Badenweiler is a health resort and spa in the Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district of Baden-Württemberg, historically in the Markgräflerland. It is 28 kilometers by road and rail from Basel,10 kilometers from the French border, the permanent population is about 600, the nearest big city on the German side of the border is Freiburg, about 30 kilometers away. Badenweiler lies at the edge of the Black Forest. It is sheltered by the Blauen,1,164 m, and its parish church was built at the foot of an 11th-century castle which belonged to the margraves of Baden and was destroyed by the French during the wars of Louis XV. Badenweiler is visited by some 5,000 people annually, some come for its warm mineral springs, with temperatures of 21 °C, others for its whey cure, and still others on account of its equable climate and picturesque surroundings. There is a Kurhaus, built in 1853, and a park of 15 acres containing a historic arboretum, as well as a grand-ducal castle, in 1784, well-preserved Roman baths were discovered there.
The site where the present Protestant St. Pauls church is standing is a site that was a religious place of worship already in Roman times. The Romans built here in the year 145 AD a large temple of which very little remains. The temple stood on a pile structure, the temple builders drove sharpened oak piles into the loamy soil to secure the ground for this heavy building. The temple was Gallo-Roman with a main front placed on a monumental podium. On the ruins of the Roman temple a Christian church was built in the twelfth century, the church was in a bad state when it was demolished in 1892 and rebuilt as a Neo-Romanesque building between 1893 and 1898. In the course of the digging Roman walls and wall fragments of preceding church buildings were discovered and included in the construction of the new church, in the previous churchs tower six 14th-century frescoes were discovered which are now in the choir of the present church. They show a so-called Dance of the Dead where living and dead meet, three skeletons are bearing the inscription, We were what you are, what we are you shall be.
This is addressed to three living whose garments are corresponding to the fashion of the rich in the 14th century, the Russian writer Anton Chekhov died there on 15 July 1904. From Badenweiler, Chekhov wrote outwardly jovial letters to his sister Masha describing the food, Badenweiler became one of Chekhovs hometown Taganrogs sister cities in 2002. The American poet and journalist Stephen Crane died there on 15 June 1900 of tuberculosis, ephraim Moses Lilien was an art nouveau illustrator and print-maker particularly noted for his art on Jewish and Zionist themes. He is sometimes called the first Zionist artist, the wife of the first prime minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru, Kamla Nehru was treated here for tuberculosis. Jawaharlal Nehru spent many days by his wifes side in Badenweiler to attend to her
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. It is the 14th largest city in the European Union and it is the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe with waxing and waning fortunes during its history and it was an important city to the Habsburg Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire. Prague is home to a number of cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence. Main attractions include the Prague Castle, the Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The city has more than ten major museums, along with theatres, cinemas. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, also, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe.
Prague is classified as an Alpha- global city according to GaWC studies, Prague ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016. Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city more than 6.4 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fifth most visited European city after London, Istanbul, the region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. In the last century BC, the Celts were slowly driven away by Germanic tribes, around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map of Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the following century, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in Levý Hradec, Butovice and in the Šárka valley. The construction of what came to be known as the Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which was founded in 1344, but completed in the 20th century.
The legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied, I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars. She ordered a castle and a town called Praha to be built on the site, a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c.1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. The region became the seat of the dukes, and kings of Bohemia, under Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
The title Grandmaster is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE. Apart from World Champion, Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain, once achieved, the title is held for life. It is often abbreviated to GM, the abbreviation IGM for International Grandmaster is sometimes used, particularly in older literature. The title of Grandmaster, along with the lesser FIDE titles of International Master, a number of women have earned the GM title, with the first two having been Nona Gaprindashvili in 1978 and Susan Polgar in 1991. Since about 2000, most of the top 10 women have held the GM title, a separate gender-segregated title, Woman Grandmaster, is available. It is awarded to women who attain a level of skill between that of a FIDE Master and an International Master, FIDE awards separate Grandmaster titles to composers and solvers of chess problems. The International Correspondence Chess Federation awards the title of International Correspondence Chess Grandmaster, the first known use of the term grandmaster in connection with chess was in an 1838 issue of Bells Life, in which a correspondent referred to William Lewis as our past grandmaster.
Lewis himself referred to Philidor as a grandmaster, and the term was applied to a few other players. In the Ostend tournament of 1907 the term grandmaster was used, the tournament was divided into two sections, the Championship Tournament and the Masters Tournament. The Championship section was for players who had won an international tournament. Siegbert Tarrasch won the Championship section, over Carl Schlechter, Dawid Janowski, Frank Marshall, Amos Burn and these players were described as grandmasters for the purposes of the tournament. The San Sebastián 1912 tournament won by Akiba Rubinstein was a designated grandmaster event, Rubinstein won with 12½ points out of 19. Tied for second with 12 points were Aron Nimzowitsch and Rudolf Spielmann, by some accounts, in the St. Petersburg 1914 chess tournament, the title Grandmaster was formally conferred by Russian Tsar Nicholas II, who had partially funded the tournament. The Tsar reportedly awarded the title to the five finalists, Emanuel Lasker, José Raúl Capablanca, Alexander Alekhine, Siegbert Tarrasch, before 1950, the term grandmaster was sometimes informally applied to other world class players.
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs was formed in Paris in 1924, in 1927, the Soviet Unions Chess Federation established the title of Grandmaster of the Soviet Union, for their own players, since at that time Soviets were not competing outside their own country. This title was abolished in 1931, after having been awarded to Boris Verlinsky, the title was brought back in 1935, and awarded to Mikhail Botvinnik, who thus became the first official Grandmaster of the USSR. Verlinsky did not get his title back, when FIDE reorganized after World War II it adopted regulations concerning the award of international titles. Titles were awarded by a resolution of the FIDE General Assembly, FIDE first awarded the Grandmaster title in 1950 to 27 players
Vlastimil Hort is a Czechoslovak-born German chess Grandmaster. Hort was born in Kladno and was a citizen of Czechoslovakia for the first part of his chess career, winning championships in 1970,1971,1972,1975. He achieved the Grandmaster title in 1965 as a Czechoslovak citizen, while playing for Czechoslovakia he won a number of major tournaments, gaining recognition as one of the strongest non-Soviet players in the world. He defected to the West after the 1985 Tunis Interzonal, moving to West Germany and winning the championship of his new homeland in 1987,1989. He reached the stage of the Candidates matches of 1977–78 but was eliminated in the first round, Horts long-standing reputation as one of the great sportsmen of chess was enhanced by an event during this match. During the latter stages of the competition, Spassky fell ill and was unable to play, at this point Hort could have claimed the match won by forfeit, however, he offered Spassky one of his own time-outs so that the ex-champion could complete his recovery.
Spassky did so and went on to win the match by the narrowest possible margin, in the penultimate game of the match Hort had established a clearly winning position, but forgot about the clock, and sat thinking until his time elapsed, handing the win to Spassky. With a draw in the next and final game, Spassky won the match, the following day Hort gave what was a world record simultaneous exhibition in which he took on over 600 opponents. He explained that he gave the exhibition in order to get the loss against Spassky out of his head, the 1967 Interzonal tournament at Sousse included among its participants not only Hort, but the great but volatile Bobby Fischer. While leading the tournament, Fischer was involved in a dispute with the tournament organizers regarding playing schedule that resulted in his forfeiting a game with the Soviet player Aivars Gipslis. While accounts of subsequent events differ, it is clear that he was persuaded to play, but did not appear for his game with Hort. Negotiations with the organizers went downhill from this point, and Fischer withdrew from the tournament to begin his penultimate estrangement from grandmaster chess.
Hort played for Czechoslovakia in the Chess Olympiads of 1960,1962,1964,1966,1968,1970,1972,1974,1980,1982,1984, and for Germany in 1988,1990,1992. The following is a game from the 1967 Zonal tournament held at Halle and his opponent in this game was a prominent Yugoslav International Master. Note that if Black captures the queen in the final position, Vlastimil Hort player profile and games at Chessgames. com Vlastimil Hort - Im a chess entertainer 10 June 2014
Harry Golombek OBE, was a British chess International Master and honorary grandmaster, chess arbiter, chess author, and wartime codebreaker. He was three times British chess champion, in 1947,1949, and 1955 and finished second in 1948 and he became a grandmaster in 1985. He was born in Lambeth to Russian parents and he was the chess correspondent of The Times newspaper from 1945 to 1989. He was editor of some collections of games such as José Raúl Capablancas and Rétis. He was editor of British Chess Magazine from 1938 to 1940, Golombek translated several chess books from Russian into English. On the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, Golombek was in Buenos Aires and they immediately returned to the UK, and were soon recruited into Bletchley Park, the wartime codebreaking centre. Golombek worked in Hut 8, the responsible for solving German Naval Enigma. After the war he lived at 35 Albion Crescent, Chalfont St Giles, Golombek represented England nine times in chess Olympiads. He earned the title of International Master in 1950 and was awarded an Honorary Grandmaster title for his past achievements in 1985 and he was the first British player to qualify for an Interzonal tournament.
Golombek studied philology at Kings College London, having been a pupil at Wilsons Grammar School and he was appointed OBE in 1966, the first to be so honoured for services to chess. Golombeks Encyclopedia of Chess, edited by Golombek,1977, Batsford/Crown, ISBN 0-517-53146-1 Golombek, H
Charles University, known as Charles University in Prague or historically as the University of Prague, is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe and it is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas and it is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis. The establishment of a university in Prague was inspired by Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV. He asked his friend and ally, Pope Clement VI, to do so, on 26 January 1347 the pope issued the bull establishing a university in Prague, modeled on the University of Paris, with the full number of faculties, that is including theological. This was caused by a shift in the 19th century. The university was opened in 1349, the university was sectioned into parts called nations, the Bohemian, Bavarian and Saxon.
Ethnically Czech students made 16–20% of all students, archbishop Arnošt of Pardubice took an active part in the foundation by obliging the clergy to contribute and became a chancellor of the university. The first graduate was promoted in 1359, the lectures were held in the colleges, of which the oldest was named for the king the Carolinum, established in 1366. In 1372 the Faculty of Law became an independent university, in 1402 Jerome of Prague in Oxford copied out the Dialogus and Trialogus of John Wycliffe. The dean of the faculty, Jan Hus, translated Trialogus into the Czech language. In 1403 the university forbade its members to follow the teachings of Wycliffe, in the Western Schism, the Bohemian natio took the side of king Wenceslaus and supported the Council of Pisa. The other nationes of the university declared their support for the side of Pope Gregory XII, Hus and other Bohemians, took advantage of Wenceslaus opposition to Gregory. By the Decree of Kutná Hora on 18 January 1409, the king subverted the university constitution by granting the Bohemian masters three votes, only a single vote was left for all other three nationes combined, compared to one vote per each natio before.
The result of this coup was the emigration of foreign professors and students, in the autumn of 1409, Hus was elected rector of the now Czech-dominated rump university. Thus, the Prague university lost the largest part of its students, from on the university declined to a merely regional institution with a very low status. Soon, in 1419, the faculties of theology and law disappeared, the faculty of arts became a centre of the Hussite movement, and the chief doctrinal authority of the Utraquists. No degrees were given in the years 1417–30, at times there were eight or nine professors
The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams from all over the world compete. FIDE organises the tournament and selects the host nation, the use of the name Chess Olympiad for FIDEs team championship is of historical origin and implies no connection with the Olympic Games. For the 1924 Olympics an attempt was made to chess in the Olympic Games. While the 1924 Summer Olympics was taking place in Paris, the 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad took place in Paris, FIDE was formed on Sunday, July 20,1924, the closing day of the 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad. FIDE organised the first Official Olympiad in 1927 which took place in London, the Olympiads were occasionally held annually and at irregular intervals until World War II, since 1950 they have been held regularly every two years. Chess is not recognized as a sport by the International Olympic Committee, the tests were first introduced in 2002 under significant controversy, with the widespread belief that it was impossible to dope in chess.
Research carried out by the Dutch chess federation failed to find a single performance-enhancing substance for chess. Players such as Artur Yusupov, Jan Timman and Robert Hübner either refused to play for their team or to participate in events such as the Chess Olympiad where drug tests were administered. All 802 tests administered at the 2002 Olympiad came back negative, however, in the 36th Chess Olympiad in 2004, two players refused to provide urine samples and had their scores cancelled. Four years later, Vassily Ivanchuk was not penalized for skipping a drug test at the 38th Chess Olympiad in 2008, in 2010, a FIDE official commented that due to the work of the FIDE Medical Commission, the tests were now considered routine. In November 2015, FIDE president Kirsan Ilyumzhinov announced they are working with WADA to define, each FIDE recognized chess association can enter a team into the Olympiad. Each team is made of up to five players, four regular players, initially each team played all other teams but as the event grew over the years this became impossible.
At first team seeding took place before the competition, certain drawbacks were recognized with seeding and in 1976 a Swiss tournament system was adopted. The trophy for the team in the open section is the Hamilton-Russell Cup. The cup is kept by the team until the next event. The trophy for the womens team is known as the Vera Menchik Cup in honor of the first Womens World Chess Champion. The 2010 Olympiad was held in Khanty-Mansiysk, the 2012 Olympiad was held in Istanbul, the 2014 Olympiad was in Tromsø, Norway. The 2016 Olympiad was held in Baku, Azerbaijan, in addition to competition, each Olympiad gives opportunities for associated cultural activities
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Borgarnes is a town located on a peninsula at the shore of Borgarfjörður in Iceland. It has a population of 1,763, the town is located 60 km north of the capital Reykjavík and is connected to other places in Iceland through the second largest bridge in Iceland, Borgarfjarðarbrú. Borgarnes is the biggest town in the Borgarbyggð municipality, magnus Scheving, former European gymnastics champion & CEO of LazyTown Entertainment is from the town. Borgarnes is first noted in Egils Saga but in the saga it is called Digranes, the first Settler to live there was called Grani, a shipmate of Skallagrímur, the first landlord and settler of the Borgarfjörður-area. There is no history of settlement in Borgarnes after Granis days until the 19th century. Just after Iceland gained freedom from the Danish trading monopoly, there was a demand for a trading place in the area. The first major building built in Borgarnes was a canning factory and it was built in 1857 but was torn down a few years later. A trading house was built in Borgarnes in 1877, and a few years settlement in Borgarnes began in earnest, in 1913, Borgarnes officially became a town called Borgarneshreppur but had its name changed to Borgarnesbær in 1987.
Later on, in 1994, Borgarnesbær united with Hraunhreppur, Norðurárdalshreppur, in 1998, Álftaneshreppur, Borgarhreppur and Þverárhlíðarhreppur became a part of Borgarbyggð. Kaupfélag Borgfirðinga was founded in 1904 as a mutual company and it was the biggest supplier of work in Borgarnes in the 20th century. Like among most local companies in Iceland, Kaupfélag Borgfirðinga had shops, petrol stations, a slaughterhouse, a milk processing factory. KB had shares in other factories and companies in the Borgarnes area. At the end of the 20th century, KBs financial powers and status began to decline, the KB logo and trademark will no longer be used for what is left of KBs operations in the beginning of 2005. Borgarnes is the center of commerce for a part of western Iceland. The towns economy is based on service to people traveling from Reykjavík, farmers and owners of summer houses in the countryside around the town. Supermarket Húsasmiðjan, Hardware store Framköllunarþjónustan, Photographic processing N1, supermarket and fresh food service station, formerly Esso and Hyrnan OLÍS, hosts Grill 66 fast food restaurant.
Bónus, A discount supermarket, owned by Baugur Group Vínbúð, Alcohol store, owned by the Icelandic Government Tvest, premade house walls, pipes etc. Aluminium and other industrial building manufacturing, the Chief of Police is Úlfar Lúðvíksson
Elo rating system
The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in competitor-versus-competitor games such as chess. It is named after its creator Arpad Elo, a Hungarian-born American physics professor, the difference in the ratings between two players serves as a predictor of the outcome of a match. Two players with equal ratings who play against each other are expected to score a number of wins. A player whose rating is 100 points greater than their opponents is expected to score 64%, if the difference is 200 points, a players Elo rating is represented by a number which increases or decreases depending on the outcome of games between rated players. After every game, the player takes points from the losing one. The difference between the ratings of the winner and loser determines the number of points gained or lost after a game. In a series of games between a player and a low-rated player, the high-rated player is expected to score more wins. If the high-rated player wins, only a few rating points will be taken from the low-rated player, however, if the lower rated player scores an upset win, many rating points will be transferred.
The lower rated player will gain a few points from the higher rated player in the event of a draw. This means that this system is self-correcting. A player whose rating is too low should, in the run, do better than the rating system predicts. Arpad Elo was a chess player and an active participant in the United States Chess Federation from its founding in 1939. The USCF used a numerical system, devised by Kenneth Harkness, to allow members to track their individual progress in terms other than tournament wins. The Harkness system was fair, but in some circumstances gave rise to ratings which many observers considered inaccurate. On behalf of the USCF, Elo devised a new system with a sound statistical basis. Elos system replaced earlier systems of competitive rewards with a based on statistical estimation. Rating systems for many sports award points in accordance with subjective evaluations of the greatness of certain achievements, for example, winning an important golf tournament might be worth an arbitrarily chosen five times as many points as winning a lesser tournament.
A statistical endeavor, by contrast, uses a model that relates the game results to underlying variables representing the ability of each player, Elos central assumption was that the chess performance of each player in each game is a normally distributed random variable
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker