The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, painting, printmaking, crafts, video and architecture. Many artistic disciplines involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art. Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term'artist' was restricted to a person working in the fine arts and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media; the distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts; the increasing tendency to privilege painting, to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art.
In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, the furthest removed from manual labour – in Chinese painting the most valued styles were those of "scholar-painting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes. Training in the visual arts has been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems. In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists, today most of the people who are pursuing a career in arts train in art schools at tertiary levels. Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems. Drawing is a means of using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques, it involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals and markers.
Digital tools that simulate the effects of these are used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draughtsman. Drawing goes back at least 16,000 years to Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases geometric developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC. With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli, Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture. Painting taken is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier and a binding agent to a surface such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing, composition, or other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner.
Painting is used to express spiritual motifs and ideas. Like drawing, painting has its documented origins on rock faces; the finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle and deer. Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses II, his queen, is depicted being led by Isis; the Greeks much of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations are the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example is mosaic of the Battle of Issus at Pompeii, based on a Greek painting. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting. Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle Ages, the next significant contribution to European art was from Italy's renaissance painters. From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century, this was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3-D space.
Painters in northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school. Jan van Eyck from Belgium, Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful painters of the times, they used the glazing technique with oils to achieve luminosity. The 17th century witnessed the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt, remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes, Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life; the Baroque started from the late 16th century to the late 17th century. Main artists of the Baroque included Caravaggio. Peter Paul Rubens was a flemish painter who studied in Italy, work
The Gwangju Biennale is a contemporary art biennale founded in September 1995 in Gwangju, South Jeolla province, South Korea. The Gwangju Biennale is hosted by the city of Gwangju; the Gwangju Biennale Foundation hosts the Gwangju Design Biennale, founded in 2004. Beyond Borders: The 1st Gwangju Biennale—20 September to 20 November 1995 Unmapping the Earth: The 2nd Gwangju Biennale—1 September to 27 November 1997 Man and Space: The 3rd Gwangju Biennale—29 March to 7 June 2000 P_A_U_S_E: The 4th Gwangju Biennale—29 March - 29 June 2002 A Grain of Dust A Drop of Water: The 5th Gwangju Biennale—10th Sept to 11 Nov 2004 Fever Variations: The 6th Gwangju Biennale—8 September to 11 November 2006 On the Road / Position Papers / Insertions: The 7th Gwangju Biennale—5th Sept to 9 Nov 2008 10,000 LIVES: The 8th Gwangju Biennale—3 September to 7 November 2010 ROUNDTABLE: The 9th Gwangju Biennale—7 September to 11 November 2012 Burning Down the House: The 10th Gwangju Biennale—5 September to 9 November 2014 The Eighth Climate: The 11th Gwangju Biennale—2 September to 6 November 2016 Gwangju Biennale, website
Chicago Architecture Biennial
The Chicago Architecture Biennial is an international exhibition of architectural ideas and displays. It seeks "to provide a platform for groundbreaking architectural projects and spatial experiments that demonstrate how creativity and innovation can radically transform our lived experience." Founded in 2014, the biennial is managed by a charitable corporation under the auspices of the city's Cultural Affairs department, sponsored by public and private organizations and individuals. The first of its kind in North America, the inaugural iteration of the biennale took place in Chicago between October, 2015 and January, 2016, was headquartered at the Chicago Cultural Center, its first directors were Joseph Grima. The event was championed by then-mayor Rahm Emanuel who told the Financial Times: "This biennial is an ode to the city's past and an echo to our future" The 2015-16 biennial had entries from 104 architects or practices; the exhibitors were invitees, many from North America and Europe, but from Australia, Chile, Colombia, India, Japan, the Palestinian Territories, South Africa, South Korea.
The theme of this biennial was The State of the Art of Architecture. The title of the first biennial originates from a 1977 conference organized by Chicago architect Stanley Tigerman, which invited leading American designers to Chicago to discuss the current state of the field; the first biennial announced it had more than 500,000 visitors, plans for its return in 2017. The second iteration was in 2017 with the theme Make New History, ran from September 16, 2017, through January 7, 2018 The lead curators were Mark Lee and Sharon Johnson of Johnson Marklee. Associate curators include Letizia Garzoli; the opening coincided with the international contemporary art fair. More than 100 architectural practices from the Americas and Europe were selected to participate. In addition to the main site at the Cultural Center, the biennial partnered with the Chicago Community Trust to hold 2017 events at six satellite locations in other parts of Chicago: The Beverly Arts Center, DePaul Art Museum, DuSable Museum of African American History, Hyde Park Art Center, the National Museum of Mexican Art, the National Museum of Puerto Rican Arts and Culture.
The second biennial drew a crowd of 550,000 and dates for a third biennial beginning in September 2019 were announced. Architecture in Chicago EXPO Chicago Bagnato, Andrea, et al. eds.. State of the Art of Architecture. Lars Muller Publishers. ISBN 9783037784754. Johnston, Sharon, et al. eds.. Make New History. Lars Muller Publishers. ISBN 9783037785355. Official website
Netmage is an international festival dedicated to electronic art curated by Xing and produced annually—in the city of Bologna—as a multidisciplinary program of works and promoting contemporary audiovisual research. The festival was born in 2000 with funds provided by the European Union, when Bologna represented one of the nine major European capital of culture; the festival concentrates on an amalgam of Happenings and audio/visual installations, it does through a concentration on creative scenes and subcultural communities. The experience of Netmage was merged into the annual Live Arts Week; the mission of Netmage is to investigate the relationship between the "liveness" and the "ambient space". At the crossroads of these two terms is situated the notion of "post-cinema": defined as an environmental construction capable of gathering diverse attitudes in a public space. Post Cinema/Postmemory It is a cinema made of multi-projections on a number of screens with no seating, a multiplication of narrative traces, possible points of view, physical positions of the spectators.
"Live Media is an open-ended term which has come into currency amongst theoreticians. Live-media relates to the gathering of diverse practices capable of calling to mind the wide range of research by video producers, visual artists, sound artists, VJ's, designers and a range of creative people issued by creative scenes and subcultural communities. Netmage and its curators have been instrumental in promoting this term. Utilization of electronic, digital or analogue platforms to generate images and sound. Playing with stimuli, what is created in the live-media experience is a "privilege of variation" that in the first case goes from designer to public, in the second from public to executor; the confrontation is direct, dictated by the logic of the event. "Dispositif" and practice thus represent two types of continuous variation through which Netmage questions possible currents in new media aesthetics, summoning artists and visual operators from diverse disciplines, in a context reminiscent of the Happening.
Despite the complexity born from the exploration of this kind of space, ideal internal space, the two axes—post-cinema and live media—intertwine and state what may be called a gathering, a togetherness of the community of producers, protagonists in the field of contemporary media, who both find themselves isolated. The first edition of the festival was born in an historic watershed with a view on one side from the experiences of one of the last bastions of the Twentieth Century avantgarde, video art, on the other toward a new front, as yet undefined while the entire world of research visual production was poised to turn digital. In the field of music, the 1990s had anticipated a great deal of what was to come in the visual world, pointing the way to a radical transformation in techniques and methods of cultural consumption. Netmage, different from a number of other festivals dedicated to electronics born in the world of clubbing, has concentrated on the production of images and universal vision.
In eleven editions Netmage has produced and hosted over two hundred projects from over thirty countries offering a smattering of the most recent evolutions in the technological imagination and multiple currents. Follows the list of the guests of the festival Yann Beauvais/Thomas Köner Quatr'un Alexander Hahn Memory of Present Granular synthesis POL Studio Azzurro Landing Talk Romeo Castellucci Mene Tekel Peres Umberto Bignardi/Alvin Curran Ritorno alla città Kinkaleri Esso Pansonic Cold Cut/Hexstatic Vision Live Mika Vainio Jurgen Reble Reel Crew/Dj Seam Mordka/ Jake Mandell Visual Kitchen Vsw/Styrofoam Sun Wu-Kung Lleuchtmittell /Bernd Karner Visomat Inc./Dj Shake Norscq presented by Batofar-Paris Ogino Knauss Karø Goldt/Rashim VDJ Safy Sniper Qubo Gas J-Star screening by Onedotzero Farmers manual Dat Politics presented by Batofar-Paris Mouts Room 101 Tim Etchells DownTime, Everything Christian Fennesz/Claudio Sinatti Far From Here Cane Capovolto Stereo #1 Otolab Mikomikona Mordka Monitor Automatique Teatrino Clandestino Prima l'immagine e poi il titolo Superstereo/BHF feat.
Patrick Tuttofuoco n:ja/Dietmar Schwarzler D-Fuse Gravity Bas Van Koolwijk KMH Ogino Knauss Semiconductor General Magic & Pita Feat. Tina Frank Qubo Gas/Scratch Pet Land Baover Tit Tarwater Jollymusic The Users Alex Adriaansens V2 Mylicon/EN/Domenico Sciajno Skoltz_Kolgen Kim Cascone Z_e_l_l_e Radian Fanny & Alexander/Zapruder Filmmakersgroup Villa Venus Mille Rechenzentrum Rechenzentrum Strohmann /Bruckmayer/Jade Mugen Richard Chartier (U
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Whitney Biennial is a biennale exhibition of contemporary American art by young and lesser known artists, on display at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City, United States. The event began as an annual exhibition in 1932, the first biennial was in 1973; the Whitney show is regarded as one of the leading shows in the art world setting or leading trends in contemporary art. It helped bring artists like Jackson Pollock and Jeff Koons to prominence. In 2010, for the first time a majority of the 55 artists included in that survey of contemporary American art were women; the 2012 exhibition featured the smallest number in the event's history. The fifty-one artists for 2012 were selected by curator Elisabeth Sussman and freelance curator Jay Sanders, it was open for three months up to 27 May 2012 and presented for the first time "heavy weight" on dance and theatre. Those performance art variations were open to spectators all day long in a separate floor; the Whitney Museum had a long history beginning in 1932 of having a large group exhibition of invited American artists every year called the'Whitney Annual'.
In the late sixties, it was decided to alternate between painting and sculpture, although by the 1970s the decision was to combine both together in a biennial. The first Biennial occurred in 1973. Since the biennials have pursued a different curatorial approach to include all media. In the past the Whitney Museum has tried different ways to organize its biennial, it has used its own staff members and invited outside curators, including Europeans, to present the show. In 2010 it asked a former art dealer, Jay Sanders, who would become a Whitney curator, to help organize one; the Whitney Biennial extends to sculpture exhibitions in Central Park. The 2008 edition took over the Park Avenue Armory as a space for installation art; the 2014 Whitney Biennial is the last one in the museum's Marcel Breuer building. The museum is leaving the Upper East Side for the meatpacking district, where it is scheduled to open its new building, designed by Renzo Piano, in 2015. In 1987, the show was protested by the Guerrilla Girls for its alleged racism.
Still referred to as the "political" biennial, the 1993 edition included works like Pepón Osorio's installation Scene of the Crime of a Hispanic family's living room and Daniel Joseph Martinez's metal buttons bearing the message "I can't imagine wanting to be white." The 1993 Whitney Biennial was the most diverse exhibit by a major American museum up until that time. In 1970 less than 1% of artists at the Whitney Museum were non-white. In 1991, only 10% of artists were non white. Vanessa Faye Johnson claimed that despite intentions, the "lack of exchange and dialogue, the simplification of complex issues in the Biennial" cast the artists as victims in the eyes of the public. New York Times Art Critic, Roberta Smith called it "pious arid." Art Historian Robert Hughes vehemently criticized lack of painting, the "wretched pictorial ineptitude" of the artists, dismissed the abundance of text as "useless, boring mock documentation", mocked the focus on "exclusion and marginalization... a world made bad for blacks, gays and women in general."
The shared sentiment was that the public felt alienated by the confrontational demands of the artwork. It was the first Whitney Biennial to treat video works with the same attention to space as sculpture, designating two entire galleries to them. Text-heavy Installations demanded participation from the audience; the artists made it difficult to take in the work as a passive viewer. Since 2000, the Bucksbaum Award has been awarded to an artist exhibiting at the Biennial; the 2014 Whitney Biennial was somewhat controversial for its lack of diversity, 9 out of the 109 artists were black or African American, including Donelle Woolford, a fictional character developed by 52-year-old white artist Joe Scanlan. She was the only black female artist included in curator Michelle Grabner's exhibition. Eunsong Kim and Maya Isabella Mackrandilal criticized the piece: "The insertion of people of color into white space doesn't make it less colonial or more radical—that's the rhetoric of imperialistic multiculturalism, a bullshit passé theory."
And suggest this pieces treats "othered bodies subcontractable." Additionally, The YAMS Collective, or HOWDOYOUSAYYAMINAFRICAN?, a collective of 38 black and queer artists, composers, academics and performers participated and withdrew from the 2014 Biennial as a protest of the Whitney Museum's policies. Yams Collective member and artist Sienna Shields said "Every Whitney Biennial I have been to, you can count the number of black artists in the show on one hand. I didn't want to be a part of that," Shields said. "There are so many amazing artists of color that I have known in the past 12 years in New York that are overlooked. But I just felt it was time for an intervention." Poet Christa Bell explained: "ur entire participation was a protest... Just because people don't know that doesn't mean it is any less of a protest. Withdrawal was the final act of protest. Black people en masse being inside of an institution like the Whitney, presenting art, is itself a form of protest. We just followed it through to its inevitable conclusion."
The 2017 Whitney Biennial featured a controversial painting of Emmett Till, entitled Open Casket by Dana Schutz, which sparked protest and a circulated petition calling for the painting to be removed and destroyed. Visual arts of the United States List of Whitney Biennial curators Official website Artkrush.com interview with 2006 Whitney Biennial co-curator Phil
Vladivostok is a city and the administrative center of Far Eastern Federal District and Primorsky Krai, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea. The population of the city as of 2017 was 606,589, up from 592,034 recorded in the 2010 Russian census. Harbin in China is about 515 kilometres away, whilst Sapporo in Japan is about 775 kilometres east across the Sea of Japan; the city is the home port of the Russian Pacific Fleet and the largest Russian port on the Pacific Ocean. Vladivostok was first named in 1859 along with other features in the Peter the Great Gulf area by Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky; the name first applied to the bay but, following an expedition by Alexey Shefner in 1860, was applied to the new settlement. In Chinese, the place where the city is situated nowadays has been known since the Qing Dynasty as Haishenwai, from the Manchu Haišenwai or "small seaside village"; as the Manchu Qing Dynasty banned Han Chinese from most of Manchuria, it was only visited by shēnzéi who illegally entered the area seeking ginseng or sea cucumbers.
From this comes the Chinese name for the city, Hǎishēnwǎi. In modern-day China, Vladivostok is known by the transliteration 符拉迪沃斯托克, although the historical Chinese name 海參崴 is still used in common parlance and outside mainland China to refer to the city. According to the provisions of the Chinese government, all maps published in China have to bracket the city's Chinese name; the modern-day Japanese name of the city is transliterated as Urajiosutoku. The city was written in Kanji as 浦塩斯徳 and shortened to Urajio ウラジオ. In Korean, the name is transliterated as Beulladiboseutokeu in South Korea, Ullajibosŭttokhŭ in North Korea and China; the aboriginals of the territory on which modern Vladivostok is located are the Udege minority, a sub-minority called the Taz which emerged through members of the indigenous Udege mixing with the nearby Chinese and Hezhe. The region had been part of many states, such as the Mohe, Balhae Kingdom, Liao Dynasty, Jīn Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty and various other Chinese dynasties, before Russia acquired the entire Maritime Province and the island of Sakhalin by the Treaty of Beijing.
Qing China, which had just lost the Opium War with Britain, was unable to defend the region. The Manchu emperors of China, the Qing Dynasty, banned Han Chinese from most of Manchuria including the Vladivostok area —it was only visited by illegal gatherers of ginseng and sea cucumbers. On June 20, 1860, the military supply ship Manchur, under the command of Captain-Lieutenant Alexey K. Shefner, called at the Golden Horn Bay to found an outpost called Vladivostok. Warrant officer Nikolay Komarov with 28 soldiers and two non-commissioned officers under his command were brought from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur by ship to construct the first buildings of the future city; the Manza War in 1868 was the first attempt by Russia to expel Chinese from territory. Hostilities broke out around Vladivostok when the Russians tried to shut off gold mining operations and expel Chinese workers there; the Chinese resisted a Russian attempt to take Ashold Island and in response, two Russian military stations and three Russian towns were attacked by the Chinese whom the Russians failed to oust.
An elaborate system of fortifications was erected between the late 1890s. A telegraph line from Vladivostok to Shanghai and Nagasaki was opened in 1871; that same year a commercial port was relocated to Vladivostok from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. Town status was granted on April 22, 1880. A coat of arms, representing the Siberian tiger, was adopted in March 1883; the first high school was opened in 1899. The city's economy was given a boost in 1916, with the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which connected Vladivostok to Moscow and Europe. After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks took control of Vladivostok and all the Trans-Siberian Railway. During the Russian Civil War they were overthrown by the White-allied Czechoslovak Legion, who declared the city to be an Allied protectorate. Vladivostok became the staging point for the Allies' Siberian intervention, a multi-national force including Japan, the United States, China; the intervention ended in the wake of the collapse of the White Army and regime in 1919.
In April 1920, the city came under the formal governance of the Far Eastern Republic, a Soviet-backed buffer state between the Soviets and Japan. Vladivostok became the capital of the Japanese-backed Provisional Priamurye Government, created after a White Army coup in the city in May 1921; the withdrawal of Japanese forces in October 1922 spelled the end of the enclave, with Ieronim Uborevich's Red Army taking the city on October 25, 1922. As the main naval base of the Soviet Pacific Fleet, Vladivostok was closed to foreigners during the Soviet years; the city hosted the summit at which Leonid Brezhnev and Gerald Ford conducted the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks in 1974. At the time, the two countries decided quantitative limits on nuclear weapons systems and banned the construction of new land-based ICBM launchers. In 2012, Vladivostok hosted the 24th APEC s