Astrophysical Virtual Observatory
The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory project conducted a research and demonstration programme on the scientific requirements and technologies necessary to build a virtual observatory for European astronomy. The AVO has been jointly funded by the European Commission with six European organisations participating in a three-year Phase-A work programme, valued at 5 million euro; the partner organisations were the European Southern Observatory in Munich, the European Space Agency, AstroGrid, the CNRS-supported Centre de Données Astronomiques de Strasbourg, the University Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg, the CNRS-supported TERAPIX astronomical data centre at the Institut d'Astrophysique in Paris and the Jodrell Bank Observatory of the Victoria University of Manchester, United Kingdom. The Phase A program focussed its effort in the following areas: A detailed description of the science requirements for the AVO was constructed, following the experience gained in a smaller-scale science demonstration program called ASTROVIRTEL.
The difficult issue of data and archive interoperability was addressed by new standards definitions for astronomical data and trial programmes of "joins" between specific target archives within the project team. The necessary GRID and database technologies were assessed and tested for use within a full AVO implementation. Discussion Paper for the OECD Global Science Forum at the Library of Congress Web Archives Virtual Observatories initiatives worldwide, State of the projects 2006 highlights that EURO-VO is the continuation from AVO as a Phase-B deployment of an operational VO in Europe. List of Seminars in VOs 2004-5 at the Wayback Machine Astrophysical Virtual Observatory or AVO at the Wayback Machine Its continuation project EURO-VO or European Virtual Observatory Euro-VO AVO at ESA/Hubble
A vizier is a high-ranking political advisor or minister. The Abbasid caliphs gave the title wazir to a minister called katib, at first a helper but afterwards became the representative and successor of the dapir of the Sassanian kings. In modern usage, the term has been used for government ministers in much of the Middle East and beyond. Several alternative spellings are used in English, such as vizir and vezir; the word entered into English in 1562 from the Turkish vezir, derived from the Arabic wazir . Wazir itself has two possible etymologies: The most accepted etymology is that it is derived from the Arabic wazara, from the Semitic root W-Z-R; the word is mentioned in the Quran, where Aaron is described as the wazir of Moses, as well as the word wizr, derived from the same root. On the other hand, the presence of a Middle Persian word vizīr or vicīr, cognate to the Avestan vīcira, meaning "decreer" or "arbitrator", could indicate an Indo-European origin; the Muslim office of vizier, which spread from the Persians, Turks and Mongols and neighboring peoples, arose under the first Abbasid caliphs.
The vizier stood between sovereign and subjects, representing the former in all matters touching the latter. The term has been used in two different ways: either for a unique position, the prime minister at the head of the monarch's government, or as a shared'cabinet rank', rather like a British secretary of state. If one such vizier is the prime minister, he may hold the title of another title. In Muslim Persia, the prime minister under the political authority of the Shahanshah was styled Vazīr-e Azam, various Ministers held cabinet rank as vazir, including a Vazir-i-Daftar and a Vazir-i-Lashkar. In Al-Andalus appointed by the Caliph of Cordoba. In many of the emirates and sultanates of the taifas which the caliphate was broken up into. In Muslim Egypt, the most populous Arab country: Under the Fatimid Caliphs. Again since the effective end of Ottoman rule, remarkably since 1857 (i.e. before the last Wali, Isma`il Pasha, was raised Khedive, exchanged for the western prime ministers on 28 August 1878.
During the days of the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier was the—often de facto ruling—prime minister, second only to the Sultan and was the leader of the Divan, the Imperial Council. "Vizier" was the title of some Ottoman provincial governors, use of the title indicating a greater degree of autonomy for the province involved and the greater prestige of the title holder. In the Sherifian kingdom of Morocco, a Sadr al-A'zam was in office until 22 November 1955, replaced since 7 December 1955 a Prime Minister. In the Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz, the sole Vizier was the future second king Ali ibn Hussein al-Hashimi, under his father Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi, maintained after the assumption of the Caliphal style In the'regency' of Tunisia, under the Husainid Dynasty, various ministers of the Bey, including: Wazir al-Akbar:'great minister', i.e. grand vizier, chief minister or prime minister. Wazir al-'Amala: Minister for the Interior. Wazir al-Bahr: Minister'of the Sea', i.e. for the Navy/ Marine.
Wazir al-Harb: Minister for the Army or Minister for War. Wazir al-Istishara: Minister-Counsellor. Wazir al-Qalam: Minister of the Pen. Wazir ud-Daula: Minister of State. Wazir us-Shura: Privy Counsellor. In Oman the Hami/Sultan's chief minister was styled Wazir till 1966, but in 1925–1932 there was or instead a chairman of the council of Ministers. Viziers to the Sultans of Zanzibar. Grand Viziers to the Sultan of Sokoto – this is however disputed; the title "Waziri" is a derivative of this word, is a regarded chieftaincy title in most of northern Nigeria. Indeed, most of the emirs in northern Nigeria have a "Waziri", a high-ranking adviser to the emir. In pre- and colonial India many rulers some Hindu princes, had a vizier as chief minister – compare Diwan, Nawab wasir, etc. In the sultanate of the Maldives, the prime minister was styled Bodu Vizier, various Ministers held cabine