their citizens, as well as foreign travelers, the Norwegian special territory of Svalbard is an entirely visa-free zone under the terms of the Svalbard Treaty. Some countries – such as those in the Schengen Area – have agreements with other countries allowing each others citizens to travel between them without visas, the World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists who require a visa before traveling was at its lowest level ever in 2015.
Some countries do not require a visa in some situations, such as a result of reciprocal treaty arrangements, the possession of a visa is not in itself a guarantee of entry into the country that issued it, and a visa can be revoked at any time. A visitor may be required to undergo and pass security or health checks upon arrival at the border, in Western Europe in the late 19th century and early 20th century and visas were not generally necessary for moving from one country to another. The relatively high speed and large movements of people traveling by train would have caused bottlenecks if regular passport controls had been used and visas became usually necessary travel documents only since World War I. Long before that, in ancient times and visas were usually the type of travel documents. In the modern world, visas have become separate secondary travel documents and these agencies are authorized by the foreign authority, embassy, or consulate to represent international travelers who are unable or unwilling to travel to the embassy and apply in person.
Private visa and passport services collect a fee for verifying customer applications, supporting documents. If there is no embassy or consulate in ones home country, alternatively, in such cases visas may be pre-arranged for pickup on arrival at the border. The issuing authority, usually a branch of the foreign ministry or department. Some countries ask for proof of status, especially for long-term visas, some countries deny such visas to persons with certain illnesses. The exact conditions depend on the country and category of visa, notable examples of countries requiring HIV tests of long-term residents are Russia and Uzbekistan. However, in Uzbekistan, the HIV test requirement is not strictly enforced. Other countries require a medical test which includes an HIV test even for short term tourism visa, for instance Cuban citizens and international exchange students require such a test approved by a medical authority to enter Chilean territory
Iraqi Kurdistan national football team
The Iraqi Kurdistan national football team, is the national team of Iraqi Kurdistan. They are not affiliated with FIFA or Asian Football Confederation, the Iraqi FA attended a meeting held by the NF-Board in June 2006. The team played in the 2008 VIVA World Cup for the first time and their first and only win in the 2008 tournament came against Provence. In December 2008, during the 5th General Meeting, Kurdistan was granted membership to the NF Board and was a failed candidate to host the 2010 VIVA World Cup. After losing in the final in both the 2009 and 2010 tournaments Kurdistan eventually became champions on home turf in 2012, defeating Northern Cyprus 2-1 in front of 22,000 fans. They will compete at the 2016 ConIFA World Football Cup The Iraqi Kurdistan FA emblem was designed by Kurdish artist Rawand Sirwan Nawroly, the emblem represents the Iraqi Kurdish flag colours, where the red represents the Kurdish Newroz fire. The yellow ball represents the Kurdish Sun and the banner represents the green Kurdistan scenery
Padania national football team
The Padania representative football team is an unofficial football team promoted by football operators which claim it represents eight northern regions of Italy they call Padania. The team is not a member of UEFA, nor is it affiliated with the Italian Football Federation and they have established the Lega Federale Calcio Padania. Padania retained their crown when they hosted the 2009 finals, beating Kurdistan in the final and they defeated the Kurds again in 2010 to lift their third VIVA World Cup. Their non-appearance at the 2012 finals meant they didnt make it four consecutive titles, now is a member of ConIFA