Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in and around the Wupper valley, east of Düsseldorf and south of the Ruhr. With a population of 350,000, it is the largest city in the Bergisches Land. Wuppertal is known for its steep slopes, its woods and parks, its suspension railway, the Wuppertal Schwebebahn, it is the greenest city of Germany, with two-thirds green space of the total municipal area. From any part of the city, it is only a ten-minute walk to one of the public parks or woodland paths. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Wupper valley was one of the largest industrial regions of continental Europe; the increasing demand for coal from the textile mills and blacksmith shops encouraged the expansion of the nearby Ruhrgebiet. Wuppertal still is a major industrial centre, being home to industries such as textiles, chemicals, electronics, rubber and printing equipment. Aspirin originates from Wuppertal, patented in 1897 by Bayer, as is the Vorwerk-Kobold vacuum cleaner; the Wuppertal Institute for Climate and Energy and the European Institute for International Economic Relations are located in the city.
Wuppertal in its present borders was formed in 1929 by merging the industrial cities of Barmen and Elberfeld with the communities Vohwinkel, Cronenberg and Beyenburg. The initial name Barmen-Elberfeld was changed in a 1930 referendum to Wuppertal; the new city was administered as part of the Prussian Rhine Province. Uniquely for Germany, it is a "linear city", its highest hill is the Lichtscheid, 351 metres above sea level. The dominant urban centres Elberfeld and Barmen have formed a continuous urbanized area since 1850. During the succeeding decades, “Wupper-Town” became the dominant industrial agglomeration of northwestern Germany. During the 20th century, this conurbation had been surpassed by Cologne, Düsseldorf and the Ruhr area, all with a more favourable topography. From July 5, 1933 to January 19, 1934, the Kemna concentration camp was established in Wuppertal, it was one of the early Nazi concentration camps, created by the Third Reich to incarcerate their political opponents after the Nazi Party first gained power in 1933.
The camp was established in a former factory on the Wupper in the Kemna neighborhood of the Barmen part of Wuppertal. Wuppertal is famous as an important place of resistance in Germany; the Barmen Declaration or the Theological Declaration of Barmen was a document adopted by Christians in Nazi Germany who opposed the Deutsche Christen philosophy. In the opinion of the delegates to the Synod that met in Wuppertal-Barmen in May 1934, the German Christians had corrupted church government by making it subservient to the state and had introduced Nazi ideology into the German Protestant churches that contradicted the Christian gospel. During World War II, about 40% of buildings in the city were destroyed by Allied bombing, as were many other German cities and industrial centres. However, a large number of historic sites have been preserved, such as: Ölberg “Oil mountain”, Germany’s largest original working class district, is protected as a historic monument; the name came about during the 1920s as the district continued using oil lamps while the surrounding bourgeois residential quarters were electrified.
In traditional use, the name "Ölberg" refers to the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. Brill is one of Germany’s largest districts of Gründerzeit villas, i.e. middle class mansions built by industrial entrepreneurs during the second half of the 19th century. The US 78th Infantry Division captured Wuppertal against scant resistance on April 16, 1945. Wuppertal became a part of the British Zone of Occupation, subsequently part of the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia in West Germany. Largest groups of foreign residents by 31.12.2017 In total, Wuppertal possesses over 4,500 buildings classified as national monuments, most exemplifying styles such as Neoclassicism, Historicism, Art Nouveau/Jugendstil and Bauhaus. Main sights include: floating tram. One of the city’s greatest attractions is the globally unique suspended monorail Wuppertaler Schwebebahn, established in 1901; the tracks are 12 m above the Wupper. In 1950, a young elephant named Tuffi was forced to ride the Wuppertal Schwebebahn, as a promotion for the Althoff Circus.
The swinging tram upset the elephant, she trumpeted and plummeted 40 feet into the river below. Tuffi suffered minor injuries. In 1999, the Schwebebahn had its thus far only fatal accident. Wuppertaler Schwebebahn Kaiserwagen A guided tour of the suspension railway in a special tram. Wuppertal Opera. Concerthall Stadthalle, a fine piece of turn-of-the-century architecture with outstanding acoustics. Home of the Wuppertal Symphony Orchestra. Wuppertal Dance Theatre, a world-famous centre of modern dance founded by the choreographer Pina Bausch. Engels' house, 18th century-architecturally typical of the region, it houses a permanent display of materials associated with the co-founder of modern Communism, Friedrich Engels. Wuppertal Zoo, a large, nicely landscaped zoo. Botanischer Garten Wuppertal, a municipal botanical garden. Arboretum Burgholz, an extensive arboretum. Von der Heydt Museum is an important art gallery with works from the 17th century to the present time; the first of Picasso’s works that appeared in public was displayed here.
Skulpturenpark Waldfrieden, a sculpture park with exhibition h
The Venus Award is a film award in the adult film industry presented yearly in Berlin since 1997 as part of the Venus Berlin trade fair, an international erotic trade festival, on the exhibition grounds at the Funkturm. Prizes are offered in some 30 categories and there are live strip stage shows with topless bull riding, oil wrestling and simulated live sex; the Venus Awards are unique in that directors and films from the same country compete for honors with other entities from that same country, while all entries remain eligible for the "European" and "International" award categories. The International Venus Fair for October 16–19, 2003 had attendance figures of around 40,000. From 2005-2009, the Eroticline Awards were presented instead, with the Venus Awards returning in 2010. AVN Award Hot d'Or Official website "2003 Nominations". German-adult-news.com. Archived from the original on 2012-09-04. List of 2003 Venus Award winners "Private and Americans Win Big at Venus Fair" - 2003 Award winners - October 22, 2003 2004 Nominations Recent Award winners list Venus Awards, since 1997 - the "Oscars of the adult industry" and "the world's largest erotic trade fair" Venus Awards - "a kind of Porn Oscar"
Bukkake is a sex act in which one participant is ejaculated on by two or more other participants. It is portrayed in pornographic films. Bukkake videos are a prevalent niche in contemporary pornographic films. Originating in Japan in the 1980s, the genre subsequently spread to North America and Europe, crossed over into gay pornography. Bukkake is the noun form of the Japanese verb bukkakeru, means "to dash", "splash", or "heavy splash"; the compound verb can be decomposed into a verb: butsu and kakeru. Butsu is a prefix derived from the verb "buchi", which means to hit, but the usage of the prefix is a verb-intensifier. Kakeru in this context means to pour; the word bukkake is used in Japanese to describe pouring out a liquid with sufficient momentum to cause splashing or spilling. Indeed, bukkake is used in Japan to describe a type of dish where hot broth is poured over noodles, as in bukkake udon and bukkake soba. Bukkake was first represented in pornographic films in the mid to late 1980s in Japan.
According to one commentator, a significant factor in the development of bukkake as a pornographic form was the mandatory censorship in Japan where genitals must be pixelated by a "mosaic". One consequence of this is that Japanese pornography tends to focus more on the face and body of actresses rather than on their genitals. Since film producers could not show penetration, they sought other ways to depict sex acts without violating Japanese law and since semen did not need to be censored, a loophole existed for harder sex scenes. However, popularization of the act and the term for it has been credited to director Kazuhiko Matsumoto in 1998; the Japanese adult video studio Shuttle Japan registered the term "ぶっかけ/ＢＵＫＫＡＫＥ" as a trademark in January 2001. The practice spread from Japan to the United States and Europe in the late 1990s; the appearance of bukkake videos was part of a trend towards "harder" pornography in the 1990s, preceded by a fashion for double penetration videos in the mid-1990s, occurring in parallel to the appearance of gang bang videos towards the end of that decade.
There was an economic advantage for Western pornographers to produce bukkake films since they only require one actress, amateur male performers whose pay-rates are low. However, Western-style bukkake videos differ in some aspects from those in Japan. Another Japanese variant of bukkake is gokkun, in which several men ejaculate into a container for the receiver to drink. Bukkake is less popular than some other porn niches in the West because the implicit subordination of the woman does not appeal to many consumers, because cum shots are the climax of a scene, rather than the main events; the genre has spread to gay pornography, featuring scenes in which several men ejaculate on another man. "Lesbian bukkake" videos are produced. The 17th World Congress of Sexology in Montreal in July 2005 included a presentation on bukkake. American editor and publisher Russ Kick, quoting a sexologist, states that men enjoy a "sense of closure and finality about sex", something that watching other men ejaculate provides.
The viewer identifies with the ejaculating men, experiencing a sense of vicarious pleasure. According to English–American anti-pornography campaigner Gail Dines, the ejaculate on the female performer's body "also marks the woman as used goods", conveying a sense of ownership. I believe that we serve a purpose by showing that; the most violent we can get is the cum shot in the face. Men get off behind that because they get with the women they can't have." A number of authors have described bukkake as premised on humiliation. Forensic psychologist Karen Franklin has described bukkake as symbolic group rape, characterising its primary purpose as the humiliation and objectification of women. Lisa Jean Moore and Juliana Weissbein view the use of ejaculation in bukkake as part of a humiliation ritual, noting that it does not involve any of the female participants experiencing orgasm. Feminist anti-pornography activist Gail Dines describes the money shot of a man ejaculating on the face or body of a woman, taken to a new extreme in bukkake through the involvement of multiple men, as "one of the most degrading acts in porn".
Tristan Taormino, feminist author and sex educator, has likened bukkake to a "gay circle jerk", noting the inconsistency between its billing as a heterosexual practice and the fact that it features a group of naked men standing in close proximity to each other, masturbating together. Phillip Vannini, associate professor in the School of Communication and Culture at Royal Roads University, quotes "self-proclaimed net sex commentator" George Kranz, who views recent American interpretations of bukkake as a "significant advance in human behaviour", emphasising the lively party-like atmosphere of American bukkake videos compared to the more subdued Japanese style. BDSM Cum shot Gokkun Facial Gang bang pornography Group sex Pornography in Japan
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Bydgoszcz is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers. With a city population of 358,614, an urban agglomeration with more than 470,000 inhabitants, Bydgoszcz is the eighth-largest city in Poland, it has been the seat of Bydgoszcz County and the co-capital, with Toruń, of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Prior to this, between 1947 and 1998, it was the capital of the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship, before that, of the Pomeranian Voivodeship between 1945 and 1947; the city is part of the Bydgoszcz -- Toruń metropolitan area. Bydgoszcz is the seat of Casimir the Great University, University of Technology and Life Sciences and a conservatory, as well as the Medical College of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, it hosts the Pomeranian Philharmonic concert hall, the Opera Nova opera house, Bydgoszcz Airport. Due to its location between the Vistula and Oder rivers, the water course of the Bydgoszcz Canal, the city forms part of a water system connected via the Noteć, Warta and Elbe with the Rhine and Rotterdam.
Bydgoszcz is an architecturally rich city, with neo-gothic, neo-baroque, neoclassicist and Art Nouveau styles present, for which it earned a nickname Little Berlin. The notable granaries on Mill Island and along the riverside belong to one of the most recognized timber-framed landmarks in Poland. Bydgoszcz Bydgoszcza, is a pronoun name the second part of which –'goszcz' comes from'gost-jь' or'gost-ja' an old Slavic root which refers to an urban or suburban trading settlement. There are a number of other Polish place-names which make use of the'goszcz' suffix: i.e. Małogoszcz and Skorogoszcz. Bydgoszcz, has a long, rich history of etymological change: in 1239 known as Bidgosciam, in 1242 as castrum quod Budegosta vulgariter nuncupatur, in 1279 as Bidgoscha, since 1558 as Bydgoszcz, that is, until the 16th century, as Bydgoszcza "fishing village or campsite belonging to Bydgosta"; the name'Byd-gost' contains archaic elements of the Proto-Slavonic root'byd' which existed as a variant of the verb'to raise', the common Slavic root'Goszcz'.
Some people identify the name of the town as'Budorgis', a name from the 2nd century, listed as being next to the village Calisia on the amber route. The etymology of the German name of the town developed and derives from the river Brahe, on whose banks the city is located, berg, mount, combined to'Brahenberg', with'a' pronounced in East Pomeranian Low German rather like'å' contracted to Bromberg, dropping the weak'h', with the'n' assimilated as'm' to the following labial sound'b'. During the early Slavic times a fishing settlement called Bydgozcya, became a stronghold on the Vistula trade routes. In the 13th century it was the site of a castellany, mentioned in 1238; the city was occupied by the Teutonic Knights in 1331, incorporated into the monastic state of Teutonic Prussia as Bromberg. The city was relinquished by the Knights in 1343 with their signing of the Treaty of Kalisz along with Dobrzyń and the remainder of Kuyavia. King Casimir III of Poland, granted Bydgoszcz city rights on 19 April 1346.
The city saw an influx of Jews after that date. In 1555, due to pressure by the clergy, the Jews were expelled and came back only with the annexion to Prussia in 1772. In the 15th and 16th centuries Bydgoszcz was a significant site for wheat trading. During 1629, near the end of the Polish-Swedish War of 1626–29, the town was conquered by Swedish troops led by king Gustav II Adolph of Sweden personally. During the events of war the town suffered demolitions; the town was conquered a second and third time by Sweden in 1656 and 1657 during the Second Northern War. On the latter occasion the castle was destroyed and has since remained a ruin. After the war only 94 houses were inhabited, 103 stood 35 were burned down; the suburbs had been damaged considerably. The Treaty of Bromberg, agreed in 1657 by King John II Casimir Vasa of Poland and Elector Frederick William II of Brandenburg-Prussia, created a military alliance between Poland and Prussia while marking the withdrawal of Prussia from its alliance with Sweden.
In 1772, in the First Partition of Poland, Bydgoszcz was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia, renamed Bromberg, incorporated into the Netze District in West Prussia. At the time, the town was depressed and semi-derelict. Under Frederick the Great the town revived, notably with construction of a canal from Bromberg to Nakel which connected the north-flowing Vistula River via the Brda to the west-flowing Netze, which in turn flowed to the Oder via the Warta. In 1807, after the defeat of Prussia by Napoleon and the signing of the Treaty of Tilsit, Bromberg became part of his short-lived Duchy of Warsaw. With Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Nations, the town was returned to Prussia in 1815 as part of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Posen, becoming the capital of the Bromberg Region. In 1871 the Province of Posen, along with the rest of the Kingdom of Prussia, became part of the newly formed German Empire. In the mid-19th century, the arrival of the Prussian Eastern Railway contributed to the development of Bromberg.
The first stretch, from Schneidemühl to Bromberg, was opened in July 1851. The city grew from 12,900 in 1852 to 57,700 in 1910 – of whom 84 percent were ethnic Germans and 16 percent ethnic Poles (Polish minority in
Urolagnia is a paraphilia) in which sexual excitement is associated with the sight or thought of urine or urination. The term has origins in the Greek language. Urolagnia is a paraphilia. During the activity, urine may be consumed or the person may bathe in it. Other variations include arousal from wetting or seeing someone else urinate in their pants or underclothes, or wetting the bed. Other forms of urolagnia may involve a tendency to be sexually aroused by smelling urine-soaked clothing or body parts. In many cases, a strong correlation or conditioning arises between urine smell or sight, the sexual act. For some individuals the phenomenon arousal from infantilism. Urolagnia is sometimes associated with, or confused with, arousal from having a full bladder or a sexual attraction to someone else experiencing the discomfort or pain of a full bladder a sadomasochistic inclination. Clothes wetting: The person is sexually aroused by wetting one's clothing or observing another person doing so; that person prefers to stage the wetting so that his/her legs become soaked with urine.
The warm sensation felt when urine trickles on the body seems to give relaxing and pleasurable feelings to the person. In many cases, that person is aroused by smelling body parts that have a urine scent. Others get aroused by wet themselves; some prefer a particular type of clothing to urinate. Exhibitionism: Becoming noticeably desperate or wetting oneself with the express purpose of being seen by strangers. Practitioners have described going to public places such as a park; some intend to create situations. Human urinal: Within the BDSM community, some individuals desire to be used as a human urinal and some desire to use a human urinal; the submissive is strictly forbidden from placing their lips directly on the body of the dominant so the practice involves them receiving much of the spray all over their face and body. One other, less common variation of this kink involves the dominant partner urinating inside the submissive partner's vagina or anus, followed up by the submissive partner ejecting the urine from their orifice.
Omorashi: The act of holding one's own urine until the need to urinate is urgent, making another hold in their urine, or watching another person with an urgent need to urinate. This fetish sometimes originates from childhood memories of needing, or of seeing another needing, to urinate. Arousal may be triggered by seeing facial expressions of that person, it can be heightened by the person saying that they have to urinate. The arousal from being desperate comes from the sensation of having a full bladder. Pussing: British expression for an activity involving a consenting couple where the male partner watches the woman urinate otherwise undetected in a semi-public place a toilet cubicle at a pub, restaurant, theatre/cinema, club, etc; the strategies and tactics that are used to smuggle one of the couple into and out of the toilet undetected are as important or as important as the urination. The activity is done by itself or as a part of or prelude to other activities which many times involve sex.
Voyeurism: Seeing another urinate without the person's knowledge either through video taping by a hidden camera, or by lurking in locations where people are urinating or are to have an urge to urinate. Jennifer Eve Rehor of San Francisco State University points out that such data as exists on what she calls "unconventional" or "kink" sexual behavior is problematic because of the way that it has been collected, through criminal and clinical case studies. Behavior that appears neither in criminal trials nor in clinical studies is therefore under-reported. Rehor therefore surveyed 1,764 female participants in "kink" behavior in 2010-11, receiving 1,580 valid responses. What Rehor calls "urine play" is infrequent, with only 36.52% of her sample reporting having done it or having had it done to them. In contrast, 93.99% of her sample reported having done spanking or having had it done to them, 61.96% reported having used or been exposed to feathers/fur. It is impossible to extrapolate Rehor's data onto the general population, but her study does give a guide to prevalence in the North American BDSM community.
Chuck Berry: American musician, featured urinating on a woman in a sex tape, was sued for videotaping dozens of women in the bathroom of a restaurant he owned. Havelock Ellis: British sexologist, impotent until at age sixty he discovered that he was aroused by the sight of a woman urinating. Albert Fish: an American serial killer known as The Grayman, The Boogeyman, he wrote several letters to widows with want-ads in The New York Times and described in detail women urinating on him, inside of him, in cups so that he could drink it. He forced children to drink urine. Ashley MacIsaac: Nova Scotian fiddler and singer. In 1996 he spoke with a Maclean's interviewer mentioning his sexual life, including his boyfriend and his taste for urolagnia. In 2003 he told an interviewer for the Montreal Mirror. Ricky Martin: a Puerto Rican singer, he gave an interview with Blender magazine in which he stated that he enjoyed "giving the golden showe