Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 11th century, this date being the most held. In the 12th century it developed into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches. Examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman architecture; the Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture. Combining features of ancient Roman and Byzantine buildings and other local traditions, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy pillars, barrel vaults, large towers and decorative arcading; each building has defined forms of regular, symmetrical plan. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials. Many castles were built during this period, but they are outnumbered by churches.
The most significant are the great abbey churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete and in use. The enormous quantity of churches built in the Romanesque period was succeeded by the still busier period of Gothic architecture, which or rebuilt most Romanesque churches in prosperous areas like England and Portugal; the largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, rural Spain and rural Italy. Survivals of unfortified Romanesque secular houses and palaces, the domestic quarters of monasteries are far rarer, but these used and adapted the features found in church buildings, on a domestic scale. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "Romanesque" means "descended from Roman" and was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages; the French term "romane" was first used in the architectural sense by archaeologist Charles de Gerville in a letter of 18 December 1818 to Auguste Le Prévost to describe what Gerville sees as a debased Roman architecture.
In 1824 Gerville's friend Arcisse de Caumont adopted the label "roman" to describe the "degraded" European architecture from the 5th to the 13th centuries, in his Essai sur l'architecture religieuse du moyen-âge, particulièrement en Normandie, at a time when the actual dates of many of the buildings so described had not been ascertained: The name Roman we give to this architecture, which should be universal as it is the same everywhere with slight local differences has the merit of indicating its origin and is not new since it is used to describe the language of the same period. Romance language is degenerated Latin language. Romanesque architecture is debased Roman architecture; the first use in a published work is in William Gunn's An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The word was used by Gunn to describe the style, identifiably Medieval and prefigured the Gothic, yet maintained the rounded Roman arch and thus appeared to be a continuation of the Roman tradition of building.
The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries. The term "Pre-romanesque" is sometimes applied to architecture in Germany of the Carolingian and Ottonian periods and Visigothic and Asturian constructions between the 8th and the 10th centuries in the Iberian Peninsula while "First Romanesque" is applied to buildings in north of Italy and Spain and parts of France that have Romanesque features but pre-date the influence of the Abbey of Cluny. Typical Romanesque architectural forms Buildings of every type were constructed in the Romanesque style, with evidence remaining of simple domestic buildings, elegant town houses, grand palaces, commercial premises, civic buildings, city walls, village churches, abbey churches, abbey complexes and large cathedrals. Of these types of buildings and commercial buildings are the most rare, with only a handful of survivors in the United Kingdom, several clusters in France, isolated buildings across Europe and by far the largest number unidentified and altered over the centuries, in Italy.
Many castles exist, the foundations of. Most have been altered, many are in ruins. By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings are churches; these range from tiny chapels to large cathedrals. Although many have been extended and altered in different styles, a large number remain either intact or sympathetically restored, demonstrating the form and decoration of Romanesque church architecture; the scope of Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire. With the decline of Rome, Roman building methods survived to an extent in Western Europe, where successive Merovingian and Ottonian architects continued to build large stone buildings such as monastery churches and palaces. In the more northern countries, Roman building styles and techniques had never been adopted except for official buildings, while in Scandinavia they were unknown. Although the round arch continued in use, the engineering skills required to vault large spaces and build large domes were lost.
There was a loss of stylistic continuity apparent in the decline of the formal vocabulary of the Classical Orders. In Rome several great Constantinian basilicas continued in use as an inspiration to builders; some traditions of Rom
O Vicedo is a municipality located on the extreme northwestern coast of Galicia, Spain, in the province of Lugo. O Vicedo seems to have its base in the Latin word "vitiates". Therefore, it can be translated as "the place where the'vice' abounds".'Vice' is an annual legume of the Papilionaceae subfamily that abounds in coastal zones all throughout Europe. The municipality of O Vicedo is located in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, it is located in the comarca of La Mariña Occidental, north of the Autonomous Community of Galicia. It is bordered on the north by the Cantabrian Sea, to the south by the municipality of Ourol, to the east by Viveiro and to the west by Mañón, its district covers an area of 75.96 km2. The landscape of the O Vicedo municipality is characterized as hilly with strong contrasts; the municipality is crossed by two mountain cores. The mountain range of Couteiro, which begin in the municipality with Ourol in the civil parish of Cabanas, reaches its highest point on Mount Padro, close to Vivero border.
The other main formation is that of Riobarba with a low altitude. This formation forms a series of mountains. On the coast of the municipality of O Videdo there are a total of eight beaches, they have different dimensions and occupations according to their characteristics and the environment where they are located. It is composed of the following "parroquias" or "freguesias": As Negradas, Mosende, San Román do Vale, Santo Estevo do Vale, Suegos. In the Middle Age the parishes that now compose all the municipality of O Vicedo belonged to different Lords, were under their jurisdiction. With the Constitution of 1812 the first municipalities were created; the territory that now occupies the municipality of O Vicedo was divided into 3 municipalities: As Negradas and Cabanas. A new municipal division was defined in 1835 when the present territory of the municipality was distributed to the following councils: Galdo and Viveiro; this division lasted only 5 years and in 1840 the municipality of Riobarba appeared, reflected in the Government report on the Province of Lugo which defined the present parishes.
In 1952 the Civil Governor of Lugo moved the municipality capital to O Vicedo. O Vicedo achieved some national notoriety within Spain during the 1990s when a corruption scandal developed, involving the mayor Isaac Prado Villapol and other councilors from the Partido Popular. Official website
Xove is a municipality of Galicia, Spain in the province of Lugo. Punta Roncadoira is the location of the Punta Roncadoira Lighthouse on the Atlantic coast within the Xove municipality. Ferrol-San Cibrao Port Authority
Resurrection Fest is a rock music festival that takes place in Viveiro, region of Lugo, Spain. This festival is held annually since 2006 during July or early August, features heavy metal, hardcore punk and punk rock bands. Since its emergence it has become one of the most important music festivals in Spain due to its genre specialization. In 2013 edition set its record in 33.000 attendees, with a measured socio-economic impact of 3.3 millions of euros in the region. In 2015, these numbers increased to a 6.15-million euros impact. Along its history, more than 200 bands have performed, including world-wide important groups such as Iron Maiden, Motörhead, Scorpions, Rammstein, In Flames, Black Label Society, Anthrax, Cannibal Corpse, Sabaton, NOFX, Lamb of God, Testament, Five Finger Death Punch, Down, Sick of It All, Bad Religion, Bullet for My Valentine, Heaven Shall Burn, Hatebreed, At the Gates, Dead Kennedys, Exodus, or Black Flag, among others; the festival was first held in August 2006 under the name of Viveiro Summer Fest and it was for free thanks to local government.
Two days before to the event, its headliner Sick of It All had to cancel its show because a sudden illness of one of their members. Besides the lack of support after this unexpected accident, it was postponed until November of the same year being called Resurrection Fest and it enjoyed great success. Nowadays it is a four-day festival, the number of performances has reached 78 in 2015, every year the attendance record is broken with the current one of 54.500 people in 2015, coming from all over Spain and other countries like Portugal or France mainly. Confirmed bands during the different editions of the festival: Dates: 18 November Dates: 17 and 18 August Dates: 1 and 2 August Dates: 31 July and 1 August Dates: 29, 30 and 31 July Dates: 28, 29 and 30 July Dates: 2, 3 and 4 August Dates: 1, 2 and 3 August Dates: 15, 16, 17 and 18 July Dates: 6, 7, 8, 9 July Skindred Narco Eskimo Callboy Siberian Meat Grinder For the Glory Hyde Abbey Volbeat Bring Me the Horizon Bad Religion While She Sleeps TesseracT Soldier Brujería Fleshgod Apocalypse Rotting Christ Crisix Wormed Persefone Implore Evil Impulse Walls of Jericho H2O The Casualties Stick to Your Guns Norma Jeaen Viva Belgrado Tierra Hostil Nice Boys Viveiro Official Resurrection Fest website
Sayings of Jesus on the cross
The Sayings of Jesus on the cross are seven expressions biblically attributed to Jesus during his crucifixion. Traditionally, the brief sayings have been called "words", they are gathered from the four Canonical Gospels. Three of the sayings appear only in the Gospel of three only in the Gospel of John; the other saying appears both in the Gospel of Mark. In Matthew and Mark, Jesus cries out to God. In Luke, he forgives his killers, reassures the penitent thief, commends his spirit to the Father. In John, he speaks to his mother, says he thirsts, declares the end of his earthly life. A person's final articulated words said prior to death or as death approaches are taken to have particular significance; these seven sayings, being "last words", may provide a way to understand what was important to this man, dying on the cross. The sparsity of sayings recorded in the biblical accounts suggests that Jesus remained silent for the hours he hung there. Since the 16th century they have been used in sermons on Good Friday, entire books have been written on theological analysis of them.
The Seven Last Words from the Cross are an integral part of the liturgy in the Anglican, Catholic and other Christian traditions. The seven-sayings tradition is an example of the Christian approach to the construction of a Gospel harmony in which material from different Gospels is combined, producing an account that goes beyond each Gospel. Several composers have set the Seven Last Words to music; the seven sayings form part of a Christian meditation, used during Lent, Holy Week and Good Friday. The traditional order of the sayings is: Luke 23:34: Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. Luke 23:43: Truly, I say to you, today you will be with me in paradise. John 19:26–27: Woman, behold your son. Son, behold your mother Matthew 27:46 & Mark 15:34 My God, My God, why have you forsaken me? John 19:28: I thirst. John 19:30: It is finished. Luke 23:46: Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit. Traditionally, these seven sayings are called words of 1. Forgiveness, 2. Salvation, 3. Relationship, 4.
Abandonment, 5. Distress, 6. Triumph and 7. Reunion; as can be seen from the above list, not all seven sayings can be found in any one account of Jesus' crucifixion. The ordering is a harmonisation of the texts from each of the four canonical gospels. In the gospels of Matthew and Mark, Jesus is quoted in Aramaic, shouting the fourth phrase.. In Luke's Gospel, the first and seventh sayings occur; the third and sixth sayings can only be found in John's Gospel. In other words: In Matthew and Mark: My God, My God, why have you forsaken me? In Luke: Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do Truly, I say to you, today you will be with me in paradise Father, into your hands I commit my spirit In John: Woman, behold your son: behold your mother I thirst It is finished Luke 23:34 Then Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing."This first saying of Jesus on the cross is traditionally called "The Word of Forgiveness". It is theologically interpreted as Jesus' prayer for forgiveness for the Roman soldiers who were crucifying him and all others who were involved in his crucifixion.
Some early manuscripts do not include this sentence in Luke 23:34. Luke 23:43 And he said to him, "Truly, I say to you, today you will be with me in paradise"; this saying is traditionally called "The Word of Salvation". According to Luke's Gospel, Jesus was crucified between two thieves, one of whom supports Jesus' innocence and asks him to remember him when he comes into his kingdom. Jesus replies, "Truly, I say to you...", followed with the only appearance of the word "Paradise" in the Gospels. A simple change in punctuation in this saying has been the subject of doctrinal differences among Christian groups, given the lack of punctuation in the original Greek texts. Catholics and most Protestant Christians use a version which reads "today you will be with me in Paradise"; this reading has no implications of purgatory. On the other hand, some Protestants who believe in soul sleep have used a reading which emphasizes "I say to you today", leaving open the possibility that the statement was made today, but arrival in Heaven may be later.
John 19:26-27 Jesus saw his own mother, the disciple standing near whom he loved, he said to his mother, "Woman, behold your son". He said to the disciple, "Behold your mother", and from that hour, he took his mother into his family. This statement is traditionally called "The Word of Relationship" and in it Jesus entrusts Mary, his mother, into the care of "the disciple whom Jesus loved". Methodist minister Adam Hamilton's 2009 interpretation: "Jesus looked down from the cross to see his mother standing nearby; as far as we know, only one of the twelve apostles was there at the foot of the cross: "the disciple whom Jesus loved," identified as John. Naked and in horrible pain, he thought not of himself but was concerned for the well-being of his mother after his death; this shows Jesus' humanity and the depth of love he had for his mother and the disciple into whose car
Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".
An oceanic climate known as a marine climate or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, features mild summers and mild winters, with a narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C in the warmest month, above 0 °C in the coldest month, it lacks a dry season, as precipitation is more evenly dispersed throughout the year. It is the predominant climate type across much of Western Europe including the United Kingdom, the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and Canada, portions of central Mexico, southwestern South America, southeastern Australia including Tasmania, New Zealand, as well as isolated locations elsewhere. Oceanic climates are characterised by a narrower annual range of temperatures than in other places at a comparable latitude, do not have the dry summers of Mediterranean climates or the hot summers of humid subtropical.
Oceanic climates are most dominant in Europe, where they spread much farther inland than in other continents. Oceanic climates can have considerable storm activity as they are located in the belt of the stormy westerlies. Many oceanic climates have frequent cloudy or overcast conditions due to the near constant storms and lows tracking over or near them; the annual range of temperatures is smaller than typical climates at these latitudes due to the constant stable marine air masses that pass through oceanic climates, which lack both warm and cool fronts. Locations with oceanic climates tend to feature cloudy conditions with precipitation, though it can experience clear, sunny days. London is an example of an oceanic climate, it experiences constant precipitation throughout the entire year. Despite this, thunderstorms are quite rare since hot and cold air masses meet infrequently in the region. In most areas with an oceanic climate, precipitation comes in the form of rain for the majority of the year.
However, some areas with this climate see some snowfall annually during winter. Most oceanic climate zones, or at least a part of them, experience at least one snowfall per year. In the poleward locations of the oceanic climate zone, snowfall is more commonplace. Overall temperature characteristics of the oceanic climates feature cool temperatures and infrequent extremes of temperature. In the Köppen climate classification, Oceanic climates have a mean temperature of 0 °C or higher in the coldest month, compared to continental climates where the coldest month has a mean temperature of below 0 °C. Summers are cool, with the warmest month having a mean temperature below 22 °C. Poleward of the latter is a zone of the aforementioned subpolar oceanic climate, with long but mild winters and cool and short summers. Examples of this climate include parts of coastal Iceland, Norway, the Scottish Highlands, the mountains of Vancouver Island, Haida Gwaii in Canada, in the Northern Hemisphere and extreme southern Chile and Argentina in the Southern Hemisphere, the Tasmanian Central Highlands, parts of New Zealand.
Oceanic climates are not always found in coastal locations on the aforementioned parallels. The polar jet stream, which moves in a west to east direction across the middle latitudes, advances low pressure systems and fronts. In coastal areas of the higher middle latitudes, the prevailing onshore flow creates the basic structure of most oceanic climates. Oceanic climates are a reflection of the ocean adjacent to them. In the fall and early spring, when the polar jet stream is most active, the frequent passing of marine weather systems creates the frequent fog, cloudy skies, light drizzle associated with oceanic climates. In summer, high pressure pushes the prevailing westerlies north of many oceanic climates creating a drier summer climate; the North Atlantic Gulf Stream, a tropical oceanic current that passes north of the Caribbean and up the East Coast of the United States to North Carolina heads east-northeast to the Azores, is thought to modify the climate of Northwest Europe. As a result of the Gulf Stream, west-coast areas located in high latitudes like Ireland, the UK, Norway have much milder winters than would otherwise be the case.
The lowland attributes of western Europe help drive marine air masses into continental areas, enabling cities such as Dresden and Vienna to have maritime climates in spite of being located well inland from the ocean. Oceanic climates in Europe occur in Northwest Europe, from Ireland and Great Britain eastward to central Europe. Most of France, the Netherlands, Germany, the north coast of Spain, the western Azores off the coast of Portugal, the south of Kosovo and southern portions of Sweden have oceanic climates. Examples of oceanic climates are found in Glasgow, Bergen, Dublin, Bilbao, Donostia-San Sebastian, Bayonne, Züri