Order of the October Revolution
The Order of the October Revolution was instituted on October 31, 1967, in time for the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution. It was conferred upon individuals or groups for services furthering communism or the state, or in enhancing the defenses of the Soviet Union and civil, it is the second-highest Soviet order, after the Order of Lenin. The insignia of the Order consisted of a badge, a red star with golden rays between the arms. Above this was a red flag bearing the words "October Revolution" in Russian. A Hammer and Sickle emblem was placed at the bottom; the badge was worn on the left chest with a red ribbon bearing five blue stripes at the centre. The Aurora was itself awarded the Order, the only ship to have received the award. Military units and institutions receiving the award applied the order name to their title upon its reception. Order of the October Revolution at the Directory of the orders and signs of the USSR. Order of the October Revolution Reference Page
International Swimming Hall of Fame
The International Swimming Hall of Fame and Museum is a history museum and hall of fame, located at One Hall of Fame Drive, Fort Lauderdale, United States, operated by private interests and serving as the central point for the study of the history of swimming in the United States and around the world. Exhibits include ancient art and both reproductions and original art depicting famous moments in swimming history and civil rights, as well as memorabilia and artifacts belonging to persons who have promoted or excelled in aquatics, it is recognized by FINA as the official hall for the aquatics sports. In 1965, Johnny Weissmuller became the president of the International Swimming Hall of Fame, that with this charge in 1970 was present at the Commonwealth Games in Jamaica and was introduced to Queen Elizabeth. ISHOF was incorporated in Florida as a non-profit educational corporation on November 23, 1964, with Buck Dawson, as its first executive director. Nine months later—in August 1965—a 50-meter pool, 25-yard diving well, warm-up pool were completed.
This initial part of the Swimming Hall of Fame complex was dedicated on December 27, 1965, witnessed by 4,500 swimmers and other spectators from all fifty states and eleven foreign countries. In 1968, the then-Swimming Hall of Fame became the first world-recognized hall of fame in any sport, when the 105-nation FINA Congress met at the Summer Olympics in Mexico City and endorsed the hall of fame as an "International Swimming Hall of Fame". On June 16, 1969, the organization's Articles of Incorporation were amended to reflect that the name was changed to "International Swimming Hall of Fame"; the first members of the hall of fame—a class of twenty-one—were inducted in 1965. The Hall of Fame is dedicated to promoting the benefits of swimming as both an essential life skill and sport, through the operation of the World Museum of Swimming and by immortalizing the achievements and contributions of those who have distinguished themselves in the following six branches of aquatic sports: competitive swimming, water polo, open water swimming, synchronised swimming and masters ISHOF inducts outstanding practitioners of these sports into the Hall of Fame as honorees in one of several categories: Swimmer Diver Water Polo Synchronized Swimmer Open Water/Marathon Swimmer Masters athlete Coach Contributor Pioneer List of members of the International Swimming Hall of Fame Aquatic Hall of Fame and Museum of Canada List of Swimming World Swimmers of the Year List of FINA Athletes of the Year International Swimming Hall of Fame International Marathon Swimming Hall of Fame
1984 Summer Olympics
The 1984 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles, United States. This was the second time that Los Angeles had hosted the Games, the first being in 1932. California was the home state of the incumbent U. S. President Ronald Reagan, who opened the Games; the logo for the 1984 Games, branded "Stars in Motion", featured red and blue stars arranged horizontally and struck through with alternating streaks. The official mascot of the Games was Sam the Olympic Eagle; these were the first Summer Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. The 1984 Games were boycotted by a total of fourteen Eastern Bloc countries, including the Soviet Union and East Germany, in response to the American-led boycott of the previous 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow in protest of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Iran and Libya chose to boycott the Games for unrelated reasons. Despite the field being depleted in certain sports due to the boycott, 140 National Olympic Committees took part, a record at the time.
The 1984 Summer Olympics are considered to be the most financially successful modern Olympics and serve as an example of how to run the model Olympic Games. As a result of low construction costs, coupled with a reliance on private corporate funding, the 1984 Olympic Games generated a profit of more than $250 million. On July 18, 2009, a 25th anniversary celebration was held in the main Olympic Stadium; the celebration included a speech by the former president of the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee, Peter Ueberroth, a re-creation of the lighting of the cauldron. Los Angeles will host the Summer Olympics for the third time in 2028. After the murder of Israeli athletes by Palestinian terrorists in Munich and the significant financial debts of Montreal, few cities by the late 1970s were willing to bid for the Summer Olympics. Only two cities made serious bids for the 1984 Summer Games, but before the final selection of a "winning" city in 1978, the bid from Tehran was withdrawn as a result of Iran's policy changes following the Iranian Revolution and a change in the country's ruling system.
Hence, the selection process for the 1984 Summer Olympics consisted of a single finalized bid from Los Angeles, which the International Olympic Committee accepted. The selection was made at the 80th IOC Session in Athens on 18 May 1978. Los Angeles had unsuccessfully bid for the two previous Summer Olympics, for 1976 and 1980; the United States Olympic Committee had submitted at least one bid for every Olympics since 1944, but had not succeeded since the Los Angeles Olympics in 1932, the previous time only a single bid had been issued for the Summer Olympics. The 1984 Olympic Torch Relay began in New York City and ended in Los Angeles, traversing 33 states and the District of Columbia. Unlike torch relays, the torch was continuously carried by runners on foot; the route involved 3,636 runners. Noted athlete O. J. Simpson was among the runners. Gina Hemphill, granddaughter of Jesse Owens, carried the torch into the Coliseum, completed a lap around the track handed it off to the final runner, Rafer Johnson, winner of the decathlon at the 1960 Summer Olympics.
With the torch, he touched off the flame which passed through a specially designed flammable Olympic logo, igniting all five rings. The flame passed up to cauldron atop the peristyle and remained aflame for the duration of the Games. John Williams composed the theme for the Olympiad, "Olympic Fanfare and Theme"; this piece won a Grammy for Williams and became one of the most well-known musical themes of the Olympic Games, along with Leo Arnaud's "Bugler's Dream". Composer Bill Conti wrote a song to inspire the weightlifters called "Power". An album, The Official Music of the XXIII Olympiad—Los Angeles 1984, featured three of those tracks along with sports themes written for the occasion by popular musical artists including Foreigner, Loverboy, Herbie Hancock, Quincy Jones, Christopher Cross, Philip Glass and Giorgio Moroder; the Brazilian composer Sérgio Mendes produced a special song for the 1984 Olympic Games, "Olympia," from his 1984 album Confetti. A choir of one thousand voices was assembled of singers in the region.
All were volunteers from nearby churches and universities. Etta James performed ``. Vicki McClure along with the International Children's Choir of Long Beach sang "Reach Out and Touch". Lionel Richie performed a 9-minute version of his hit single "All Night Long" at the closing ceremonies; the 1984 Summer Olympics was preceded by the 10-week-long adjunct Los Angeles Olympic Arts Festival, which opened on June 2 and ended on August 12. It provided more than 400 performances by 146 theater and music companies, representing every continent and 18 countries, it was organized by then-CalArts President Robert Fitzpatrick. The opening ceremony featured the arrival of Bill Suitor by means of the Bell Aerosystems rocket pack; the United States Army Band formed the Olympic rings to start the opening ceremony. The United States topped the medal count for the first time since 1968, winning a record 83 gold medals and surpassing the Soviet Union’s total of 80 golds at the 1980 Summer Olympics; as a result of an IOC agreement designating the Republic of China in the name of Chinese Taipei, the Peo
Freestyle is a category of swimming competition, defined by the rules of the International Swimming Federation, in which competitors are subject to few limited restrictions on their swimming stroke. Freestyle races are the most common of all swimming competitions, with distances beginning with 50 meters and reaching 1500 meters known as the mile; the term'freestyle stroke' is sometimes used as a synonym for'front crawl', as front crawl is the fastest swimming stroke. It is now the most common stroke used in freestyle competitions. Freestyle swimming implies the use of legs and arms for competitive swimming, except in the case of the individual medley or medley relay events; the front crawl is most chosen by swimmers, as this provides the greatest speed. During a race, the competitor circles the arms forward in alternation, kicking the feet down. Individual freestyle events can be swum using one of the regulated strokes. For the freestyle part of medley swimming competitions, one cannot use breaststroke, butterfly, or backstroke.
Front crawl is based on the Trudgen, improved by Richmond Cavill from Sydney, Australia. Cavill developed the stroke by observing a young boy from Alick Wickham. Cavill and his brothers spread the Australian crawl to England, New Zealand and America, creating the freestyle used worldwide today. During the Olympic Games, front crawl is swum exclusively during freestyle; some of the few rules state that swimmers must touch the end of the pool during each length and cannot push off the bottom, hang on the wall, or pull on the lane lines during the course of the race. As with all competitive events, false starts can lead to disqualification of the swimmer. Times have dropped over the years due to better training techniques and to new developments in the sport. In the first four Olympics, swimming competitions were not in open water; the 1904 Olympics freestyle race was the only one measured at 100 yards, instead of the usual 100 meters. A 100-meter pool was built for the 1908 Olympics and sat in the center of the main stadium's track and field oval.
The 1912 Olympics, held in the Stockholm harbor, marked the beginning of electronic timing. Male swimmers wore full body suits up until the 1940s, which caused more drag in the water than their modern swimwear counterparts. Over the years, some design considerations have reduced swimming resistance, making the pool faster, namely: proper pool depth, elimination of currents, increased lane width, energy-absorbing racing lane lines and gutters, the use of other innovative hydraulic and illumination designs; the 1924 Olympics was the first to use the standard 50 meter pool with marked lanes. In freestyle events, swimmers dove from the pool walls, but diving blocks were incorporated at the 1936 Olympics; the flip turn was developed in the 1950s. Lane design created in the early 1970s has cut down turbulence in water, aiding in the more dynamic pool used today. Freestyle means "any style" for individual swims and any style but breaststroke, butterfly, or backstroke for both the individual medley, medley relay competitions.
The wall has to be touched upon completion. Some part of the swimmer must be above water at any time, except for the first 15 meters after the start and every turn; this rule was introduced to prevent swimmers from using the faster underwater swimming to their advantage, or swimming entire laps underwater. The exact FINA rules are: Freestyle means that in an event so designated the swimmer may swim any style, except that in individual medley or medley relay events, freestyle means any style other than backstroke, breaststroke, or butterfly Some part of the swimmer must touch the wall upon completion of each length and at the finish Some part of the swimmer must break the surface of the water throughout the race, except it shall be permissible for the swimmer to be submerged during the turn and for a distance of not more than 15 meters after the start and each turn. By that point the head must have broken the surface. There are nine competitions used in freestyle swimming, both using either a long course or a short course pool.
The United States employs short course yards. In the United States, it is common for swimmers to compete in a 25-yard pool during the Fall and Spring, switch over to a 50-meter pool format during the Summer. 50 m freestyle 100 m freestyle 200 m freestyle 400 m freestyle 800 m freestyle 1500 m freestyle 4×50 m freestyle relay 4 × 100 m freestyle relay 4 × 200 m freestyle relay Young swimmers have the option to swim a 25 yard/meter freestyle event. Freestyle is part of the medley over the following distances: 100 m individual medley 200 m individual medley 400 m individual medley 4 × 100 m medley relay In the long distance races of the 800 meter and 1500 meter, some meets hosted by FINA only
The Universiade is an international multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation. The name is a combination of the words "University" and "olympiad"; the Universiade is referred to in English as the World University Games or World Student Games. The most recent games were in 2017: the Winter Universiade was in Almaty, while the Summer Universiade was held in Taipei, Taiwan; the 2019 Winter Universiade took place in Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation, between 2 and 12 March 2019, the 2019 Summer Universiade will be held in Naples, Italy between 3 and 14 July. The idea of a global international sports competition between student-athletes pre-dates the 1949 formation of the International University Sports Federation, which now hosts the Universiade. English peace campaigner Hodgson Pratt was an early advocate of such an event, proposing a motion at the 1891 Universal Peace Congress in Rome to create a series of international student conferences in rotating host capital cities, with activities including art and sport.
This did not come to pass, but a similar event was created in Germany in 1909 in the form of the Academic Olympia. Five editions were held from 1909 to 1913, all of which were hosted in Germany following the cancellation of an Italy-based event. At the start of the 20th century, Jean Petitjean of France began attempting to organise a "University Olympic Games". After discussion with Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games, Petitjean was convinced not to use the word "Olympic" in the tournament's name. Petitjean, the Confederation Internationale des Etudiants, was the first to build a series of international events, beginning with the 1923 International Universities Championships; this was followed by the renamed 1924 Summer Student World Championships a year and two further editions were held in 1927 and 1928. Another name change resulted in the 1930 International University Games; the CIE's International University Games was held four more times in the 1930s before having its final edition in 1947.
A separate group organised an alternative university games in 1939 in Vienna, in post-Anschluss Germany. The onset of World War II ceased all major international student sport activities and the aftermath led to division among the movement, as the CIE was disbanded and rival organisations emerged; the Union Internationale des Étudiants incorporated a university sports games into the World Festival of Youth and Students from 1947–1962, including one separate, unofficial games in 1954. This event principally catered for Eastern European countries. After the closure of the CIE and the creation of the first UIE-organised games, FISU came into being in 1949 and held its own first major student sport event the same year in the form of the 1949 Summer International University Sports Week; the Sports Week was held biennially until 1955. Like the CIE's games before it, the FISU events were Western-led sports competitions. Division between the Western European FISU and Eastern European UIE began to dissipate among broadened participation at the 1957 World University Games.
This event was not directly organised by either group, instead being organised by Jean Petitjean in France, but all respective nations from the groups took part. The FISU-organised Universiade became the direct successor to this competition, maintaining the biennial format into the inaugural 1959 Universiade, it was not until the 1957 World University Games that the Soviet Union began to compete in FISU events. That same year, what had been a European competition became a global one, with the inclusion of Brazil and the United States among the competing nations; the increased participation led to the establishment of the Universiade as the primary global student sport championship. 1 The Republic of China is recognised as Chinese Taipei by FISU and the majority of international organisations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China. World University Championships International University Sports Federation International Children's Games Official website of the International University Sports Federation Official website of the German University Sports Federation Official report of the Winter Universiade Innsbruck / Seefeld 2005 Yahoo News: 2017 Taipei Universiade, 87% box-office success as the highest ever
Pedagogy refers more broadly to the theory and practice of education, how this influences the growth of learners. Pedagogy, taken as an academic discipline, is the study of how knowledge and skills are exchanged in an educational context, it considers the interactions that take place during learning. Pedagogies vary as they reflect the different social, cultural contexts from which they emerge. Pedagogy is the act of teaching. Theories of pedagogy identify the student as an agent, the teacher as a facilitator. Conventional western pedagogies, view the teacher as knowledge holder and student as the recipient of knowledge; the pedagogy adopted by teachers shape their actions and other teaching strategies by taking into consideration theories of learning, understandings of students and their needs, the backgrounds and interests of individual students. Its aims may include furthering liberal education to the narrower specifics of vocational education. Instructive strategies are governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experience and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and teacher.
One example would be the Socratic method. The teaching of adults, as a specific group, is referred to as andragogy; the word is a derivative of the Greek παιδαγωγία, from παιδαγωγός, itself a synthesis of ἄγω, "I lead", παῖς "child": hence, "to lead a child". It is pronounced variously, as, or. Negative connotations of pedantry have sometimes been intended, or taken, at least from the time of Samuel Pepys in the 1650s; the educational philosophy and pedagogy of Johann Friedrich Herbart highlighted the correlation between personal development and the resulting benefits to society. In other words, Herbart proposed that humans become fulfilled once they establish themselves as productive citizens. Herbartianism refers to the movement underpinned by Herbart's theoretical perspectives. Referring to the teaching process, Herbart suggested five steps as crucial components; these five steps include: preparation, association and application. Herbart suggests that pedagogy relates to having assumptions as an educator and a specific set of abilities with a deliberate end goal in mind.
A hidden curriculum is a side effect of an education, " which are learned but not intended" such as the transmission of norms and beliefs conveyed in the classroom and the social environment. Learning space or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a learning environment, a place in which teaching and learning occur; the term is used as a more definitive alternative to "classroom," but it may refer to an indoor or outdoor location, either actual or virtual. Learning spaces are diverse in use, learning styles, configuration and educational institution, they support a variety of pedagogies, including quiet study, passive or active learning, kinesthetic or physical learning, vocational learning, experiential learning, others. Learning theories are conceptual frameworks describing how knowledge is absorbed and retained during learning. Cognitive and environmental influences, as well as prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a world view, is acquired or changed and knowledge and skills retained.
Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via post. Today it involves online education. Courses that are conducted are blended or 100 % distance learning. Massive open online courses, offering large-scale interactive participation and open access through the World Wide Web or other network technologies, are recent developments in distance education. A number of other terms are used synonymously with distance education. Critical pedagogy is both a broader social movement. Critical pedagogy acknowledges that educational practices are contested and shaped by history, schools are not politically neutral spaces and teaching is political. Decisions regarding the curriculum, disciplinary practices, student testing, textbook selection, the language used by the teacher, more can empower or disempower students, it recognises that educational practices favour some students over others and some practices harm all students.
It recognises that educational practices favour some voices and perspectives while marginalising or ignoring others. Another aspect examined is the power the teacher holds over the implications of this, its aims include empowering students to become active and engaged citizens, who are able to improve their own lives and their communities. Critical pedagogical practices may include, listening to and including students’ knowledge and perspectives in class, making connections between school and the broader community, posing problems to students that encourage them to question assumed knowledge and understandings; the goal of problem posing to students is to enable them to begin to pose their own problems. Teachers acknowledge their position of authority and exhibit this authority through their actions that support students. Dialogic learning is learning, it is the result of ega
Mission Viejo, California
Mission Viejo is a commuter city located within Orange County, United States in the Saddleback Valley. Mission Viejo is considered one of the largest master-planned communities built under a single project in the United States and is rivaled only by Highlands Ranch, Colorado in its size, its population as of 2014 was estimated at 96,346. Mission Viejo is suburban in nature and culture; the city is consists of residential property, although there are a number of offices and businesses within the limits of the city. The city is known for its tree-lined neighborhoods, receiving recognition from the National Arbor Day Foundation; the city's name is a reference to Rancho Mission Viejo, a large Spanish land grant from which the community was founded. Mission Viejo was purchased by John Forster known as "Don Juan," an Englishman by birth who became a Mexican citizen. During the Mexican–American War, Forster provided fresh horses to United States military forces which were used on the march of San Diego to retake Los Angeles.
Mission Viejo was a hilly region used as cattle and sheep grazing land, since it was of little use to farmers. This city was one of the last regions of Orange County to be urbanized due to its geologic complexity. In 1960, early developers dismissed most of the land in Mission Viejo as "undevelopable". Donald Bren, an urban planner who became the president of the Irvine Company, drafted a master plan which placed roads in the valleys and houses on the hills, contoured to the geography of the area; the plan worked, by 1980 much of the city of Mission Viejo was completed. During the late 1970s and the 1980s, houses in Mission Viejo were in such high demand that housing tracts sold out before construction began on them; the houses and shopping centers in the city are uniformly designed in a Spanish mission style, with "adobe"-like stucco walls and barrel-tile roofs. Many point to Mission Viejo as the first and largest manifestation of Bren's obsession with Spanish architecture. Bren's company was the creator of the developments in Irvine and Newport Beach.
The company expanded its operations and went on to build the Lakes project in Tempe, Mission Viejo Aurora in Colorado and was the initial master planner of Highlands Ranch, both in the Denver Metropolitan area. The seal of the city of Mission Viejo was designed and drawn by Carl Glassford, an artist and former resident of the city. Mission Viejo is located at 33°36′46″N 117°39′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.1 square miles, 17.7 square miles of, land and 0.4 square miles is water. A significant portion of the surface water is held in Lake Mission Viejo, an artificial lake stretching one mile from Olympiad Road to Alicia Parkway along Marguerite Parkway. Mission Viejo is located 49 miles southeast of Los Angeles, 73 miles northwest of San Diego, it is bordered by Lake Forest on the northwest, Trabuco Canyon on the northeast, Rancho Santa Margarita and Ladera Ranch on the east, San Juan Capistrano on the south, Laguna Niguel and Laguna Hills on the west.
Mission Viejo enjoys a borderline semi-arid/Mediterranean climate, with mild temperatures and plentiful sunshine year-round. Rainfall totals, which average around 14 inches annually are focused in the months from November to March. Summer is dry and rainless, however thunderstorms do occur. Due to the city's proximity to the ocean and morning clouds are common in the months of May and June, a weather phenomenon known as June Gloom or May Gray. Like most of Southern California, the city is prone to dry Santa Ana winds, which bring hot air from inland and punctuate the mild temperatures with noticeable jumps. For example, temperatures have reached highs of 90 °F and above throughout many months of the year into the autumn months. Snowfall within city limits is rare, however the nearby Santa Ana Mountains receive a dusting of snow every few winters. From 2012-2016, California experienced the worst drought in a century. However, California ended most of the drought. Orange County was the last to have drought restrictions lifted.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Mission Viejo had a population of 93,305. The population density was 5,148.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Mission Viejo was 74,493 White, 1,210 African American, 379 Native American, 8,462 Asian, 153 Pacific Islander, 4,332 from other races, 4,276 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15,877 persons; the Census reported that 92,363 people lived in households, 859 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 83 were institutionalized. There were 33,208 households, out of which 11,767 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 20,792 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,967 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,306 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,211 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 225 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 6,314 households were made up of individuals and 2,949 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78.
There were 25,065 families. The population was spread out with 21,270 people under the age of 18, 7