Order of Saint Vladimir
The Order of Saint Vladimir was an Imperial Russian Order established in 1782 by Empress Catherine II in memory of the deeds of Saint Vladimir, the Grand Prince and the Baptizer of the Kievan Rus'. The order was awarded for continuous civil and military service. People, awarded with the St. Vladimir Order for military merits bore it with a special fold on the ribbon - "with a bow". There was a certain hierarchy of Russian Orders. According to this, the St. Vladimir Order, 1st Class was the second one by its significance. According to the Russian Law about the Nobility, people who were awarded with the St. Vladimir Order had had the rights of hereditary nobility until the Emperor's Decree of 1900 was issued. After this only three first classes of the Order gave such a right. Today, HIH Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna, pretender to the Russian throne, Head of the Russian Imperial House continues to award the Russian Imperial Order of Saint Vladimir as a dynastic order of knighthood; this is disputed by some members of the Romanov Family Association.
First class of the order – A red cross with black and golden borders. The badge of the Order depended from a sash worn over the right shoulder, a gold-and-silver eight-rayed star was fastened on the left chest. Second class – The red cross on the neck and the star on the left chest. Third class – The red cross of a smaller size on the neck. Fourth class – The same on the left chest. Recipient Knights and Dames Grand Cross use the post-nominal letters "GCStV", Knights use the post-nominal letters "KStV", Knights Commander use the post-nominal letters "KCStV", Knight Officer use the post-nominal letters "OStV"; when an individual is entitled to use multiple post-nominal letters, those of the Order of Saint Vladimir appear before all others, except "KA", "GCSG", "KSG", "KCSG", "OSG". Badge: A red enamelled cross pattée with black enamelled borders, a black enamelled central disc bearing a crowned red and ermine mantle with the monogram of St. Vladimir. Worn on a sash by the first degree, on a necklet by the second and third degrees, on a chest ribbon by the fourth degree.
Star: A four-pointed star superimposed upon a four-pointed gold star, with a golden cross pattée and the letters "CPKB" between the arms of the cross on a black enamel background at the centre surrounded by the motto of the order "Benefit and Glory". Worn on the left chest by the first and second degrees; this motto was transferred to present-day star of the Order of Merit for the Fatherland, established in 1992 by President Boris Yeltsin and is today the second highest ranking decoration of that country. Ribbon: red with wide black edges. In 1957, in commemoration of the 40th anniversary of the Patriarch's restoration in Russia, an Order of Saint Vladimir was created by the Russian Orthodox Church; the order is to be awarded to priests and nuns of Orthodox church for their service to Soviet Union and Russia. There are three degrees of the order, it has no relation to the former imperial order. Abbasgulu aga Bakikhanov Gudsi Charles Broke Vere Angus Buchanan Anto Gvozdenović Jacob van Deventer Robert Henry Dick Ivan Gannibal Hugo W. Koehler Alexander Kolchak Louis-Mathieu Langlès Mikhail Lermontov was to be awarded the Fourth Class of the Order but never received it.
His name was removed from the final list of recipients by Czar Nicholas I, who harbored a strong dislike for the stubborn poet. Mitrofan Lodyzhensky Fyodor Matisen August Ludwig von Schlözer Igor Sikorsky Pyotr Stolypin Jovan Sundečić Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Nikolai Yudenich Mikhail Tukhachevsky Ilya Ulyanov, Vladimir Lenin's father William Munro Kerr Alexander Alexandrovich Spir, father of the philosopher African Spir, surgeon—Chief Physician of the military Hospital of Odessa
Voronezh is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, straddling the Voronezh River and located 12 kilometers from where it flows into the Don. The city sits on the Southeastern Railway, which connects European Russia with the Urals and Siberia, the Caucasus and Ukraine, the M4 highway, its population in 2016 was estimated to be 1,032,895. The first chronicle references to the word "Voronezh" are dated 1177, when the Ryazan prince Yaropolk, having lost the battle, fled "to Voronozh" and there was moving "from hail into hail." Modern data of archeology and history interpret Voronezh as a geographical region, which included the Voronezh river and a number of settlements. In the lower reaches of the river, an unique Slavic town-planning complex of the 8th – early 11th century was discovered, which covered the territory of the present city of Voronezh and its environs. By the 12th – 13th centuries, most of the old “hails” were desolate, but new settlements appeared upstream, closer to Ryazan.
For many years, the hypothesis of the Soviet historian Vladimir Zagorovsky dominated: he produced the toponym "Voronezh" from the hypothetical Slavic personal name Voroneg. This man gave the name of a small town in the Chernigov Principality. In the XI or XII centuries, the settlers were able to "transfer" this name to the Don region, where they named the second city Voronezh, the river got its name from the city. However, now many researchers criticize the hypothesis, since in reality neither the name of Voroneg nor the second city was revealed, the names of Russian cities repeated the names of the rivers, but not vice versa; the linguistic comparative analysis of the name "Voronezh" was carried out by the Khovansky Foundation in 2009. There is an indication of the place names of many countries in Eurasia, which may be not only similar in sound, but united by common Indo-European languages: Varanasi, Verona, etc. A comprehensive scientific analysis was conducted in 2015–2016 by the historian Pavel Popov.
His conclusion: "Voronezh" is a probable Slavic macrotoponym associated with outstanding signs of nature, has a root voron- in the meaning of "black, dark" and the suffix -ezh. It was not “transferred” and in the 8th - 9th centuries it marked a vast territory covered with black forests - from the mouth of the Voronezh river to the Voronozhsky annalistic forests in the middle and upper reaches of the river, in the west to the Don; the historian believes that the main "city" of the early town-planning complex could repeat the name of the region – Voronezh. Now the hillfort is located in the administrative part of the modern city, in the Voronezh upland oak forest; this is one of Europe's largest ancient Slavic hillforts, the area of which – more than 9 hectares – 13 times the area of the main settlement in Kiev before the baptism of Rus. Folk etymology claims the name comes from combining the Russian words for raven and hedgehog into Воронеж. According to this explanation two Slavic tribes named after the animals used this combination to name the river which in turn provided the name for a settlement.
There is not believed to be any scientific support for this explanation. In the 16th century, the Middle Don basin, including the Voronezh river, was conquered by Muscovy from the Nogai Horde, the current city of Voronezh was established in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort protecting the Muravsky Trail trade route against the raids of the Nogai and Crimean Tatars; the city was named after the river. In the 17th century, Voronezh evolved into a sizable town. Weronecz is shown on the Worona river in Resania in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645. Peter the Great built a dockyard in Voronezh where the Azov Flotilla was constructed for the Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696; this fleet, the first built in Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, Goto Predestinatsia. The Orthodox diocese of Voronezh was instituted in 1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of Voronezh, was proclaimed the town's patron saint. Owing to the Voronezh Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh became the largest city of South Russia and the economic center of a large and fertile region.
In 1711, it was made the seat of the Azov Governorate, which morphed into the Voronezh Governorate. In the 19th century, Voronezh was a center of the Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry as well as bread, cattle and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Moscow in 1868 and Rostov-on-Don in 1871. During World War II, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting between Russian and combined Axis troops; the Germans used it as a staging area for their attack on Stalingrad, made it a key crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, two BM-13 artillery installations were built at the Voronezh excavator factory. In July, the construction of Katyushas was rationalized so that their manufacture became easier and the time of volley repetition was shortened from five minutes to fifteen seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in Voronezh were used in a counterattack near Moscow in December 1941. In October 22, 1941, the advance of the German troops prompted the establishment of a defense committee in the city.
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
The White movement and its military arm the White Army known as the White Guard, the White Guardsmen or the Whites, was a loose confederation of anti-communist forces that fought the Communist Bolsheviks known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War and to a lesser extent continued operating as militarized associations insurrectionists both outside and within Russian borders in Siberia until World War II. During the Russian Civil War, the White movement was a big tent political movement representing an array of political opinions in Russia united in their opposition to the Communist Bolsheviks, from the republican-minded liberals and Kerenskyite social democrats who had profited from the February Revolution of 1917 on the left to the champions of Tsarism and the Russian Orthodox Church of Eastern Orthodox Christianity on the right. Following their defeat, there were remnants and continuations of the movement in several organizations, some of which only had narrow support, enduring within the wider White émigré overseas community until after the fall of Communism in the Eastern European Revolutions of 1989 and the subsequent Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990–1991.
This community-in-exile of anti-communists was divided between the liberals and the more conservative segments, with some still hoping for the restoration of the Romanov dynasty, including several claimants to the empty throne like Nicholas Romanov, Prince of Russia living in Italy and Prince Andrew Romanov in the United States and other exiles, still hopes for a true constitutional democratic republic in Russia. In the Russian context after 1917, "White" had three main connotations: Political contra-distinction to "the Reds", whose revolutionary Red Army supported the Bolshevik government. Historical reference to absolute monarchy recalling Russia's first Tsar, Ivan III, at a period when some styled the ruler of Muscovy Albus Rex; the white uniforms of Imperial Russia worn by some White Army soldiers. Above all, the White movement emerged as opponents of the Red Army; the White Army had the stated aim to keep law and order in Russia as the Tsar's army before the civil war and the salvation of Russia.
They worked to remove Soviet functionaries in White-controlled territory. Overall, the White Army rejected ethnic particularism and separatism; the White Army believed in a united multinational Russia and opposed separatists who wanted to create nation-states. American historians Richard L. Rubenstein and John K Roth state that 60,000 Jewish members of the Red Army were killed in combat against White forces during the Civil War of 1917 to 1923. British parliamentary influential leader Winston Churchill warned General Anton Denikin of the Imperial Army and a major White military leader, whose forces effected pogroms and persecutions against the Jews: y task in winning support in Parliament for the Russian Nationalist cause will be infinitely harder if well-authenticated complaints continue to be received from Jews in the zone of the Volunteer Armies. Many of the White leaders were conservative, accepting autocracy while remaining suspicious of "politics". Aside from being anti-Bolshevik and anti-Communist and patriotic, the Whites had no set ideology or main leader.
The White Armies did acknowledge a single provisional head of state in a Supreme Governor of Russia in a Provisional All-Russian Government, but this post was prominent only under the leadership in the war campaigns during of Admiral Alexander Kolchak of the previous Russian Imperial Navy. The movement had no set plan for foreign policy. Whites differed on policies toward the German Empire in its extended occupation of western Russia, the Baltic states and the Ukraine on the Eastern Front in the closing days of the World War, debating whether or not to ally with it; the Whites wanted to keep from alienating any potential supporters and allies and thus saw an monarchist position as a detriment to their cause and recruitment. White-movement leaders such as Anton Denikin advocated for Russians to create their own government, claiming the military could not decide in Russians' steads. Admiral Alexander Kolchak succeeded in creating a temporary wartime government in Omsk, acknowledged by most other White leaders, only for it to fall with the loss of his armies.
Some warlords who were aligned with the White movement, such as Grigory Semyonov and Roman Ungern von Sternberg, did not acknowledge any authority but their own. The White movement had no set political leanings as members could be monarchists, rightists, or Kadets. Among White Army leaders, neither General Lavr Kornilov nor General Anton Denikin were monarchists, yet General Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel was a monarchist willing to soldier for a republican Russian government. Moreover, other political parties supported the anti-Bolshevik White Army, among them the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, others who opposed Lenin's Bolshevik October Revolution of 1917. Depending on the time and place, those White Army supporters might exchange right-wing allegiance for allegiance to the Red Army. Unlike the Bolsheviks, the White Armies did not share a single ideology, methodology, or political goal, they were led by conservative generals with different agendas a
Oryol or Orel is a city and the administrative center of Oryol Oblast, located on the Oka River 360 kilometers south-southwest of Moscow. Population: 317,747 . While there are no historical records, archaeological evidence shows that a fortress settlement existed between the Oka and Orlik Rivers as early as the 12th century, when the land was a part of the Principality of Chernigov; the name of the fortress is unknown. In the 13th century the fortress became a part of the Zvenigorod district of the Karachev Principality. In the early 15th century, the territory was conquered by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the city was soon abandoned by its population, after being sacked either by Lithuanians or the Golden Horde. The territory became a part of the Tsardom of Russia in the 16th century. Ivan the Terrible decreed that a new fortress be built on the spot in 1566, for the purpose of defending the southern borders of the country; the fortress was built speedily, work starting in the summer of 1566 and ending in the spring of 1567.
The location chosen was less than ideal strategically, as the fortress was located on a seasonally flooded low ground targeted from the neighboring high ground. False Dmitry I and his army passed through Oryol in 1605. Polish intervention sacked it in 1611 and 1615. Orlovsky Uyezd nonetheless continued to exist on paper. Oryol was rebuilt in 1636; the question of moving the fortress to the more advantageous high ground was in the air up until the 1670s, but the move was never made. The fortress was taken apart in the early 18th century. In the mid-18th century Oryol became one of the major centers of grain production, with the Oka River being the major trade route until the 1860s when it was replaced by a railroad. Oryol was granted town status in 1702. In 1708, Oryol was included as a part of Kiev Governorate; the Province was transferred to the newly created Belgorod Governorate in 1727. On March 11, 1778 Oryol Vice-Royalty was created from parts of Belgorod Governorates. In 1779, the city was entirely rebuilt based on a new plan.
After the October Revolution of 1917, the city was in Bolshevik hands, except for a brief period between October 13 and October 20, 1919, when it was controlled by Anton Denikin's White Army. Oryol was once again moved between different oblasts in the 1920s and 1930s becoming the administrative center of its own Oryol Oblast on September 27, 1937; the Oryol Prison was a notable place of incarceration for political prisoners and war prisoners of the Second World War. Christian Rakovsky, Maria Spiridonova, Olga Kameneva and 160 other prominent political prisoners were shot on September 11, 1941 on Joseph Stalin's orders in the Medvedev Forest massacre outside Oryol. During World War II, Oryol was occupied by the Wehrmacht on October 3, 1941, liberated on August 5, 1943, after the Battle of Kursk; the city was completely destroyed. In February 2012, the city duma abolished the direct election of mayor. In December 2013, a referendum was held, which 71% of the people supported the return of direct mayoral election.
Oryol is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Orlovsky District though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Oryol—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Oryol is incorporated as Oryol Urban Okrug. The city is served by the Oryol Yuzhny Airport. Since 1868, there has been a railway connection between Moscow. Oryol is a major transport hub on the borders of the Central and Central Black Earth economic regions. Through the city converge 7 important highways of federal and republican values: M2, P92, R119, R120, A142, 5 railway lines: on Yelets, Kursk, Mikhailovsky mine; the city has an airport. The formation of the Oryol as an important transportation hub is due to the favorable geographical position of the city on the borders of economic regions.
The town has trolley and bus systems. These kinds of public transport cover the entire territory of the city; each bus and trolley is equipped with route indicators that inform about the route through the city, designated stops. There is a waterbus on the Oka River. In the city there are taxis and shuttles, rental cars. Intercity transport terminals: Oryol Station, Station Luzhki-Oryol, Oryol Bus Station, as well as federal highway M2, P92, R119, R120, A142. On November 3, 1898 Orel inaugurated an electric tram; the draft was prepared by the Belgian entrepreneur FF Gilon and firm «Compagnie mutuelle de tramways», which won the right to build not only a tram, but lighting in the city. Oryol has a humid continental climate. 1991–1997: Alexander Kislyakov 1997–2002: Yefim Velkovsky 2002–2006: Vasily Uvarov 2006–2009: Alexander Kasyanov 2009–2010: Vasily Eremin 2010–2012: Viktor Safianov 2012: Mikhail Bernikov 2012–2016: Sergey Stupin 2016–present: Vasily Novikov Oryol is twinned with: Brest, Belarus Ke
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974. Kiev is an important industrial, scientific and cultural center of Eastern Europe, it is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro; the city's name is said to derive from the name of one of its four legendary founders. During its history, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity; the city existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the first East Slavic state.
Destroyed during the Mongol invasions in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; the city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, proclaimed by the Red Army, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine and experienced a steady migration influx of ethnic Ukrainians from other regions of the country. During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and richest city.
Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections. Kiev is the traditional and most used English name for the city; the Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are translated into English. As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution; the early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form Kyjevŭ. The name is associated with that of the legendary eponymous founder of the city. Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiew, Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius the name of the city is spelled Kiou.
On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall, the city is referred to as Kiovia; the form Kiev is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation, during a time when Kiev was in the Russian Empire. In English, Kiev was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's new universal atlas" published in London; the English travelogue titled New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary Holderness was published in 1823. By 1883, the Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation. Kyiv is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the rules, the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into Kyiv; this has established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995.
The spelling is used by the United Nations, European Union, all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions, several international organizations, Encarta encyclopedia, by some media in Ukraine. In October 2006, the United States Board on Geographic Names unanimously voted to change its standard transliteration to Kyiv, effective for the entire U. S. government, although'Kiev' remains the BGN conventional name for this city. The alternate romanizations Kyyiv and Kyjiv are in use in English-language atlases. Many major English-language news sources like the BBC, The New York Times continue to prefer Kiev, but others have adopted Kyiv in their style guides, including The Economist and The Guardian. Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation. Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date the founding to the late 9th century, other historians
The Mogilev Governorate or Government of Mogilev was a governorate of the Russian Empire in the territory of the present day Belarus. Its capital was in Mogilev Gubernskiy; the area of the governorate was inhabited in the 10th century by the Slav tribes of the Krivichi and Radimichi. In the 14th century, the land became part of Lithuania, Poland; the governorate was formed in 1772, in the aftermath of the First partition of Poland, from parts of the voivodeships of Witebsk, Mścisław, Połock and Inflanty. Parts of these territories were used to form the Pskov Governorate. In 1796, Mogilev and Polotsk Governorates were formed Belorussian Governorate. In 1802, Belorussian Governorate was divided into Mogilev Governorate. In 1917, Vitebsk and parts of Minsk Governorate and Vilna Governorate were united into the Western District. In 1918, it was joined by Smolensk Governorate and in October 1919, Mogilev Governorate was reformed into Gomel Governorate. Maps and lists of settlements of Mogilev Governorate