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Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, by total population the seventh-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term'Ukrainians' to all its citizens; the people of Ukraine have been known as "Rusyns" and "Cossacks", among others. According to most dictionary definitions, a descriptive name for the "inhabitants of Ukraine" is Ukrainian or Ukrainian people; the ethnonym Ukrainians became accepted only in the 20th century after their territory obtained distinctive statehood in 1917. From the 14th to the 16th centuries, the Western portions of the European part of what is now known as Russia, the territories of northern Ukraine and Belarus were known as Rus', continuing the tradition of Kievan Rus'. People of these territories were called Rus or Rusyns; the Ukrainian language appeared in the 14th – 16th centuries, but at that time, it was known as Ruthenian, like its brothers. In the 16th – 17th centuries, with the establishment of the Zaporizhian Sich, the notion of Ukraine as a separate country with a separate ethnic identity came into being.
However, the ethnonym Ukrainians and the linguonym Ukrainian were used only and the people of Ukraine continued to call themselves and their language Ruthenian. After the decline of the Zaporizhian Sich and the establishment of Imperial Russian hegemony in Ukraine, Ukrainians became more known by the Russian regional name, Little Russians, with the majority of Ukrainian élites espousing Little Russian identity; this official name did not spread among the peasantry which constituted the majority of the population. Ukrainian peasants still referred to their country as Ukraine and to themselves and their language as Ruthenians/Ruthenian. With the publication of Ivan Kotliarevsky's Eneyida in 1798, which established the modern Ukrainian language, with the subsequent Romantic revival of national traditions and culture, the ethnonym Ukrainians and the notion of a Ukrainian language came into more prominence at the beginning of the 19th century and replaced the words "Rusyns" and "Ruthenian". In areas outside the control of the Russian/Soviet state until the mid-20th century, Ukrainians were known by their pre-existing names for much longer.
The appellation Ukrainians came into common usage in Central Ukraine and did not take hold in Galicia and Bukovyna until the latter part of the 19th century, in Transcarpathia until the 1930s, in the Prešov Region until the late 1940s. The modern name ukrayintsi derives from Ukrayina, a name first documented in 1187. Several scientific theories attempt to explain the etymology of the term. According to the traditional theory, it derives from the Proto-Slavic root *kraj-, which has two meanings, one meaning the homeland as in "nash rodnoi kraj", the other "edge, border", had the sense of "periphery", "borderland" or "frontier region" etc. According to some new alternative Ukrainian historians such as Hryhoriy Pivtorak, Vitaly Sklyarenko and other scholars, translate the term "u-kraine" as "in-land", "home-land" or "our-country"; the name in this context derives from the word "u-kraina" in the sense of "domestic region", "domestic land" or "country". In the last three centuries the population of Ukraine experienced periods of Polonization and Russification, but preserved a common culture and a sense of common identity.
Most ethnic Ukrainians live in Ukraine. The largest population of Ukrainians outside of Ukraine lives in Russia where about 1.9 million Russian citizens identify as Ukrainian, while millions of others have some Ukrainian ancestry. The inhabitants of the Kuban, for example, have vacillated among three identities: Ukrainian, "Cossack". 800,000 people of Ukrainian ancestry live in the Russian Far East in an area known as "Green Ukraine". According to some previous assumptions, an estimated number of 2.4 million people of Ukrainian origin live in North America. Large numbers of Ukrainians live in Brazil, Moldova, Italy, Uzbekistan, the Czech Republic and Romania. There are large Ukrainian communities in such countries as Latvia, France, Paraguay, the UK, Slovakia, Austria and the former Yugoslavia; the Ukrainian diaspora is present in more than one hundred and twenty countries of the world. The number of Ukrainians in Poland amounted to some 51,000 people in 2011. Since 2014, the country has experienced a large increase in immigration from Ukraine.
More recent data put the number of Ukrainian workers at 1.2 – 1.3 million in 2016. In the last decades of the 19th century, many Ukrainians were forced by the Tsarist autocracy to move to the Asian regions of Russia, while many of their counterpart Slavs under Austro-Hungarian rule emigrated to the New World seeking work and better economic opportunities. Today
A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of its properties. Chemists describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists measure substance proportions, reaction rates, other chemical properties; the word'chemist' is used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English. Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry. Materials scientists and metallurgists share skills with chemists; the work of chemists is related to the work of chemical engineers, who are concerned with the proper design and evaluation of the most cost-effective large-scale chemical plants and work with industrial chemists on the development of new processes and methods for the commercial-scale manufacture of chemicals and related products.
The roots of chemistry can be traced to the phenomenon of burning. Fire was a mystical force that transformed one substance into another and thus was of primary interest to mankind, it was fire. After gold was discovered and became a precious metal, many people were interested to find a method that could convert other substances into gold; this led to the protoscience called alchemy. The word chemist is derived from an abbreviation of alchimista. Alchemists discovered many chemical processes. Chemistry as we know it today, was invented by Antoine Lavoisier with his law of conservation of mass in 1783; the discoveries of the chemical elements has a long history culminating in the creation of the periodic table by Dmitri Mendeleev. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry created in 1901 gives an excellent overview of chemical discovery since the start of the 20th century. Jobs for chemists require at least a bachelor's degree, but many positions those in research, require a Master of Science or a Doctor of Philosophy.
Most undergraduate programs emphasize mathematics and physics as well as chemistry because chemistry is known as "the central science", thus chemists ought to have a well-rounded knowledge about science. At the Master's level and higher, students tend to specialize in a particular field. Fields of specialization include biochemistry, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, theoretical chemistry, quantum chemistry, environmental chemistry, thermochemistry. Postdoctoral experience may be required for certain positions. Workers whose work involves chemistry, but not at a complexity requiring an education with a chemistry degree, are referred to as chemical technicians; such technicians do such work as simpler, routine analyses for quality control or in clinical laboratories, having an associate degree. A chemical technologist has more education or experience than a chemical technician but less than a chemist having a bachelor's degree in a different field of science with an associate degree in chemistry or having the same education as a chemical technician but more experience.
There are degrees specific to become a chemical technologist, which are somewhat distinct from those required when a student is interested in becoming a professional chemist. A Chemical technologist is more involved in the management and operation of the equipment and instrumentation necessary to perform chemical analyzes than a chemical technician, they are part of the team of a chemical laboratory in which the quality of the raw material, intermediate products and finished products is analyzed. They perform functions in the areas of environmental quality control and the operational phase of a chemical plant. In addition to all the training given to chemical technologists in their respective degree, a chemist is trained to understand more details related to chemical phenomena so that the chemist can be capable of more planning on the steps to achieve a distinct goal via a chemistry-related endeavor; the higher the competency level achieved in the field of chemistry, the higher the responsibility given to that chemist and the more complicated the task might be.
Chemistry, as a field, have so many applications that different tasks and objectives can be given to workers or scientists with these different levels of education or experience. The specific title of each job varies from position to position, depending on factors such as the kind of industry, the routine level of the task, the current needs of a particular enterprise, the size of the enterprise or hiring firm, the philosophy and management principles of the hiring firm, the visibility of the competency and individual achievements of the one seeking employment, economic factors such as recession or economic depression, among other factors, so this makes it difficult to categorize the exact roles of these chemistry-related workers as standard for that given level of education; because of these factors affecting exact job titles with distinct responsibilities, some chemists might begin doing technician tasks while other chemists might begin doing more complicated tasks than those of a technician, such as tasks th
A business magnate or industrialist is an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business. The term characteristically refers to a wealthy entrepreneur or investor who controls, through personal business ownership or dominant shareholding position, a firm or industry whose goods or services are consumed; such individuals may be called czars, proprietors, taipans, barons, or oligarchs. The word magnate derives from the Latin magnates, meaning "a great man" or "great nobleman"; the word tycoon derives from the Japanese word taikun, which means "great lord", used as a title for the shōgun. The word entered the English language in 1857 with the return of Commodore Perry to the United States. U. S. President Abraham Lincoln was humorously referred to as the Tycoon by his aides John Nicolay and John Hay; the term spread to the business community, where it has been used since. The word mogul is an English corruption of mughal, Persian or Arabic for "Mongol".
It alludes to emperors of the Mughal Empire in the Medieval India, who possessed great power and storied riches capable of producing wonders of opulence such as the Taj Mahal. Modern business magnates are entrepreneurs that amass on their own or wield substantial family fortunes in the process of building or running their own businesses; some are known in connection with these entrepreneurial activities, others through highly-visible secondary pursuits such as philanthropy, political fundraising and campaign financing, sports team ownership or sponsorship. The terms mogul and baron were applied to late 19th and early 20th century North American business magnates in extractive industries such as mining and petroleum, transportation fields such as shipping and railroads, manufacturing such as automaking and steelmaking, in banking, as well as newspaper publishing, their dominance was known as the Second Industrial Revolution, the Gilded Age, or the Robber Baron Era. Examples of well-known business magnates in the western world include historical figures such as oilman John D. Rockefeller, automobile pioneer Henry Ford and railroad veterans Aristotle Onassis, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jay Gould, James J. Hill, steel innovator Andrew Carnegie, newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst, retail merchant Sam Walton, banker J. P. Morgan.
Contemporary industrial tycoons include e-commerce entrepreneur Jeff Bezos, investor Warren Buffett, computer programmer Bill Gates, technology innovator Steve Jobs, steel investor Lakshmi Mittal, telecommunications investor Carlos Slim, airline owner Sir Richard Branson, technology entrepreneur Elon Musk, Formula 1 manager Bernie Ecclestone, media entrepreneur Rupert Murdoch, poultry technologist Frank Perdue. Bourgeoisie Oligarchy Business oligarch Businessperson Captain of industry Entrepreneur Financier Investor Magnate Media proprietor Plutocracy Real estate entrepreneur Robber baron ListsThe World's Billionaires Sunday Times Rich List Media related to Business magnate at Wikimedia Commons Lewis, Mark. "The Famous 15: America's Most Fascinating Tycoons". Forbes. "25 Tycoons Who Run the World". Business Pundit. October 6, 2010
Ivano-Frankivsk is a historic city located in Western Ukraine. It is the administrative centre of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast. Administratively, it is designated as a city of regional significance within the oblast, together with a number of rural localities, is incorporated as Ivano-Frankivsk Municipality. Population: 230,929 . Built in the mid-17th century as a fortress of the Polish Potocki family, Stanisławów was annexed to the Habsburg Empire during the First Partition of Poland in 1772, after which it became the property of the State within the Austrian Empire; the fortress was transformed into one of the most prominent cities at the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains. After World War I, for several months, it served as a temporary capital of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Following Peace of Riga, Stanisławów became part of the Second Polish Republic. After the Soviet invasion of Poland at the onset of World War II, the city was annexed by the Soviet Union, only to be occupied by Nazi Germany two years later.
With the liberation of Soviet Ukraine in 1944 and the shifting of borders, the Communist regime ran the city for the next four-and-a-half decades. A few years before the fall of the Soviet Union, the blue-yellow flag was raised in the city as the symbol of an independent Ukraine. A city visitor may find elements of various cultures intertwined within Ivano-Frankivsk, the Polish city hall, the Austro-Hungarian city's business center, the Soviet prefabicated apartment blocks at the city's rural–urban fringe, others. Ivano-Frankivsk is one of the principal cities of the Carpathian Euroregion. Stanisławów was founded as a fortress and was named after the Polish hetman Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki; some sources claim. Following the First Partition of Poland in 1772, the name was transliterated as Stanislau in German, as the city became part of the Austrian Empire. Other spellings used in the local press media included: Russian: Станиславов and Yiddish: סטאַניסלאוו. After World War II it was changed by the Soviet authorities into a simplified version Stanislav.
In 1962, on the city's 300th anniversary, it was renamed to honor the Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko. Due to the city's wordy name, unofficially it is sometimes called Franyk by its residents. Though Ivano-Frankivsk is the accepted name, the city's original name has never been abandoned and/or forgotten and can be found throughout the city in all kinds of variations; the name of the city was altered several times through the centuries. It was founded as Stanisławów. In 1939 transliteration changed to Stanislav, in 1941 in 1944 again to Stanislav, and on November 9, 1962, the name was changed by the First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev as an honour to poet Ivan Franko. The town of Stanisławów was founded as a fortress in order to protect the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from Tatar invasions and to defend the multi-ethnic population of the region in case of armed conflicts such as the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648; the fort was built next to Zabolotiv village, Knyahynyn. The village of Zabolotiv and the land around it were purchased by Andrzej Potocki from another Polish nobleman, Rzeczkowski.
Stanisławów was issued by Potocki and his declaration establishing the city with Magdeburg rights on May 7, 1662. By 1672, the fortress had been rebuilt from wood to stone and mortar. A new large fortified Potocki palace was erected in the place of an older wood structure. Today this building serves as the military hospital. In the same year Jews were granted the right to become permanent residents, who could work, conduct commerce and travel in and out of the city as they pleased; the city was divided into two districts: Tysmenytsia and Halych. Sometime in 1817–1819 the neighbouring village of Zabolottya, that had a special status, was incorporated into the city as a new district, while Tysmenytsia district was divided into Tysmenytsia and Lysets districts; each district had its main street corresponded with its name: Halych Street, Tysmenytsia Street which today is Independence Street, Zabolotiv Street – Mykhailo Hrushevsky Street and Street of Vasylyanok, Lysets Street – Hetman Mazepa Street.
The city was split into six small districts: midtown where the rich Catholic population and patricians lived and four suburbs – Zabolotiv, Tysmenytsia and Lysets where the plebeians lived. In October 1918, the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed and the Western Ukrainian People's Republic was proclaimed. In the early months of 1919 the city became a temporary capital of the West Ukrainian National Republic, while still recovering from World War I. All state affairs took place in the building of Dnister Hot