Bad Salzuflen is a town and thermal spa resort in the Lippe district of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. At the end of 2013, it had 52,121 inhabitants. Bad Salzuflen lies on the eastern edge of the Ravensberg Basin, at the confluence of the rivers Salze with the Werre. In comparison to other North Lippe communities it is densely populated; the city centre is surrounded by districts with a village like feel to agricultural land. North east of the River Werre and Salze runs a strand of the Lipper highlands runs through the wooded hills with elevations up to 250 meters in the city; the lowest point is on the border of the River Werre at Herford at about 70 meters. Since 2008, the city is part of the Teutoburg Forest Nature Park / Eggegebirge; the municipal area is crossed by the river floodplains of the Werre, Salze. Podzol and Stagnosol brown soils prevail as soil types; the podzolic soils are found in layers from the Tertiary Period, which are crossed by fault block from the Mesozoic. Characteristic of Bad Salzuflen are the saline springs that emerge at these geological folds and which give the region the name of "Germany's healing garden".
The geothermal heat sources are of sufficient quality that it makes it viable to use heat recovery systems utilising borehole heat exchangers and heat pumps. The part of Bad Salzulfen classified as the main central town covers an area of 100.06 square kilometres. The municipal area has a oval shape, with a maximum extension in east–west direction and 13 km in north–south direction of 11 km. Bad Salzuflen is bordered to the east by the town of Lemgo, to the south by Lage and on the southwest by Leopoldshöhe. All three communities are part of the district of Lippe. To the west lies the county town of Bielefeld and in the north west, the city of Herford. To the north Bad Salzuflen borders on Vlotho in the district of Herford. Together with Herford, Bad Salzuflen belongs to conurbation of Bielefeld; the city is divided into twelve districts Bad Salzuflen, Biemsen-Ahmsen, Ehrsen-Breden, Grastrup-Hölsen, Lockhausen, Papenhausen Retzen, Werl-Aspe, Wülfer-Bexten and the largest area in the district of Wüsten.
The most populous districts are Bad Salzuflen with about 19,700 inhabitants, Schotmar with 8,900, Werl-Aspe with 7,500 and Wüsten with 4,000 inhabitants. Together, these four districts over 70% of the population of Bad Salzuflen; the districts of Bad Salzuflen, Werl-Aspe and Ehrsen-Breden form a continuous area of settlement. Bad Salzuflen displays the typical humid temperate climate for Central Europe, with its maximum rainfall during the summer; the annual average temperature of 9.3 °C corresponds to the latitude and the altitude, the annual sum of precipitation is 743 mm, higher than the North German or the German average, but due to its location in the rain shadow of the Teutoburg Forest, is lower than the average for Lippe. The first mention of the settlement of Uflon comes in the middle of the eleventh century and of a place of salt nearby. In Old High German "Uflon"means The Woods/Forest; this evolved into Uflen and Dorf Uflen. Therefore the entire name means The salt baths in the woods.
It was the use of the Pauline salt source in the Middle Ages that led to the establishment of the first Saline. These salt workshops were located at a place, still called the Salt Yard or Salzhof and the well is represented in the town's coat of arms. Thanks to the lucrative salt trade and the promotion of the town to a city by the Counts of Sternberg, it was fortified with a circular wall and four gates; the Schliepsteiner gateway lies to the north, Heßkamper gateway to North East, Arminius to the southeast and Herford Gateway to the West with three fortified towers which included the Katzenturm which can still be seen today. Until the Thirty Years' War, trading flourished with the white gold and brought great wealth to the town; the old houses, the sumptuous Bürgerhäuser and the Town Hall built in 1545/47 bear witness to this. The oldest surviving building in the city today is a three-storey Traufenbau of 1520. Bad Salzuflen was made famous by its cures. With its three drinking water, three thermal and three salt springs it had the status of a Lippischer State bath.
Although the founding of the royal Solebads was made nearly 100 years ago, Salzuflen only received the additional name "Bad" on 14 April 1914. Bad Salzuflen was one of the few cities in the Middle Ages that did not suffer from financial difficulties because of its salt production, its topographical position and its thriving commercial development; this is proven today by the many beautiful houses with their typical architectural style for that time. The high healing properties of the water meant that new bath houses were built and other sources were drilled, such as the Leopoldsprudel whose sacred well is in the midst of today's spa gardens; the development of the resort led to significant changes in the cityscape. The saltworks on the Salzhof discontinued salt production and is now the "town square" where the weekly market and town festivals take place; the Gradierwerke developed into a place. Over time, the long-established industry sectors disappeared and were replaced by the trading and spa industry, which benefited the numerous inns of the city.
The economic boom in the 19th Century was closely followed by the founding in 1850 of the Hoffmann starch factories that rose
Lower Saxony is a German state situated in northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest state by land area, with 47,624 km2, fourth-largest in population among the 16 Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas, Northern Low Saxon and Saterland Frisian are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining. Lower Saxony borders on the North Sea, the states of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and North Rhine-Westphalia, the Netherlands. Furthermore, the state of Bremen forms two enclaves within Lower Saxony, one being the city of Bremen, the other, its seaport city of Bremerhaven. In fact, Lower Saxony borders more neighbours than any other single Bundesland; the state's principal cities include the state capital Hanover, Braunschweig, Lüneburg, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, Wolfenbüttel, Göttingen. The northwestern area of Lower Saxony, which lies on the coast of the North Sea, is called East Frisia and the seven East Frisian Islands offshore are popular with tourists.
In the extreme west of Lower Saxony is the Emsland, a traditionally poor and sparsely populated area, once dominated by inaccessible swamps. The northern half of Lower Saxony known as the North German Plains, is invariably flat except for the gentle hills around the Bremen geestland. Towards the south and southwest lie the northern parts of the German Central Uplands: the Weser Uplands and the Harz mountains. Between these two lie the Lower Saxon Hills, a range of low ridges. Thus, Lower Saxony is the only Bundesland that encompasses both mountainous areas. Lower Saxony's major cities and economic centres are situated in its central and southern parts, namely Hanover, Osnabrück, Salzgitter, Göttingen. Oldenburg, near the northwestern coastline, is another economic centre; the region in the northeast is called the Lüneburg Heath, the largest heathland area of Germany and in medieval times wealthy due to salt mining and salt trade, as well as to a lesser degree the exploitation of its peat bogs until about the 1960s.
To the north, the Elbe River separates Lower Saxony from Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg. The banks just south of the Elbe are known as Altes Land. Due to its gentle local climate and fertile soil, it is the state's largest area of fruit farming, its chief produce being apples. Most of the state's territory was part of the historic Kingdom of Hanover, it was created by the merger of the State of Hanover with three smaller states on 1 November 1946. Lower Saxony has a natural boundary in the north in the North Sea and the lower and middle reaches of the River Elbe, although parts of the city of Hamburg lie south of the Elbe; the state and city of Bremen is an enclave surrounded by Lower Saxony. The Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region is a cooperative body for the enclave area. To the southeast, the state border runs through the Harz, low mountains that are part of the German Central Uplands; the northeast and west of the state, which form three-quarters of its land area, belong to the North German Plain, while the south is in the Lower Saxon Hills, including the Weser Uplands, Leine Uplands, Schaumburg Land, Brunswick Land, Untereichsfeld and Lappwald.
In northeast, Lower Saxony is Lüneburg Heath. The heath is dominated by the poor, sandy soils of the geest, whilst in the central east and southeast in the loess börde zone, productive soils with high natural fertility occur. Under these conditions—with loam and sand-containing soils—the land is well-developed agriculturally. In the west lie the County of Bentheim, Osnabrück Land, Oldenburg Land, Oldenburg Münsterland, on the coast East Frisia; the state is dominated by several large rivers running northwards through the state: the Ems, Weser and Elbe. The highest mountain in Lower Saxony is the Wurmberg in the Harz. For other significant elevations see: List of hills in Lower Saxony. Most of the mountains and hills are found in the southeastern part of the state; the lowest point in the state, at about 2.5 m below sea level, is a depression near Freepsum in East Frisia. The state's economy and infrastructure are centred on the cities and towns of Hanover, Celle, Wolfsburg and Salzgitter. Together with Göttingen in southern Lower Saxony, they form the core of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region.
Lower Saxony has clear regional divisions that manifest themselves geographically, as well as and culturally. In the regions that used to be independent the heartlands of the former states of Brunswick, Hanover and Schaumburg-Lippe, a marked local regional awareness exists. By contrast, the areas surrounding the Hanseatic cities of Bremen and Hamburg are much more oriented towards those centres. Sometimes and transition areas happen between the various regions of Lower Saxony. Several of the regions listed here are part of other, larger regions, that are included in the list. Just under 20% of the land area of Lower Saxony is designated as nature parks, i.e.: Dümmer, Elbhöhen-Wendland, Elm-Lappwald, Harz, Lüneburger Heide, Münden, Terra.vita, Solling-Vogler, Lake Steinhude, Südheide, Weser Uplands, Wildeshausen Geest, Bourtanger Moor-Bargerveen. L
Kirchlengern is a municipality in the district of Herford, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Kirchlengern is situated on approx. 10 km north of Herford. Hüllhorst Löhne Hiddenhausen Bünde The municipality is divided in 7 districts: Häver Kirchlengern Klosterbauerschaft Quernheim Rehmerloh Stift Quernheim Südlengern since 2004: Rüdiger Meier 1999-2004: Werner Helmke 1821, Tönies Wellensiek, †1903 1833, Ernst Heinrich Lindemann, †1900 1901, Rudolf Bäumer †25. September 1973 1911, August Wilhelm Torweihe †1994 1923, Werner Diestelhorst 1924, Hellmuth Buddenberg, †2003 1942, Gunter Gabriel 1953, Jürgen Klute 1953, Reinhard Göhner 1958, Elke Kruse 1963, Hermann Menninghaus 1983, Gerrit Hahn 1984, David Odonkor 1988, Chrissy Kütemann 1989, Oliver Schaffer 1989, Shane Saxton Official website
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but from violence and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period January to May 1945. A war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the European great powers; these states employed large mercenary armies, the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence. The war was preceded by the election of the new Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples.
The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to choose, granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much more intolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the Protestant city of Prague. Ferdinand's policies were considered pro-Catholic and anti-Protestant; these events caused widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe, triggered the Protestant Bohemians living in the relatively loose dominion of Habsburg Austria to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II. After the so-called Defenestration of Prague deposed the Emperor's representatives in Prague, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs started gathering allies for war; the Protestant Bohemians ousted the Habsburgs and elected the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as the new king of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Frederick took the offer without the support of the Protestant Union.
The southern states Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor; the Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after. Protestant rulers across Europe unanimously condemned the Emperor's action. After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony gave its support to the Protestant Union and decided to fight back. Sweden, at the time a rising military power, soon intervened in 1630 under its king Gustavus Adolphus, transforming what had been the Emperor's attempt to curb the Protestant states into a full-scale war in Europe. Habsburg Spain, wishing to crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic, intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants in order to counter the Habsburgs.
The Thirty Years' War devastated entire regions, resulting in high mortality among the populations of the German and Italian states, the Crown of Bohemia, the Southern Netherlands. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories; the war bankrupted most of the combatant powers. The Dutch Republic enjoyed contrasting fortune; the Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. The war altered the previous political order of European powers; the rise of Bourbon France, the curtailing of Habsburg ambition, the ascendancy of Sweden as a great power created a new balance of power on the continent, with France emerging from the war strengthened and dominant in the latter part of the 17th century. The Peace of Augsburg, signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the Diet of Speyer, ending the war between German Lutherans and Catholics, establishing that: Rulers of the 224 German states could choose the religion of their realms.
Subjects had to follow that emigrate. Prince-bishoprics and other states ruled by Catholic clergy were excluded and should remain Catholic. Prince-bishops who converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories. Lutherans could keep the territory they had taken from the Catholic Church since the Peace of Passau in 1552. Although the Peace of Augsburg created a temporary end to hostilities, it did not resolve the underlying religious conflict, made yet more complex by the spread of Calvinism throughout Germany in the years that followed; this added a third major faith to the region, but its position was not recognized in any way by the Augsburg terms, to which only Catholicism and Lutheranism were parties. The rulers of the nations neighboring the Holy Roman Empir
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Exter is a suburb of the town Vlotho in the district of Herford, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Exter makes up the westernmost part of the town Vlotho. Exter borders on Herford in the west, Löhne and Bad Oeynhausen in the north, the suburb Valdorf of Vlotho in the east, Bad Salzuflen in the south. Bundesautobahn 2 goes through the village; the highest point is the Steinegge at 255.5 m, the lowest point is at Hagenmühle at 99.6 m. The name Exter was first mentioned in the 12th century in a document of the convent in Herford; the windmill built in 1850 in Solterwisch has been renovated and is functional. The Anglican-Lutheran church, built in 1666, was consecrated as the first Anglican highway church in Germany in 1959. Geschichtswerkstatt Exter historical society of Exter
Rödinghausen is a municipality in the district of Herford, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Rödinghausen is situated on the southern slope of approx. 20 km north-west of Herford and 25 km north of Bielefeld. Bünde Melle Preußisch Oldendorf Hüllhorst Rödinghausen consists of 5 villages: Bieren Bruchmühlen.